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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679769/infection-status-and-risk-factors-associated-with-urinary-schistosomiasis-among-school-going-children-in-the-ndumo-area-of-umkhanyakude-district-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-two-years-post-treatment
#1
Muhubiri Kabuyaya, Moses John Chimbari, Samson Mukaratirwa
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of praziquantel of infected children with Schistosoma haematobium over a 2year period in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district, South Africa. METHODS: This cohort study enrolled 173 school-going children in September 2017 that participated in a baseline survey conducted in 2015 in the Ndumo area. Questionnaire interviews were conducted to collect information on the risk factors related to transmission of schistosomiasis and filtration technique was performed to detect Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679595/utilization-of-real-time-pcr-for-the-assessment-of-egg-burden-in-the-organs-of-schistosoma-japonicum-experimentally-infected-mice
#2
Minh-Anh Dang-Trinh, Jose Ma M Angeles, Kharleezelle J Moendeg, Adrian Miki C Macalanda, Luna Higuchi, Chiho Oto, Masashi Kirinoki, Yuichi Chigusa, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu
Schistosoma japonicum, causing zoonotic intestinal schistosomiasis, is found in China, the Philippines and parts of Indonesia. Severe disease manifestations are basically due to the deposition of eggs in some vital organs such as the liver, spleen and brain. Traditionally, histopathological microscopic examination of the egg burden was used to evaluate the intensity of infection in the affected organs. However, this technique is laborious, time-consuming and requires trained personnel. In this study, real time PCR targeting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase I gene was used to compare with microscopic examination of tissue sections in evaluating the egg burdens in different affected organs...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677188/smsp2-a-serine-protease-secreted-by-the-blood-fluke-pathogen-schistosoma-mansoni-with-anti-hemostatic-properties
#3
Adrian Leontovyč, Lenka Ulrychová, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Jiří Vondrášek, Lucie Marešová, Martin Hubálek, Pavla Fajtová, Marta Chanová, Zhenze Jiang, Charles S Craik, Conor R Caffrey, Michael Mareš, Jan Dvořák, Martin Horn
BACKGROUND: Serine proteases are important virulence factors for many pathogens. Recently, we discovered a group of trypsin-like serine proteases with domain organization unique to flatworm parasites and containing a thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR-1). These proteases are recognized as antigens during host infection and may prove useful as anthelminthic vaccines, however their molecular characteristics are under-studied. Here, we characterize the structural and proteolytic attributes of serine protease 2 (SmSP2) from Schistosoma mansoni, one of the major species responsible for the tropical infectious disease, schistosomiasis...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669386/the-essential-ectoenzyme-smnpp5-from-the-human-intravascular-parasite-schistosoma-mansoni-is-an-adpase-and-a-potent-inhibitor-of-platelet-aggregation
#4
Manal Elzoheiry, Akram A Da'dara, Armelle M deLaforcade, Samar N El-Beshbishi, Patrick J Skelly
Schistosomes are intravascular parasitic platyhelminthes infecting > 200 million people globally and causing a debilitating disease, schistosomiasis. Despite the relatively large size of the adult worms and their disruption of blood flow, surprisingly, they do not appear to provoke thrombus formation around them in vivo. We hypothesize that proteins expressed at the host-parasite interface are key to this ability. Here, we functionally express an ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase homologue, SmNPP5, that is expressed at the tegumental surface of intravascular Schistosoma mansoni ...
