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Tom Pennance, Bobbie Person, Mtumweni Ali Muhsin, Alipo Naim Khamis, Juma Muhsin, Iddi Simba Khamis, Khalfan Abdallah Mohammed, Fatma Kabole, David Rollinson, Stefanie Knopp
BACKGROUND: Elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis transmission is a priority for the Zanzibar Ministry of Health. Preventative chemotherapy together with additional control interventions have successfully alleviated much of the disease burden. However, a persistently high Schistosoma haematobium prevalence is found in certain areas. Our aim was to characterise and evaluate these persistent "hot-spots" of transmission and reinfection in comparison with low-prevalence areas, to support the intervention planning for schistosomiasis elimination in Zanzibar...
December 16, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Tawanda Manyangadze, Moses John Chimbari, Michael Gebreslasie, Pietro Ceccato, Samson Mukaratirwa
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa transmitted by freshwater snails. The distribution of schistosomiasis coincides with that of the intermediate hosts as determined by climatic and environmental factors. The aim of this paper was to model the spatial and seasonal distribution of suitable habitats for Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snail species (intermediate hosts for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni, respectively) in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district, South Africa...
November 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Martina R Laidemitt, Eva T Zawadzki, Sara V Brant, Martin W Mutuku, Gerald M Mkoji, Eric S Loker
Paramphistomoids are ubiquitous and widespread digeneans that infect a diverse range of definitive hosts, being particularly speciose in ruminants. We collected adult worms from cattle, goats and sheep from slaughterhouses, and cercariae from freshwater snails from ten localities in Central and West Kenya. We sequenced cox1 (690 bp) and internal transcribed region 2 (ITS2) (385 bp) genes from a small piece of 79 different adult worms and stained and mounted the remaining worm bodies for comparisons with available descriptions...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
Shawky M Aboelhadid, Marwa Thabet, Dayhoum El-Basel, Ragaa Taha
The present study aims to detect the digenetic larvae infections in Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and also PCR detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The snails were collected from different branches of Yousef canal and their derivatives in El Fayoum Governorate. The snails were investigated for infection through induction of cercarial shedding by exposure to light and crushing of the snails. The shed cercariae were S. mansoni, Pharyngeate longifurcate type I and Pharyngeate longifurcate type II from B...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Abraham S H Breure, Valentín Mogollón Avila
A faunal overview is presented of the molluscan families Amphibulimidae, Megaspiridae, Odontostomidae, Orthalicidae, Simpulopsidae in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. These Central Andean countries are known for their biodiverse malacofauna, of which the superfamily Orthalicoidea takes relatively a large share. In this paper the five families containing 103 (sub)species, for which systematic information (original publication, type locality, type depository, summarizing literature) and distributional records are presented...
2016: ZooKeys
Lwamkelekile Sitshilelo Mkize, Samson Mukaratirwa, Oliver Tendayi Zishiri
The freshwater snail Bulinus globosus is an important intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis. This disease is of major health concern, especially in Africa where the majority of cases have been reported. In this study the inter- and intra-genetic diversity and population genetic structure of B. globosus from nine locations in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa was studied using four polymorphic microsatellite loci (BgZ1-BgZ4). Moderate genetic diversity was detected within populations with a mean diversity (HE) of 0...
September 2016: Acta Tropica
V B Moyo, W Changadeya, S Chiotha, D Sikawa
AIM: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for schistosomiasis among a group of preschool children in Malawi. Schistosomiasis burden among preschoolers in Malawi is not well documented in the literature. METHODS: This study used field research (in the form of a snail survey), laboratory work (urinalysis and microscopy for parasite identification), and questionnaire-guided interviews to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for urinary schistosomiasis among children, aged between 6 and 60 months, in Malengachanzi, Nkhotakota District, Malawi...
March 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Jérôme Boissier, Sébastien Grech-Angelini, Bonnie L Webster, Jean-François Allienne, Tine Huyse, Santiago Mas-Coma, Eve Toulza, Hélène Barré-Cardi, David Rollinson, Julien Kincaid-Smith, Ana Oleaga, Richard Galinier, Joséphine Foata, Anne Rognon, Antoine Berry, Gabriel Mouahid, Rémy Henneron, Hélène Moné, Harold Noel, Guillaume Mitta
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease endemic in several tropical and subtropical countries. However, in the summer of 2013, an unexpected outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis occurred in Corsica, with more than 120 local people or tourists infected. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis in Corsica, aiming to elucidate the origin of the outbreak. METHODS: We did parasitological and malacological surveys at nine potential sites of infection...
August 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Javier Perez-Saez, Theophile Mande, Natalie Ceperley, Enrico Bertuzzo, Lorenzo Mari, Marino Gatto, Andrea Rinaldo
We report about field and theoretical studies on the ecology of the aquatic snails (Bulinus spp. and Biomphalaria pfeifferi) that serve as obligate intermediate hosts in the complex life cycle of the parasites causing human schistosomiasis. Snail abundance fosters disease transmission, and thus the dynamics of snail populations are critically important for schistosomiasis modeling and control. Here, we single out hydrological drivers and density dependence (or lack of it) of ecological growth rates of local snail populations by contrasting novel ecological and environmental data with various models of host demography...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Concillia Monde, Stephen Syampungani, Paul J Van den Brink
The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator-prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and <0.5 µg/L, respectively, whereas the 48- and 96-h LC50 values for snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B...
August 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
F Tandina, S N Doumbo, A K Koné, D Guindo, S Goita, M Sissoko, S Konaté, A Dabo, O K Doumbo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to describe the epidemiology of schistosomiasis 10 years after mass administration of praziquantel began in Sotuba, Mali. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: This observational cross-sectional survey in Sotuba, a periurban village in the Bamako district, took place from July to September 2010 and collected stool and urine samples from residents at least one year old. Kato-Katz (for stool) and urine filtration techniques were used to detect Schistosoma mansoni and S...
