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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444357/coordinated-regulations-of-mrna-synthesis-and-decay-during-cold-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-cells
#1
Toshihiro Arae, Shiori Isai, Akira Sakai, Katsuhiko Mineta, Masami Yokota Hirai, Yuya Suzuki, Shigehiko Kanaya, Junji Yamaguchi, Satoshi Naito, Yukako Chiba
Plants possess a cold acclimation system to acquire freezing tolerance through pre-exposure to non-freezing low temperatures. The transcriptional cascade of C-repeat binding factors (CBFs)/dehydration response element-binding factors (DREBs) is considered a major transcriptional regulatory pathway during cold acclimation. However, little is known regarding the functional significance of mRNA stability regulation in the response of gene expression to cold stress. The actual level of individual mRNAs is determined by a balance between mRNA synthesis and degradation...
April 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443255/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
Seungah Lee, Dong Yun Lee
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Patients with T2D suffer from various diabetes-related complications. Since there are many patients with T2D that cannot be controlled by previously developed drugs, it has been necessary to develop new drugs, one of which is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) based therapy. GLP-1 has been shown to ameliorate diabetes-related conditions by augmenting pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion and having the low risk of causing hypoglycemia. Because of a very short half-life of GLP-1, many researches have been focused on the development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists with long half-lives such as exenatide and dulaglutide...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442345/characterization-of-a-recombinant-humanized-anti-cocaine-antibody-produced-from-multiple-clones-for-the-selection-of-a-master-cell-bank-candidate
#3
Hanna N Wetzel, Rose P Webster, Fatima Saeed, Terence L Kirley, William J Ball, Andrew B Norman
We have generated a humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody (mAb), which is at an advanced stage of pre-clinical development. We report here in vitro binding affinity studies, and in vivo pharmacokinetic and efficacy studies of the recombinant mAb. The overall aim was to characterize the recombinant antibody from each of the three highest producing transfected clones and to select one to establish a master cell bank. In mAb pharmacokinetic studies, after injection with h2E2 (120 mg/kg iv) blood was collected from the tail tip of mice over 28 days...
April 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438492/metabolism-of-14-c-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane-14-c-d4-or-14-c-decamethylcyclopentasiloxane-14-c-d5-orally-gavaged-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#4
Jeanne Y Domoradzki, Jacob M Sushynski, Lisa M Thackery, Timothy A Springer, Timothy L Ross, Kent B Woodburn, Jeremy A Durham, Debra A McNett
Critical factors (uptake, distribution, metabolism and elimination) for understanding the bioaccumulation/biomagnification potential of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) siloxanes in fish were investigated to address whether these chemicals meet the "B" criteria of the Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic (PBT) classification. A metabolism study was conducted in rainbow trout whereby a 15mg [(14)C]D4 /kg bw or [(14)C]D5/kg bw as a single bolus oral dose was administered via gavage...
April 21, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432223/fli1-level-during-megakaryopoiesis-affects-thrombopoiesis-and-platelet-biology
#5
Karen K Vo, Danuta J Jarocha, Randolph B Lyde, Vincent Hayes, Christopher S Thom, Spencer K Sullivan, Deborah L French, Mortimer Poncz
Friend Leukemia Virus Integration 1 (FLI1), a critical transcription factor (TF) during megakaryocyte differentiation, is amongst genes hemizygously deleted in Jacobsen syndrome, resulting in a macrothrombocytopenia termed Paris-Trousseau syndrome (PTSx). Recently, heterozygote human FLI1 mutations have been ascribed to cause thrombocytopenia. We studied induced-pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived megakaryocytes (iMegs) to better understand these clinical disorders, beginning with iPSCs generated from a PTSx patient and iPSCs from a control line with a targeted heterozygous FLI1 knockout (FLI1(+/-))...
April 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425752/use-of-standard-laboratory-methods-to-obviate-routine-dithiothreitol-treatment-of-blood-samples-with-daratumumab-interference
#6
Nicholas J Lintel, Debra K Brown, Diane T Schafer, Farai M Tsimba-Chitsva, Scott A Koepsell, Sara M Shunkwiler
Daratumumab is an antibody currently used in the treatment of patients with refractory multiple myeloma. Blood samples from patients being treated with daratumumab may show panreactivity during pre-transfusion testing. To facilitate the provision of blood components for such patients, it is recommended that a baseline phenotype or genotype be established prior to starting treatment with daratumumab. If patient red blood cells (RBCs) require phenotyping after the start of daratumumab treatment, dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of the patient's RBCs should be performed...
