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Brian Benjamin, Yasuyo Wada, Scott M Grundy, Magdalene Szuszkiewicz-Garcia, Gloria Lena Vega
BACKGROUND: Moderate hypertriglyceridemia is frequently associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. We showed previously that moderately obese men with hypertriglyceridemia have reduced fatty acid oxidation postabsorptively and postprandially. In the present study, we examined the oxidation of fatty acids in normotriglyceridemic men. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine the relation between plasma triglyceride levels and fatty acid oxidation in normotriglyceridemic men...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Davina Fevery, Bob Peeters, Sonia Lenders, Pieter Spanoghe
Indicators are used to quantify the pressure of pesticides on the environment. Pesticide risk indicators typically require weighting environmental exposure by a no effect concentration. An indicator based on spread equivalents (ΣSeq) is used in environmental policy in Flanders (Belgium). The pesticide risk for aquatic life is estimated by weighting active ingredient usage by the ratio of their maximum allowable concentration and their soil halflife. Accurate estimates of total pesticide usage in the region are essential in such calculations...
2015: PloS One
E Matteucci, O Giampietro
Prospective epidemiological studies suggest that type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, and Parkinson disease. Drugs that act as incretin receptor agonists or inhibit the proteolytic degradation of incretins (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors) have been approved since 2005 for use in diabetes treatment. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) cleaves N-terminal dipeptides from polypeptides when the second residue is proline, hydroxyproline, dehydroproline or alanine...
2015: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Gian Maria Pacifici
Recurrent apnea is common in preterm infants with consequent episodes of loss of effective breathing and the bronchodilator theophylline prevents apnea and reduces the number of apneic attacks. This drug also reduces hypoxaemic episodes. Theophylline acts on the lungs, kidneys and brain. Theophylline inhibits solute reabsorption in various segments of the nephron and a marked diuresis which occurs immediately after the administration of theophylline. This drug ameliorates kidney dysfunction and prophylaxis given early after birth, preventing vasomotor nephropathy...
2014: Current Pediatric Reviews
K S Krane
High-resolution γ ray spectroscopy experiments have been done to study the emissions from the radioactive decay of 22-min (83g)Se produced from neutron capture using samples of enriched (82)Se. Energy and intensity values have been obtained to roughly an order of magnitude greater precision than in previous studies. Based on energy sums, 2 new levels are proposed in the daughter (83)Br and one previously proposed level is shown to be doubtful. Some 25 new transitions appear to decay with the (83)Se halflife, about half of which can be accommodated among the previous or newly proposed levels...
March 2015: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Ole B Samuelsen, Bjørn T Lunestad, Rita Hannisdal, Raymond Bannister, Siri Olsen, Tore Tjensvoll, Eva Farestveit, Arne Ervik
The salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) is a challenge in the farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To treat an infestation, different insecticides are used like the orally administered chitin synthetase inhibitor teflubenzuron. The concentrations and distribution of teflubenzuron were measured in water, organic particles, marine sediment and biota caught in the vicinity of a fish farm following a standard medication. Low concentrations were found in water samples whereas the organic waste from the farm, collected by sediment traps had concentrations higher than the medicated feed...
March 1, 2015: Science of the Total Environment
Taisong Zou, Nickolas Williams, S Banu Ozkan, Kingshuk Ghosh
How heterogeneous are proteome folding timescales and what physical principles, if any, dictate its limits? We answer this by predicting copy number weighted folding speed distribution - using the native topology - for E.coli and Yeast proteome. E.coli and Yeast proteomes yield very similar distributions with average folding times of 100 milliseconds and 170 milliseconds, respectively. The topology-based folding time distribution is well described by a diffusion-drift mutation model on a flat-fitness landscape in free energy barrier between two boundaries: i) the lowest barrier height determined by the upper limit of folding speed and ii) the highest barrier height governed by the lower speed limit of folding...
2014: PloS One
James C Steeil, Juergen Schumacher, Robert H George, Frank Bulman, Katherine Baine, Sherry Cox
Cefovecin was administered to six healthy adult white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and six healthy adult Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) to determine its pharmacokinetics in these species. A single dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously in the epaxial region of the bamboo sharks and in the proximal articulation of the lateral leg of the horseshoe crabs. Blood and hemolymph samples were collected at various time points from bamboo sharks and Atlantic horseshoe crabs...
June 2014: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Alessandra Fantauzzi, Ivano Mezzaroma
The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integrase enzyme has recently emerged as a primary alternative target to block viral replication, and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are now considered an alternative 'third agent' class of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Dolutegravir is the first next-generation INSTI showing some novel and intriguing characteristics: it has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a prolonged intracellular halflife, rendering feasible a once daily dosing without the need for pharmacokinetic boosting...
July 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
Ebbe Juel Bech Nielsen, Shinya Yoshida, Noriyasu Kamei, Ruisha Iwamae, El-Sayed Khafagy, Jørgen Olsen, Ulrik Lytt Rahbek, Betty Lomstein Pedersen, Kozo Takayama, Mariko Takeda-Morishita
Oral delivery of insulin is blocked by low intestinal absorption caused by the poor permeability of insulin across cellular membranes and the susceptibility to enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been investigated for a number of years as oral absorption enhancers for hydrophilic macromolecules. Penetratin, a cationic and amphipathic CPP, effectively enhances insulin absorption and we were able to alleviate the enzymatic barrier by using the enzymatic resistant D-form of penetratin...