January 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Nidal A I Mohammed, Henry Madsen, Abdel Aziz A R M Ahmed
BACKGROUND: The planorbid freshwater snails of the two genera, Biomphalaria and Bulinus -have been vigorously studied due to the role they play as intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis. In Sudan specifically, most studies have focused on the chemical and ecological control of the two genera, but few studies have looked at their biological control. This study explored the coexistence of other species of freshwater snails and the two genera along with their trematode infections in relation to a number of environmental factors in the East Nile locality, Khartoum state, Sudan...
February 25, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Charles H King, Laura J Sutherland, David Bertsch
BACKGROUND: Programs for schistosomiasis control are advancing worldwide, with many benefits noted in terms of disease reduction. Yet risk of reinfection and recurrent disease remain, even in areas with high treatment coverage. In the search for means to better prevent new Schistosoma infections, attention has returned to an older strategy for transmission control, i.e., chemical mollusciciding, to suppress intermediate host snail species responsible for S. mansoni and S. haematobium transmission...
December 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
P F Ayeh-Kumi, N Obeng-Nkrumah, D Baidoo, J Teye, R H Asmah
We investigated the occurrence of urinary schistosomiasis and estimated predictors for risk of infection among children in the Bunuso community of Ashanti Region of Ghana, West Africa. The cross-sectional survey was conducted between June and December 2009. Information was obtained on socio-demographic characteristics, schistosomiasis symptoms and other risk factors through interviews and questionnaires. Urine samples were analysed for Schistosoma haematobium ova using centrifugation and sedimentation, filtration and microscopy...
December 2015: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Scott J Swartz, Giulio A De Leo, Chelsea L Wood, Susanne H Sokolow
Schistosomiasis - a parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people across the globe - is primarily transmitted between human definitive hosts and snail intermediate hosts. To reduce schistosomiasis transmission, some have advocated disrupting the schistosome life cycle through biological control of snails, achieved by boosting the abundance of snails' natural predators. But little is known about the effect of parasitic infection on predator-prey interactions, especially in the case of schistosomiasis...
December 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ramesh Devkota, Sara V Brant, Eric S Loker
From 2007-2014, 19,360 freshwater snails from the Terai and Hilly regions of Nepal were screened for cercariae of mammalian schistosomes. Based on analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I, 12S, 16S and 28S sequences (3,675bp) of the cercariae recovered, we provide, to our knowledge, the first report of the Schistosoma indicum species group in Nepal. Five samples of Schistosoma nasale, nine of Schistosoma spindale and 17 of Schistosoma sp. were recovered, all from the snail Indoplanorbis exustus. The last-mentioned lineage failed to group in any of our analyses with S...
November 2015: International Journal for Parasitology
Fayez A Bakry, Somaya M Ismail, Mahmoud S Abd El-Atti
Herbicides are being used in agriculture for controlling noxious weed. Glyphosate is a herbicide that is widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt and is used in controlling a very broad spectrum of weeds. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snail Bulinus truncatus as a bioindicator for physiological and molecular aspects of B. truncatus snails after exposure to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate for two weeks. In treating snails, glucose concentration (GL) in the haemolymph as well as lactate (LT) in soft tissues of treated snails increased, while glycogen (GN), pyruvate (PV), total protein (TP), nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) levels in snail's tissues decreased...
September 2015: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jahashi Nzalawahe, Ayub A Kassuku, J Russell Stothard, Gerald C Coles, Mark C Eisler
The epidemiology of trematode infections in cattle was investigated within highland and lowland areas of Iringa Rural District, in southern Tanzania. Fecal samples were collected from 450 cattle in 15 villages at altitudes ranging from 696 to 1800 m above the sea level. Freshwater snails were collected from selected water bodies and screened for emergence of cercariae. The infection rates in cattle were Fasciola gigantica 28·2%, paramphistomes 62·8% and Schistosoma bovis 4·8%. Notably, prevalence of trematode infections in cattle was much higher in highland (altitude > 1500 m) as compared with lowland (altitude < 1500 m) areas and was statistically significant (P-value = 0·000) for F...
September 2015: Parasitology
F D Chibwana, G Nkwengulila, S A Locke, J D McLaughlin, D J Marcogliese
The life cycle of Tylodelphys mashonense (Digenea: Diplostomidae), whose metacercariae occur in the cranial cavity of the widely cultivated catfish Clarias gariepinus, was resolved by the application of molecular markers. Both COI barcodes and ITS sequences obtained from diplostomid-like cercariae infecting Bulinus spp. from Mindu Dam, Morogoro, matched those acquired from metacercariae from the catfish C. gariepinus, and those from adult T. mashonense from the grey heron Ardea cinerea and the white egret Egretta alba...
October 2015: Parasitology Research
Abdoulaye Dabo, Adama Z Diarra, Vanessa Machault, Ousmane Touré, Diarra Sira Niambélé, Abdoulaye Kanté, Abdoulaye Ongoiba, Ogobara Doumbo
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is classically described as a rural disease that occurs in areas with poor sanitary conditions. However, over recent decades, there has been an expansion of schistosomiasis foci towards urban areas faced with a rapid and disordered urbanization. In Bamako, Mali, the impact of environmental change on vector-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis is not well known. This study sought to identify the presence of schistosomiasis transmission hotspots in Bamako. Using this perspective, we aimed to describe the risk factors of the endemization and maintenance of schistosomiasis...
2015: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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