January 2017: Immunohematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425113/environmental-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-exposure-drives-t-cell-activation-in-bottlenose-dolphins
#7
Adam C Soloff, Bethany Jacobs Wolf, Natasha D White, Derek Muir, Sean Courtney, Gary Hardiman, Gregory D Bossart, Patricia A Fair
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly stable compounds that have been associated with immunotoxicity in epidemiologic studies and experimental rodent models. Lengthy half-lives and resistance to environmental degradation result in bioaccumulation of PFAAs in humans and wildlife. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the most prevalent PFAA detected within the environment, is found at high levels in occupationally exposed humans. We have monitored the environmental exposure of dolphins in the Charleston, SC region for over 10 years and levels of PFAAs, and PFOS in particular, were significantly elevated...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424844/microbial-reductive-dehalogenation-of-trihalomethanes-by-a-dehalobacter-containing-co-culture
#8
Siyan Zhao, Matthew J Rogers, Jianzhong He
Trihalomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, although well-known as a prominent class of disinfection by-products, are ubiquitously distributed in the environment due to widespread industrial usage in the past decades. Chloroform and bromoform are particularly concerning, of high concentrations detected and with long half-lives up to several hundred days in soils and groundwater. In this study, we report a Dehalobacter- and Desulfovibrio-containing co-culture that exhibits dehalogenation of chloroform (~0...
April 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424754/considerations-of-temperature-in-the-context-of-the-persistence-classification-in-the-eu
#9
Michael Matthies, Sabine Beulke
Simulation degradation studies for industrial chemicals, biocidal products and plant protection products are required in the EU to estimate half-lives in soil, water and sediment for the comparison to persistence criteria for hazard (P/vP) assessment, and for use in exposure assessments. There is a discrepancy between European regulatory approaches regarding the temperature at which degradation half-lives should be (1) measured in simulation degradation testing of environmental compartments, and (2) compared to the P/vP criteria...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421627/impact-of-microorganisms-humidity-and-temperature-on-the-enantioselective-degradation-of-imazethapyr-in-two-soils
#10
REVIEW
Hao Wu, Xiaolin He, Huifen Dong, Qingyan Zhou, Yongsong Zhang
Imazethapyr (IM) is a chiral herbicide composed of an (-)-R-enantiomer and an (+)-S-enantiomer with differential herbicidal activity. In this study, the effects of microbial organisms, humidity, and temperature on the selective degradation of the (-)-R- and (+)-S-enantiomers of IM were determined in silty loam (SL) and clay loam (CL) soil with different pH values. The (-)-R-enantiomer of IM was preferentially degraded in two soils under different microorganism, humidity, and temperature conditions. The average half-lives of R-IM ranged from 43 to 66...
April 19, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416552/in-vivo-pharmacodynamic-target-assessment-of-eravacycline-against-escherichia-coli-in-a-murine-thigh-infection-model
#11
Miao Zhao, Alexander J Lepak, Karen Marchillo, Jamie VanHecker, David R Andes
Eravacycline is a novel fluorocycline antibiotic with potent activity against a broad range of pathogens, including strains with tetracycline and other drug-resistance phenotypes. The goal of the studies was to determine which pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameter and magnitude best correlated with efficacy in the murine thigh infection model. Six E. coli were utilized for the studies. MICs were determined using CLSI methods and ranged from 0.125 to 0.25 mg/L. A neutropenic murine thigh infection model was utilized for all treatment studies...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412908/news-in-the-indications-of-non-vitamin-k-oral-anticoagulants-according-to-the-guidelines-of-the-american-college-of-chest-physicians-2016
#12
Gabriela Cesarman Maus, Guillermo Jose Ruiz Argüelles
Antithrombotic guidelines published by the Chest Journal, the official publication of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), are continuously updated as clinically relevant information accumulates. The Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines on antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis were published in 2012. This year, the topic that has been updated pertains to antithrombotic therapy, specifically addressing prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease. In this paper, I focus on these guidelines regarding the indications or lack thereof for the use of Non-vitamin K-antagonist Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS), also referred to as Direct-acting Oral Anticoagulants (DOACS)...
April 13, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412404/development-of-human-biotransformation-qsars-and-application-for-pbt-assessment-refinement
#13
Ester Papa, Alessandro Sangion, Jon A Arnot, Paola Gramatica
Toxicokinetics heavily influence chemical toxicity as the result of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism (Biotransformation) and Elimination (ADME) processes. Biotransformation (metabolism) reactions can lead to detoxification or, in some cases, bioactivation of parent compounds to more toxic chemicals. Moreover, biotransformation has been recognized as a key process determining chemical half-life in an organism and is thus a key determinant for bioaccumulation assessment for many chemicals. This study addresses the development of QSAR models for the prediction of in vivo whole body human biotransformation (metabolism) half-lives measured or empirically-derived for over 1000 chemicals, mainly represented by pharmaceuticals...