April 18, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668708/dectin-1-2-induced-autocrine-pge2-signaling-licenses-dendritic-cells-to-prime-th2-responses
#5
Maria M M Kaisar, Manuel Ritter, Carlos Del Fresno, Hulda S Jónasdóttir, Alwin J van der Ham, Leonard R Pelgrom, Gabriele Schramm, Laura E Layland, David Sancho, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Martin Giera, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Bart Everts
The molecular mechanisms through which dendritic cells (DCs) prime T helper 2 (Th2) responses, including those elicited by parasitic helminths, remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that soluble egg antigen (SEA) from Schistosoma mansoni, which is well known to drive potent Th2 responses, triggers DCs to produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which subsequently-in an autocrine manner-induces OX40 ligand (OX40L) expression to license these DCs to drive Th2 responses. Mechanistically, SEA was found to promote PGE2 synthesis through Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, and via a downstream signaling cascade involving spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2)...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667570/barcoding-hybrids-heterogeneous-distribution-of-schistosoma-haematobium-%C3%A3-schistosoma-bovis-hybrids-across-the-senegal-river-basin
#6
Nele A M Boon, Frederik VAN DEN Broeck, Djiby Faye, Filip A M Volckaert, Souleymane Mboup, Katja Polman, Tine Huyse
ABSTRACTHybridization events between Schistosoma species (Digenea, Platyhelminthes) are reported with increasing frequency, largely due to improved access to molecular tools. Nevertheless, little is known about the distribution and frequency of hybrid schistosomes in nature. Screening for hybrids on a large scale is complicated by the need for nuclear and mitochondrial sequence information, precluding a 'simple' barcoding approach. Here we aimed to determine and understand the spatiotemporal distribution of Schistosoma haematobium × Schistosoma bovis hybrids in the Senegal River Basin...
April 18, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664990/schistosomiasis-and-hydration-status-schistosoma-haematobium-but-not-schistosoma-mansoni-increases-urine-specific-gravity-among-rural-tanzanian-women
#7
Asher Y Rosinger, Sera L Young, Shalean M Collins, Syeda Razia Haider, Pallavi Mishra, Honest T Nagai, Mnyeshi Petro, Jennifer A Downs
OBJECTIVES: Schistosome infections can damage organs important for water homeostasis, especially the kidneys. Urogenital schistosomiasis (caused by Schistosoma haematobium) increases protein and blood in urine and intestinal schistosomiasis (caused by S. mansoni) affects total body water. However, no data exist on how different schistosome species affect urine specific gravity (USG), a hydration biomarker. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between S. haematobium- and S. mansoni-infected and uninfected women and USG in rural Tanzania...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663919/diagnosis-monitoring-and-control-of-schistosomiasis-an-update
#8
Yanqi Wu, Jiaqing Liu, Yifen Lin, Rennan Weng, Ran Chen, Jian Li, Zhiyue Lv
Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease of tropics and subtropics, which has been associated with illness and death of millions of people, especially children. Although, excessive use of anthelmintic drugs and improvement of sanitation procedures have been in practice, yet timely detection, and diagnosis of low-intensity infections, are of utmost importance for reducing morbidity and final elimination of the disease. The diagnosis methods, currently being used for schistosomiasis, have several limitations, hence warrant further investigations for development of novel detection methods with higher rapidity, reliability, and convenience...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662234/modular-assembly-of-proteins-on-nanoparticles
#9
Wenwei Ma, Angela Saccardo, Danilo Roccatano, Dorothy Aboagye-Mensah, Mohammad Alkaseem, Matthew Jewkes, Francesca Di Nezza, Mark Baron, Mikhail Soloviev, Enrico Ferrari
Generally, the high diversity of protein properties necessitates the development of unique nanoparticle bio-conjugation methods, optimized for each different protein. Here we describe a universal bio-conjugation approach which makes use of a new recombinant fusion protein combining two distinct domains. The N-terminal part is Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) from Schistosoma japonicum, for which we identify and characterize the remarkable ability to bind gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by forming gold-sulfur bonds (Au-S)...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661251/under-diagnosis-of-intestinal-schistosomiasis-in-a-referral-hospital-north-ethiopia
#10
Megbaru Alemu, Eyob Zigta, Awoke Derbie
OBJECTIVE: The present cross-sectional study was aimed at determining the magnitude of under diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis among patients requested for routine ova/parasite examination at Ayder referral hospital. RESULTS: A total of 280 stool samples were collected and only 5% of the patients were positive for ova of Schistosoma mansoni in the routine direct wet mount microscopy. On the other hand, 12.5% of the patients were positive for ova Schistosoma mansoni when the stool samples were processed by either Kato Kat or formol ether concentration techniques...
