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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792782/25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-and-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-as-an-antiviral-and-immunomodulator-against-herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection-in-hela-cells
#1
Archit Kumar, Mini P Singh, Ragini S Kumar, Radha Kanta Ratho
The antiviral and immunomodulatory role of vitamin D has been shown in various viral infections. However, there is scanty literature available about the effect of vitamin D supplementation in herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of two different forms of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) against HSV-1 in HeLa cells. The HeLa cells were supplemented with either 25D3 or 1,25D3 before HSV-1 infection and were studied after 6, 12, and 24 h postinfection (p...
May 24, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791566/cytidine-phosphate-guanosine-oligodeoxynucleotides-in-combination-with-cd40-ligand-decrease-periodontal-inflammation-and-alveolar-bone-loss-in-a-tlr9-independent-manner
#2
Qian Zhao, Yang Hu, Shu Deng, Pei Yu, Bowen Chen, Zuomin Wang, Xiaozhe Han
Local administration of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), agonist cytidine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODNs), and CD40 ligand (CD40L) can decrease ligature-induced periodontal inflammation and bone loss in wild type (WT) mouse. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether such effect is dependent on TLR9 signaling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Purified spleen B cells isolated from WT C57BL/6J mice and TLR9 knockout (KO) mice were cultured for 48 hours under the following conditions: CD40L, CpG+CD40L, CpG at low, medium and high doses...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772941/recent-advances-in-the-discovery-and-development-of-tlr-ligands-as-novel-therapeutics-for-chronic-hbv-and-hiv-infections
#3
Keye Du, Jia Liu, Ruth Broering, Xiaoyong Zhang, Dongliang Yang, Ulf Dittmer, Mengji Lu
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands remain as promising antiviral drug candidates for the treatment of chronic viral infections. Basic research on the mechanisms of antiviral activity of TLR ligands in preclinical animal models and clinical testing of drug candidates have been carried out in recent years. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the preclinical and clinical testing of TLR ligands in two major viral infections: hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent results have further demonstrated the potent antiviral activity of various TLR ligands ...
May 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765617/accelerated-model-of-lupus-autoimmunity-and-vasculopathy-driven-by-toll-like-receptor-7-9-imbalance
#4
Yudong Liu, Nickie L Seto, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Mariana J Kaplan
Objectives: Activation of endosomal toll-like receptor (TLR)7 or TLR9 has been proposed as a critical step for the initiation and development of SLE. Traditional spontaneous lupus models normally introduce multiple risk alleles, thereby adding additional confounding factors. In the induced lupus models, the role of TLR9 remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the role of an imbalance between TLR7 and TLR9 pathways in the pathogenesis of lupus and its associated vasculopathy using the imiquimod model in TLR9 KO/B6 background...
2018: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760708/dual-tlr2-9-recognition-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-is-required-for-recruitment-and-activation-of-monocytes-and-nk-cells-and-restriction-of-viral-dissemination-to-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Erdenebileg Uyangaa, Jin Young Choi, Ajit Mahadev Patil, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf Hossain, Sung Ok Park, Bumseok Kim, Koanhoi Kim, Seong Kug Eo
The importance of TLR2 and TLR9 in the recognition of infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and HSV-caused diseases has been described, but some discrepancies remain concerning the benefits of these responses. Moreover, the impact of TLR2/9 on innate and adaptive immune responses within relevant mucosal tissues has not been elucidated using natural mucosal infection model of HSV. Here, we demonstrate that dual TLR2/9 recognition is essential to provide resistance against mucosal infection with HSV via an intravaginal route...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760532/apoptotic-cell-induced-ahr-activity-is-required-for-immunological-tolerance-and-suppression-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-mice-and-humans
#6
Rahul Shinde, Kebria Hezaveh, Marie Jo Halaby, Andreas Kloetgen, Ankur Chakravarthy, Tiago da Silva Medina, Reema Deol, Kieran P Manion, Yuriy Baglaenko, Maria Eldh, Sara Lamorte, Drew Wallace, Sathi Babu Chodisetti, Buvana Ravishankar, Haiyun Liu, Kapil Chaudhary, David H Munn, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Michael Madaio, Susanne Gabrielsson, Zahi Touma, Joan Wither, Daniel D De Carvalho, Tracy L McGaha
The transcription factor AhR modulates immunity at multiple levels. Here we report that phagocytes exposed to apoptotic cells exhibited rapid activation of AhR, which drove production of the cytokine IL-10. Activation of AhR was dependent on interactions between apoptotic-cell DNA and the pattern-recognition receptor TLR9 that was required for the prevention of immune responses to DNA and histones in vivo. Moreover, disease progression in mouse systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) correlated with strength of the AhR signal, and the disease course could be altered by modulation of AhR activity...