April 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412144/quantitative-microscopy-based-measurements-of-circulating-nanoparticle-concentration-using-microliter-blood-volumes
#14
Gregory T Tietjen, Jenna DiRito, Jordan S Pober, W Mark Saltzman
Nanoparticles (NPs) are potential drug delivery vehicles for treatment of a broad range of diseases. Intravenous (IV) administration, the most common form of delivery, is relatively non-invasive and provides (in theory) access throughout the circulatory system. However, in practice, many IV injected NPs are quickly eliminated by specialized phagocytes in the liver and spleen. Consequently, new materials have been developed with the capacity to significantly extend the circulating half-life of IV administered NPs...
April 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411227/fate-and-persistence-of-a-pathogenic-ndm-1-positive-escherichia-coli-strain-in-anaerobic-and-aerobic-sludge-microcosms
#15
David Mantilla-Calderon, Pei-Ying Hong
The presence of emerging biological pollutants in treated wastewater effluents has gained attention due to increased interest in water reuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of the removal of such contaminants by the conventional wastewater treatment process, the fate and decay kinetics of NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli strain PI7 and its plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were assessed in microcosms of anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Results showed that E. coli PI7 decayed at a significantly slower rate under anaerobic conditions...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411181/monoclonal-antibodies-to-the-reactive-centre-loop-rcl-of-human-corticosteroid-binding-globulin-cbg-can-protect-against-proteolytic-cleavage
#16
John G Lewis, Peter A Elder
Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binds most of the cortisol in circulation and is a non-functional member of the family of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) with an exposed elastase sensitive reactive centre loop (RCL). The RCL can be cleaved by human neutrophil elastase, released from activated neutrophils, and can also be cleaved at nearby site(s) by elastase released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and at two further sites, also within the RCL, by bovine chymotrypsin. Cleavage of the RCL results in a conformational change accompanied by a marked decrease in affinity for cortisol and hence its release at the site of proteolysis...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408825/a-tetraethylene-glycol-coat-gives-gold-nanoparticles-long-in-vivo-half-lives-with-minimal-increase-in-size
#17
Julian Ds Willett, Marlon G Lawrence, Jennifer C Wilder, Oliver Smithies
In this study, we describe the experiments determining whether coating gold nanoparticles with tetraethylene glycol (TEG) provides pharmacologically relevant advantages, such as increased serum half-life and resistance to protein adsorption. Monodisperse TEG-coated, NaBH4-reduced gold nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic size comparable to albumin were synthesized by reducing gold chloride with NaBH4 under alkaline conditions in the presence of TEG-SH. The particles were characterized by gel electrophoresis, column chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402027/simultaneous-determination-of-difenoconazole-trifloxystrobin-and-its-metabolite-trifloxystrobin-acid-residues-in-watermelon-under-field-conditions-by-gc%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ms-ms
#18
Di Kang, Haizhen Zhang, Yuling Chen, Fei Wang, Lihong Shi, Deyu Hu, Kankan Zhang
An optimized QuEChERS method for the simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon and soil was developed and validated by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile (1% formic acid) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with octadecylsilane sorbent. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.01 mg/kg, and the limit of detection was 0.003 mg/kg for all three analytes...
April 12, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401385/enrofloxacin-degradation-in-broiler-chicken-manure-under-field-conditions-and-its-residuals-effects-to-the-environment
#19
M Slana, D Žigon, M Sollner-Dolenc
The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterised. Its degradation was investigated in manure excreted by broiler chickens in an intensively reared chicken facility; further, the degradation also followed after transfer of the excreta into the natural environment occurred. The effect of enrofloxacin and its degradation products on cucumber and tomato was also investigated. Enrofloxacin degradation was shown to take place within the rearing facility and also continuing after the manure was transferred into the environment...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401228/environmental-photochemistry-of-fenamate-nsaids-and-their-radical-intermediates
#20
Caroline A Davis, Paul R Erickson, Kristopher McNeill, Elisabeth M L Janssen
Fenamates are a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are not fully removed during wastewater treatment and can be released to surface waters. Here, near-surface photochemical half-lives were evaluated to range from minutes to hours of four fenamates and the closely related diclofenac. While quantum yields for direct photochemical reactions at the water surface vary widely from 0.071 for diclofenac to <0.001 for mefenamic acid, all fenamates showed significant reactivity towards singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical with bimolecular reaction rate constants of 1...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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