April 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655377/schistosomicidal-antifibrotic-and-antioxidant-effects-of-cucurbita-pepo-l-seed-oil-and-praziquantel-combined-treatment-for-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-a-mouse-model
#11
E V N Beshay, A A Rady, A F Afifi, A H Mohamed
Despite the seriousness of schistosomiasis, its treatment depends only on praziquantel (PZQ), which has begun to lose its efficacy against the emergent Schistosoma mansoni-resistant strains. Therefore, the discovery of a novel schistosomicidal drug is an urgent priority. This study was designed to evaluate treatment with Cucurbita pepo L. (pumpkin) seed oil (PSO) alone and combined with PZQ against S. mansoni in experimentally infected mice. The study involved five groups: GI was the normal control; GII was the infected control; GIII was treated with an oral dose of PZQ of 500 mg/kg/day for two successive days, starting in the sixth week post infection; GIV was treated with an oral dose of PSO of 50 mg/kg/day for four weeks, starting in the fourth week post infection; and GV was treated with combined PSO-PZQ...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649665/the-anti-fecundity-effect-of-5-azacytidine-5-azac-on-schistosoma-mansoni-is-linked-to-dis-regulated-transcription-translation-and-stem-cell-activities
#12
Kathrin K Geyer, Sabrina E Munshi, Martin Vickers, Michael Squance, Toby J Wilkinson, Daniel Berrar, Cristian Chaparro, Martin T Swain, Karl F Hoffmann
Uncontrolled host immunological reactions directed against tissue-trapped eggs precipitate a potentially lethal, pathological cascade responsible for schistosomiasis. Blocking schistosome egg production, therefore, presents a strategy for simultaneously reducing immunopathology as well as limiting disease transmission in endemic or emerging areas. We recently demonstrated that the ribonucleoside analogue 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) inhibited Schistosoma mansoni oviposition, egg maturation and ovarian development...
April 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649563/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-serine-protease-inhibitor-sjspi-from-schistosoma-japonicum
#13
Ying Zhang, Jin Guo, Li He, Hong-Ying Zong, Guo-Bin Cai
Serine proteinase inhibitor (Serpin, SPI) is a vital superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that monitor proteolytic events active in a number of biological functions. In this study, we isolated a full length gene encoding a novel serine protease inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum (SjSPI) and characterized its molecular properties. Our result showed that SjSPI contained an open reading frame of 1,218 bp, which encoded 405 amino acid residues. Chromosomal structure analysis showed that SjSPI gene was comprised of six exons separated by five introns...
April 9, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648939/reversal-of-schistosome-resistance-in-biomphalaria-glabrata-by-heat-shock-may-be-dependent-on-snail-genotype
#14
John Sullivan
Several genes have recently been shown to affect the innate resistance of laboratory strains of Biomphalaria glabrata to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, including Hsp90, expression of which following a brief exposure to elevated temperature can interfere with resistance in juvenile BS-90 snails. Because a prior study failed to see a similar effect in adult snails, juvenile BS-90 snails were exposed to 10 or 50 miracidia following a 4.5 to 6-hr incubation at 33 C or 37 C. Snails were then monitored for production of secondary sporocysts or release of cercariae...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644249/schistosomiasis-presenting-as-recurring-sigmoid-volvulus-in-a-danish-man-with-an-inconspicuous-travel-history-a-case-report
#15
Asger D Krog, Johanna M Axelsson, Anna-Louise R Bondgaard, Jørgen A Kurtzhals
A healthy 72-year-old Danish male presenting with recurring sigmoid volvulus was found to be infested with Schistosoma mansoni . No other explanation for recurring volvulus was found. A travel history 12 years ago, which included bathing in the Botswana Okavango delta for 10 minutes, revealed the likely time and place of infection. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of recurrent sigmoid volvulus and chronic intestinal schistosomiasis in a patient from a nonendemic area.