May 14, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755476/transitional-b-cells-and-tlr9-responses-are-defective-in-selective-iga-deficiency
#7
Andri L Lemarquis, Helga K Einarsdottir, Rakel N Kristjansdottir, Ingileif Jonsdottir, Bjorn R Ludviksson
Selective IgA deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary antibody deficiency in the western world with affected individuals suffering from an increased burden of autoimmunity, atopic diseases and infections. It has been shown that IgAD B cells can be induced with germinal center mimicking reactions to produce IgA. However, IgA is the most prevalent antibody in mucosal sites, where antigen-independent responses are important. Much interest has recently focused on the role of TLR9 in both naïve and mature B cell differentiation into IgA secreting plasma cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753871/combinatorial-usage-of-fungal-polysaccharides-from-cordyceps-sinensis-and-ganoderma-atrum-ameliorate-drug-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#8
Songtao Fan, Xiaojun Huang, Sunan Wang, Chang Li, Zhihong Zhang, Mingyong Xie, Shaoping Nie
This study investigated the possible protective effect of combined fungal polysaccharides (CFP), consisting of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) and Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides (PSG) with well-defined structural characteristics, against cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Our results indicated CFP effectively prevented the liver injury by decreasing toxicity markers (aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase). Further biochemical and molecular analysis indicated CSP particularly inhibited the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and its related inflammatory signals, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 to modulate hepatic inflammation response...
May 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752467/lc3-anchors-tlr9-signalling
#9
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743484/released-mitochondrial-dna-following-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-induces-the-inflammatory-response-and-gut-barrier-dysfunction
#10
Qiongyuan Hu, Huajian Ren, Jianan Ren, Qinjie Liu, Jie Wu, Xiuwen Wu, Guanwei Li, Gefei Wang, Guosheng Gu, Kun Guo, Zhiwu Hong, Song Liu, Jieshou Li
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a challenging clinical problem, especially injuries involving the gastrointestinal tract. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is released upon cell death and stress, and can induce the inflammatory response. We aimed to investigate the role of mtDNA in the pathogenesis of intestinal I/R. Intestinal I/R model was established with clamping of the superior mesenteric artery, and IEC-6 cells were incubated under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) conditions to simulate I/R injury. Using in vitro models, H/R up-regulated oxidative stress, disrupted mitochondrial activity and the mitochondrial membrane potential, induced apoptosis and elevated the mtDNA levels in the supernatant of intestinal epithelial cells, and the co-culture of mtDNA with human primary dendritic cells significantly elevated TLR9-MyD88 expression and enhanced the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733740/immune-profiling-of-t-cells-infiltrating-vitreous-humor-in-tubercular-uveitis
#11
Ravi Kumar Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Reema Bansal, Kusum Sharma, Amod Gupta, Naresh Sachdeva
PURPOSE: To assess cellular composition and local cytokine response in vitreous humor of tubercular uveitis. METHODS: Cells were collected from vitreous cassettes and peripheral blood of 8 tubercular uveitis and 5 control subjects, undergoing vitrectomy and analyzed by flow cytometry for cellular composition, activation status, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and uptake of TLR9 ligand, CpG ODN 2216. RESULTS: CD3 + T cells with equal proportion of CD4+ and CD8 + T cells formed major fraction of infiltrating cells...
May 7, 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732997/hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-reprograms-tlr9-signalling-pathway-in-ischaemic-cortex-after-cerebral-ischaemia-and-reperfusion
#12
Zhe Gong, Jingrui Pan, Xiangpen Li, Hongxuan Wang, Lei He, Ying Peng
Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) was reported to suppress inflammation in ischaemic microglia. However, the mechanism through which HSYA inhibits inflammation caused by cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion injury remains unknown. Here, we have mimicked acute cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion injury by subjecting male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes and have demonstrated that toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) was upregulated from day 3 after reperfusion, accompanied by the persistent activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway from 6 hours to day 7...
May 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727627/differential-interferon-system-gene-expression-profiles-in-susceptible-and-resistant-gynogenetic-clones-of-gibel-carp-challenged-with-herpesvirus-cahv
#13
Cheng-Yan Mou, Yang Wang, Qi-Ya Zhang, Fan-Xiang Gao, Zhi Li, Jin-Feng Tong, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Interferon (IFN) system plays a vital role in the first line of defense against viruses. In this study, we first identified multiple transcripts of 15 IFN system genes, including PRRs (TLR2, TLR3, RIG-I, and LGP2), PRR-mediated IFN signal pathway (MyD88, MITA, and MAVS), IFN regulatory factors (IRF1, IRF3, IRF7, and IRF9), IFNs (IFNφ1 and IFNφ3), and ISGs (Mx and viperin), and one transcript of TLR9 in de novo transcriptome assembly data of gibel carp head-kidney. Multiple nucleotide alignments and phylogenetic analysis of common region showed that the transcripts of every of the 15 IFN system genes were classified into two homologs with distinctly divergent sequences, indicating that hexaploid gibel carp may be an allopolyploid...
May 1, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721531/extra-large-pore-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-enabling-co-delivery-of-high-amounts-of-protein-antigen-and-toll-like-receptor-9-agonist-for-enhanced-cancer-vaccine-efficacy
#14
Bong Geun Cha, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jaeyun Kim
Cancer vaccine aims to invoke antitumor adaptive immune responses to detect and eliminate tumors. However, the current dendritic cells (DCs)-based cancer vaccines have several limitations that are mostly derived from the ex vivo culture of patient DCs. To circumvent the limitations, direct activation and maturation of host DCs using antigen-carrying materials, without the need for isolation of DCs from patients, are required. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of extra-large pore mesoporous silica nanoparticles (XL-MSNs) and their use as a prophylactic cancer vaccine through the delivery of cancer antigen and danger signal to host DCs in the draining lymph nodes...
