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Martina R Laidemitt, Eva T Zawadzki, Sara V Brant, Martin W Mutuku, Gerald M Mkoji, Eric S Loker
Paramphistomoids are ubiquitous and widespread digeneans that infect a diverse range of definitive hosts, being particularly speciose in ruminants. We collected adult worms from cattle, goats and sheep from slaughterhouses, and cercariae from freshwater snails from ten localities in Central and West Kenya. We sequenced cox1 (690 bp) and internal transcribed region 2 (ITS2) (385 bp) genes from a small piece of 79 different adult worms and stained and mounted the remaining worm bodies for comparisons with available descriptions...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
Mariana G Lima, Vinícius M Tunholi-Alves, Fabrício N Gaudêncio, Florence G Martins, Rosane N Castro, Silvana C Thiengo, Juberlan S Garcia, Arnaldo Maldonado, Jairo Pinheiro
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is considered the main agent responsible for human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. This parasite has low specificity for mollusk hosts and it can also use aquatic snails as auxiliary hosts. Studies based on the metabolic profile of Biomphalaria spp. infected by A. cantonensis have been conducted to observe parasite-host interactions. In the present study, the glucose content in the hemolymph and glycogen content in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea experimentally infected by A...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
E A F Camargo, J T F Camargo, M F Neves, L F Simões, L A D Bastos, L A Magalhães, E M Zanotti-Magalhães
Fluctuations in population density of planorbid hosts of S. mansoni are influenced by climatic factors. The knowledge about interference from changes in water temperature in these populations is an important aspect of the epidemiology of schistosomiasis. In this experiment, it is explored the influence of different temperatures on the development of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria glabrata melanic and albino variants. The results indicated an intrinsic relationship between temperature and development of the parasite in the intramollusc phase, independent of the pigmentation of the mantle of the molluscs...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
L R Guerino, J F Carvalho, L A Magalhães, E M Zanotti-Magalhães
The easy adaptation of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, nematode responsible for abdominal angiostrongyliasis to several species of terrestrial and freshwater molluscs and the differences observed in the interactions of trematodes with their intermediate hosts have induced us to study the concomitant infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni and A. costaricensis. Prior exposure of B. glabrata to A. costaricensis (with an interval of 48 hours), favored the development of S. mansoni, observing higher infection rate, increased release of cercariae and increased survival of molluscs, when compared to molluscs exposed only to S...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
L F Simões, L D B Bastos, E A F Camargo, M F Neves, A X Linhares, L A Magalhães, E M Zanotti-Magalhães
Biomphalaria amazonica is a planorbid species considered a potential host of Schistosoma mansoni. It is widely distributed in the Neotropical zone, particularly in the North and Centre-West of Brazil and in the North of Bolivia. The aim of the present study was to determine the host-parasite relationship between B. amazonica and S. mansoni (BH and SJ strains). Specimens of B. amazonica and their snail-conditioned water were examined in terms of their ability to attract miracidia. The infectivity of the mollusks was determined by exposing them to 20 miracidia of both strains...
September 26, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Guoli Qu, Wei Wang, Xiaomin Lu, Jianrong Dai, Xiaoheng Li, Yousheng Liang
Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, is predominantly distributed in the South Americas and Caribbean; however, this snail, as an invasive species, was introduced to Shenzhen, southern China, in 1981, and recent epidemiologic surveys demonstrate that the distribution of B. straminea has expanded across the Zhujiang River Basin, South China. In the presence of continuous importation of S. mansoni-infected cases, there is a growing concern about the transmission of S. mansoni in China...
September 9, 2016: Parasitology Research
Adel Farghaly, Ayman A Saleh, Soad Mahdy, Dalia Abd El-Khalik, Naglaa F Abd El-Aal, Sara A Abdel-Rahman, Marwa A Salama
The present study aimed to evaluate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay used for detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails in early prepatent period and to compare between it and the ordinary detection methods (shedding and crushing). Biomphalaria alexandrina snails are best known for their role as intermediate hosts of S. mansoni. DNA was extracted from infected snails in addition to non-infected "negative control" (to optimized the efficiency of PCR reaction) and subjected to PCR using primers specific to a partial sequence of S...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Shawky M Aboelhadid, Marwa Thabet, Dayhoum El-Basel, Ragaa Taha
The present study aims to detect the digenetic larvae infections in Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and also PCR detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The snails were collected from different branches of Yousef canal and their derivatives in El Fayoum Governorate. The snails were investigated for infection through induction of cercarial shedding by exposure to light and crushing of the snails. The shed cercariae were S. mansoni, Pharyngeate longifurcate type I and Pharyngeate longifurcate type II from B...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
L D Silva, V C S Amaral, M C Vinaud, A M Castro, H H A Rezende, D B Santos, C C Mello-Silva, J C B Bezerra
Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species...
September 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Marina Solis, Hernán Mugni, Lisa Hunt, Natalia Marrochi, Silvia Fanelli, Carlos Bonetto
Agriculture and livestock may contribute to water quality degradation in adjacent waterbodies and produce changes in the resident invertebrate composition. The objective of the present study was to assess land use effects on the stream invertebrate assemblages in rural areas of the Argentine Pampa. The four sampling events were performed at six sites in four streams of the Pampa plain; two streams were sampled inside a biosphere reserve, and another one was surrounded by extensive livestock fields. The fourth stream was sampled at three sites; the upstream site was adjacent to agricultural plots, the following site was adjacent to an intensive livestock plot and the downstream site was adjacent to extensive breeding cattle plots...