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642875/comparing-the-performance-of-circulating-cathodic-antigen-and-kato-katz-techniques-in-evaluating-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-areas-with-low-prevalence-in-selected-counties-of-kenya-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Collins Okoyo, Elses Simiyu, Sammy M Njenga, Charles Mwandawiro
BACKGROUND: Kato-Katz technique has been the mainstay test in Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in endemic areas. However, recent studies have documented its poor sensitivity in evaluating Schistosoma mansoni infection especially in areas with lower rates of transmission. It's the primary diagnostic tool in monitoring impact of the Kenya national school based deworming program on infection transmission, but there is need to consider a more sensitive technique as the prevalence reduces. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between results of the stool-based Kato-Katz technique with urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in view to inform decision-making by the program in changing from Kato-Katz to POC-CCA test...
April 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629689/seasonal-variations-in-schistosoma-haematobium-egg-excretion-in-school-age-girls-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa
#17
E E Christensen, M Taylor, S G Zulu, K Lillebo, S G Gundersen, S Holmen, E Kleppa, B J Vennervald, P D Ndhlovu, E F Kjetland
BACKGROUND: A predominant feature of Schistosoma haematobium infection is urinary egg excretion, and microscopic egg detection remains the accepted standard field diagnostic tool. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis, and the World Health Organization recommends that it should be administered to all children >4 years of age living in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. The frequency of mass drug administration depends on the prevalence rate in the community. Urinary schistosome egg output has a day-to-day and hour-to-hour intrasubject variation...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621583/a-review-of-the-traditional-use-of-southern-african-medicinal-plants-for-the-treatment-of-selected-parasite-infections-affecting-humans
#18
REVIEW
I E Cock, M I Selesho, S F van Vuuren
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Worldwide, more than three billion cases of parasitic disease are reported yearly and it is likely that this figure is substantially under-estimated. Approximately one in six people globally are estimated to be infected with at least one parasite species annually. In South Africa, the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium (bilharzia) and intestinal worms and helminths are particularly high, especially in children and in crowded or poorer rural communities with inadequate sanitation and nutritional status...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617630/insights-into-the-mode-of-action-of-1-2-6-7-tetraoxaspiro-7-11-nonadecane-n-89-against-adult-schistosoma-mansoni-worms
#19
Emmanuel Awusah Blay, Takashi Kumagai, Masafumi Yamabe, Akina Hino, Rieko Shimogawara, Hye-Sook Kim, Akira Sato, Koichiro Ichimura, Irene Ayi, Shiroh Iwanaga, Nobuo Ohta
Control of morbidity associated with schistosomiasis via chemotherapy largely relies on the drug praziquantel. Repeated therapy with praziquantel has created concerns about the possible selection of resistant worms and necessitated the search for novel drugs to treat schistosomiasis. Here, a murine model was infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with oral 1,2,6,7-tetraoxaspiro [7.11] nonadecane (N-89), which caused a significant reduction in fecundity and egg burden and reduced morbidity when administered at 5-weeks post-infection...
April 1, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616147/dynamics-of-paediatric-urogenital-schistosome-infection-morbidity-and-treatment-a-longitudinal-study-among-preschool-children-in-zimbabwe
#20
Derick Nii Mensah Osakunor, Takafira Mduluza, Nicholas Midzi, Margo Chase-Topping, Masceline Jenipher Mutsaka-Makuvaza, Theresa Chimponda, Enwono Eyoh, Tariro Mduluza, Lorraine Tsitsi Pfavayi, Welcome Mkululi Wami, Seth Appiah Amanfo, Janice Murray, Clement Tshuma, Mark Edward John Woolhouse, Francisca Mutapi
Background: Recent research has shown that in schistosome-endemic areas preschool-aged children (PSAC), that is, ≤5 years, are at risk of infection. However, there exists a knowledge gap on the dynamics of infection and morbidity in this age group. In this study, we determined the incidence and dynamics of the first urogenital schistosome infections, morbidity and treatment in PSAC. Methods: Children (6 months to 5 years) were recruited and followed up for 12 months...
2018: BMJ Global Health
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