September 10, 2014: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
David A Marquardt, Michael P Doyle, Jeffrey S Davidson, Janet K Epp, Jacqueline F Aitken, Douglas D Lemon, Spencer J Anthony-Cahill
A recombinant 130 kDa dihemoglobin which is made up of a single-chain tetra-α globin and four β globins has been expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The sequence of the single chain tetra-α is: αI-Gly-αII-(SerGlyGly)5Ser-αIII-Gly-αIV. This dihemoglobin has been purified and characterized in vitro by size exclusion chromatography, electrospray mass spectroscopy, equilibrium oxygen binding, and analytical ultracentrifugation. The observed values of P50 and nmax for the dihemoglobin are slightly lower than those observed for the recombinant hemoglobin rHb1...
2012: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
W Martin Williams, Jeffrey M Giddings, John Purdy, Keith R Solomon, John P Giesy
Concentrations of CPY in surface waters are an integral determinant of risk to aquatic organisms. CPY has been measured in surface waters of the U.S. in several environmental monitoring programs and these data were evaluated to characterize concentrations, in relation to major areas of use and changes to the label since 2001, particularly the removal of domestic uses. Frequencies of detection and 95th centile concentrations of CPY decreased more than fivefold between 1992 and 2010. Detections in 1992-2001 ranged from 10...
2014: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Daixi Li, Baolin Liu, Baisong Guo, Yaru Liu, Zhen Zhai, Yan Zhang, Chenglung Chen, Shanlin Liu
In the present research, molecular simulation and quantum chemistry calculations were combined to investigate the thermal stability of three kinds of insulin aggregations and the effect of Zn (II) ion coordination on these aggregations. The results of molecular simulation indicated that the three insulin dimers in the same sphere closed hexamer had synergistic stability. It is the synergistic stability that enhances the structural and thermal stability of insulin, preserves its bioactivity during production, storage, and delivery of insulin formulations, and prolongs its halflife in human bodies...
October 2013: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
B N Patel, R M Ray
Alkali-treated corn stalk gave maximum xylanase production at supporting growth of Streptomyces HM-15. Xylanase was stable for 24 h over a pH range of 5.0 to 7.0, had optimal activity between 50 and 60°C and a halflife of 5 h at 60°C. Xylanase production and activity were inhibited by xylose.
September 1994: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
A Rikin, S D Schwartzbach
In dark-grown Euglena, a single 122-kdalton (kDa) precursor to the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of photosystem II (pLHCPII) was synthesized at a very low rate and LHCPII synthesis was undetectable as determined by pulse-labeling with [(35)S]sulfate and immunoprecipitation with a specific antibody against Euglena LHCPII. Synthesis of a 207-, 161-, 122- and 110-kDa pLHCPII was detected after light exposure, with the 207-kDa pLHCPII being the most abundant pLHCPII synthesized. The rate of synthesis of all four pLHCPIIs and the 25...
May 1989: Planta
F Pelsy, F Lacroute
The genetic map of 27 mutants of the URA1 yeast gene has been established by meiotic recombination and 16 nonsense mutations characterized. The half life of URA1 mRNA was determined by two independent methods in the wild-type and in two ochre mutants localized at each extremity of the genetic map. A halflife of 15 min was found for the wild-type and for one of the ochre mutants. This half-life was radically reduced in the other ochre mutant whereas the instantaneous rate of its mRNA synthesis remained constant...
May 1984: Current Genetics
J V Kitzman, R C Wilson, N H Booth, H L Hendricks, P B Bush
The pharmacokinetics of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a drug capable of antagonizing nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs, as well as several classes of injectable sedative and anesthetic agents, were studied in 6 intact, awake horses. Plasma samples were assayed for 4-AP over a frequent sampling schedule for 8 hours after IV administration. The plasma 4-AP vs time data best fit a 2-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Distribution half-life was 7.4 minutes, elimination half-life was 259 minutes, volume of the central compartment was 0...
July 1984: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Hiroto Narita, Yuusuke Tsuchiya, Kiyoshi Hirase, Mayuki Uchiyama, Masahiro Fukushi
Strontium-89 (89Sr: pure beta, E; 1.495 MeV-100%, halflife: 50.5 days) chloride is used as pain relief from bone metastases. An assay of 89Sr is difficult because of a pure beta emitter. For management of 89Sr, we tried to evaluate a simple quantitative method for the 59Sr concentration of radioactive liquid waste using scintillation survey meter for beta rays. The counting efficiency of the survey meter with this method was 35.95%. A simple 30 minutes measurement of 2 ml of the sample made the quantitative measurement of 89Sr practical...
November 2012: Kaku Igaku. the Japanese Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Scott Snyder, Robert E Listecki
Effective thyroid replacement therapy may be elusive to some patients, and compounding pharmacists have an opportunity to deliver more effective therapy. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th edition states that the body usually secretes T4:T3 in an 11:1 ratio but cautions against pursuing combined thyroid replacement due to the short halflife of T3 that necessitates multiple daily dosing; no commercial availability and lack of benefit were shown in trials. Commercial combinations of T4/T3 such as Armour Thyroid and Nature-Throid have a 4...
September 2012: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Liting Zhang, Songtao Wu, Andreas Buthe, Xueyan Zhao, Hongfei Jia, Songping Zhang, Ping Wang
Enzyme-based smart materials constitute a rapidly growing group of functional materials. Often the natively evolved enzymes are not compatible with hydrophobic synthetic materials, thus significantly limiting the performance of enzymes. This work investigates the use of a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated detergent enzyme for self-cleaning coatings. As a result, PEG conjugated α-amylase demonstrated a much more homogeneous distribution in polyurethane coatings than the parent native enzyme as detected by both fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX)...
November 2012: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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