September 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Thomas G Rosser, Wes A Baumgartner, Neely R Alberson, Ethan T Woodyard, Stephen R Reichley, David J Wise, Linda M Pote, Matt J Griffin
In the southeastern USA, catfish aquaculture is burdened by predation from piscivorous birds and the digenetic trematodes they carry. In addition to cultured ictalurid fish, other forage or incidental fish species inhabit catfish production ponds. Of these, the inland silverside Menidia beryllina was recently found to harbor larval metacercariae of several trematode species. Three species of metacercariae were reported, two of which represent the first morphological descriptions of an Austrodiplostomum sp. and Bolbophorus sp...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
Satwant Kaur, Alice Baynes, Anne E Lockyer, Edwin J Routledge, Catherine S Jones, Leslie R Noble, Susan Jobling
Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs...
2016: PloS One
María Virginia Fernández, Monika Inés Hamann, Margarita Ostrowski de Núñez
Larval trematodes infecting Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. occidentalis were surveyed in a suburban and semipermanent pond of Corrientes province, Northeastern Argentina. A total of 1,409 snails were examined between spring 2011 to winter 2013, and 8 different larval trematodes were studied morphologically. Three of these species-Echinocercaria sp. IV, Ribeiroia sp. and Echinocercaria sp. XIV-have been previously found in Corrientes province. Six other trematodes belonging to Strigeidae (Furcocercaria sp. III), Clinostomidae (Cercaria Clinostomidae sp...
September 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
Pmz Coelho, R L Caldeira
In Brazil, Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila, and B. straminea are naturally infected by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of schistosomiasis. Despite decades of governmental efforts through official control programs, schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem in the country: thousands of people are infected with the trematode each year and millions live in endemic areas. The World Health Organization recommends using a combination of molluscicide (niclosamide) and mass chemotherapy to control the transmission of schistosomiasis, with this treatment successfully reducing the morbidity of the disease...
2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
O C Okeke, P O Ubachukwu
Knowledge of trematode infections in Biomphalaria pfeifferi from south-eastern Nigeria is scarce, due to the absence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in the region. Therefore, the present study sought to describe trematode infections in B. pfeifferi from the River Uzuru in the Nigeria Cement Factory area, Nkalagu, south-eastern Nigeria. Four hundred and sixty snails were checked for trematode infections, and mice were exposed to the Schistosoma cercariae shed from the snails. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 13 weeks post-infection, while sections of the liver and spleen were examined...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Eduardo C Oliveira-Filho, José Sousa Filho, Luana A Novais, Wilson S Peternele, Ricardo B Azevedo, Cesar K Grisolia
This study aims to evaluate the effects of maghemite nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) coated with meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) stabilizer on the survival and reproduction of the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The cumulative means of egg masses and eggs per individual in the control group at the end of 4 weeks were 18.8 and 326.7, respectively. These values at the concentration of 1 mg/L were 17.2 and 291.6; at 10 mg/L, they were 19.6 and 334.4 ,and at 100 mg/L, they were 14.3 and 311.1. Results showed no significant differences between the tested and the control groups at the level of p < 0...
September 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Molly K Nelson, Brandon C Cruz, Kevin L Buena, Hai Nguyen, John T Sullivan
Climate change may affect the internal defense system (IDS) of freshwater snails, and as a result their capacity to transmit disease. We examined effects of short-term exposure to supra- and sub-optimal temperatures or starvation on 3 parameters of the IDS of the schistosome-resistant Salvador strain of Biomphalaria glabrata - hemocyte concentrations, cell division in the amebocyte-producing organ (APO), and resistance to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Adult snails were exposed to 1 of 3 temperatures, 20°C, 27°C (controls), or 33°C, for 1 or 2weeks, with food...
July 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Di Liang, Tianfang Wang, Bronwyn A Rotgans, Donald P McManus, Scott F Cummins
Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata) is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs), a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR), have an evolutionary ancient function in detecting odors to initiate chemosensory signaling. In this study, we applied an array of methods towards the goal of identifying IR-like family members in B...
2016: PloS One
Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Victor Menezes Tunholi, Anderson Teixeira Santos, Tatiane Cristina Dos Santos Bonfim, Juberlan da Silva Garcia, Arnaldo Maldonado, Wagner Seixas da-Silva, Jairo Pinheiro
The effect of infection by Angiostrongylus cantonensis on the mitochondrial physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata was investigated after exposure to 1200 L1 larvae. The snails were dissected one, two and three weeks after infection for collection and mechanical permeabilization of the gonad-digestive gland (DGG) complex. The results obtained indicate that prepatent infection by this nematode fluke significantly suppresses the phosphorylation state (respiratory state 3) and basal oxygen consumption of B. glabrata, demonstrating that the infection reduces the ability of the intermediate host to carry out aerobic oxidative reactions...
May 27, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Mohamed R Habib, Azza H Mohamed, Gamalat Y Osman, Hanan S Mossalem, Ahmed T Sharaf El-Din, Roger P Croll
Heavy metals are common environmental pollutants to the aquatic ecosystems. Several aquatic species have been used as bioindicators and biomonitoring subjects for heavy metals pollution. In the present study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) and manganese (Mn) on the survival, attachment, locomotion, and feeding behaviours of the gastropod snail Biomphalaria alexandrina were determined. The short-term (96 h) LC50 for Cd and Mn were found to be 0.219 and 154.2 mg/l, respectively. Long-term exposures (16-20 days) to ascending concentrations of Cd (0...
August 2016: Chemosphere
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