April 25, 2018: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718255/mitochondrial-dna-is-a-pro-inflammatory-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-released-during-active-ibd
#15
Ray K Boyapati, David A Dorward, Arina Tamborska, Rahul Kalla, Nicholas T Ventham, Mary K Doherty, Philip D Whitfield, Mohini Gray, Joseph Loane, Adriano G Rossi, Jack Satsangi, Gwo-Tzer Ho
Background: Due to common evolutionary origins, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) shares many similarities with immunogenic bacterial DNA. MtDNA is recognized as a pro-inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) with a pathogenic role in several inflammatory diseases. We hypothesised that mtDNA is released during active disease, serving as a key pro-inflammatory factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Between 2014 and 2015, we collected plasma separated within 2 hours of sampling from 97 prospectively recruited IBD patients (67 ulcerative colitis [UC] and 30 Crohn's disease [CD]) and 40 non-IBD controls...
May 1, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717061/the-interaction-between-ikk%C3%AE-and-lc3-promotes-type-i-interferon-production-through-the-tlr9-containing-laposome
#16
Kachiko Hayashi, Manabu Taura, Akiko Iwasaki
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes DNA in endosomes and activates distinct signaling pathways to stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs). The assembly of signaling platforms on microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-decorated endosomal vesicles is required to transduce TLR9 signals that stimulate the production of IFN but not interleukin-12 p40 (IL-12p40). LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), a form of noncanonical autophagy, is critical for the activation of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) and for IFN synthesis...
May 1, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703264/cerebrospinal-fluid-mitochondrial-dna-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#17
Kazuya Yamashita, Makoto Kinoshita, Katsuichi Miyamoto, Akiko Namba, Mikito Shimizu, Toru Koda, Tomoyuki Sugimoto, Yuki Mori, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Yuji Nakatsuji, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Susumu Kusunoki, Hideki Mochizuki, Tatsusada Okuno
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Although complement-dependent astrocyte damage mediated by anti-aquaporin 4 autoantibody (AQP4-Ab) is well acknowledged to be the core of NMOSD pathogenesis, additional inflammatory cascades may contribute to the establishment of lesion formation. Thus, in this study, we investigated the possible pathogenic role of immune-reactive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of NMOSD patients...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702142/dual-tlr-agonist-nanodiscs-as-a-strong-adjuvant-system-for-vaccines-and-immunotherapy
#18
Rui Kuai, Xiaoqi Sun, Wenmin Yuan, Lukasz J Ochyl, Yao Xu, Alireza Hassani Najafabadi, Lindsay Scheetz, Min-Zhi Yu, Ishina Balwani, Anna Schwendeman, James J Moon
Recent studies have shown that certain combinations of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can induce synergistic immune activation. However, it remains challenging to achieve such robust responses in vivo in a manner that is effective, facile, and amenable for clinical translation. Here, we show that MPLA, a TLR4 agonist, and CpG, a TLR9 agonist, can be efficiently co-loaded into synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanodiscs, forming a potent adjuvant system (ND-MPLA/CpG) that can be readily combined with a variety of subunit antigens, including proteins and peptides...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697393/polymorphism-prevalence-of-tlr-9-type-gene-in-patients-with-chronic-forms-of-epstein-barr-virus-infection
#19
T Lyadova, O Ognivenko, O Rzhevska, O Zagorodneva, O Volobueva
The aim of the study - to determine the TLR-914 T/C gene polymorphism in patients with CVEB caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Research for the determination of polymorphism - 1486 T/C TLR-9 gene was performed in 44 patients with chronic forms of the VEB infection. DNA isolation from the specimens was performed using a kit for DNA extraction by the Miniprep Company (Siles M, Russia), using the sorption assay technique of the sorbent. Polymorphic region -1486 T/C, rs187084 of the TLR9 gene was studied by real-time PCR amplification by determining the length of the restriction fragment-PCR using restriction enzymes Ncol and oligonucleotide primers...
March 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691386/toll-like-receptors-mediated-pathways-activate-inflammatory-responses-in-the-esophageal-mucosa-of-adult-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#20
Ángel Arias, María Vicario, David Bernardo, José M Olalla, Marina Fortea, Ana Montalban-Arques, Pilar Martínez-Fernández, Ana M González-Castro, Teresa Mota-Huertas, Laura Arias-González, Alfredo J Lucendo
OBJECTIVES: Esophageal microbiota and regulation of adaptive immunity are increasingly being investigated in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of innate immune activity. Our objective was to characterize the esophageal and duodenal innate immune response in EoE and its modulation by dietary therapy. METHODS: Esophageal and duodenal biopsy samples were collected from 10 adults with untreated EoE, before and after effective treatment with a six-food elimination diet (SFED), and 10 controls with normal esophagus...
April 25, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
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