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Xing He, Rui Tang, Yue Sun, Yan-Ge Wang, Kui-Yang Zhen, Dong-Mei Zhang, Wei-Qing Pan
Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by the parasite of the Schistosoma genus and is characterized by egg-induced hepatic granulomas and fibrosis. Macrophages play a central role in schistosomiasis with several studies highlighting their differentiation into M2 cells involved in the survival of infected mice through limitation of immunopathology. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms of regulating macrophage differentiation. Here, we showed that the early stage of infection by Schistosoma japonicum induced expression of type 1T-helper-cell (Th1) cytokine, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), leading to increase in M1 cells...
October 19, 2016: EBioMedicine
Fengguang Guo, Martin S Forde, Stephen R Werre, Rosina C Krecek, Guan Zhu
To date, published epidemiological studies of parasitic infections in humans in the Caribbean region are very limited. Here, we report the seroprevalence of five parasitic pathogens, including Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Schistosoma mansoni, and Toxocara canis in 435 serum samples collected between 2008 and 2011 from pregnant women in ten Caribbean islands. We tested the serum samples for IgG antibodies against the five parasites by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
Mitiku Bajiro, Daniel Dana, Mio Ayana, Daniel Emana, Zeleke Mekonnen, Belay Zawdie, Asfaw Garbi, Ashenafi Kure, Ahmed Zeynudin
BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical parasitic diseases caused by Schistosoma mansoni. Currently, the control measures for the disease are mainly based on mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel (PZQ) targeting the school-age children. In Ethiopia, the potential foci for schistosomiasis and therapeutic efficacy of PZQ among school-age children remain poorly explored. Therefore, we determined both the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection and the therapeutic efficacy of PZQ among school children in the Manna District (new foci for S...
October 24, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Masafumi Yamabe, Takashi Kumagai, Rieko Shimogawara, Emmanuel Awusah Blay, Akina Hino, Koichiro Ichimura, Akira Sato, Hye-Sook Kim, Nobuo Ohta
The new synthetic compound 1,2,6,7-tetraoxaspiro[7.11]nonadecan (N-89), a novel anti-malaria drug candidate, is also a promising drug candidate against schistosomiasis with killing effects against juvenile stage of S. mansoni. In order to investigate how N-89 kills schistosomes, we used a derivative of N-89, 6-(1,2,6,7-tetraoxaspiro[7.11] nonadec-4-yl)hexan-1-ol (N-251), which enables us to conjugate with fluorescent reagents. Firstly, N-251 showed strong killing effects to larvae of S. mansoni in vitro. Ultrastructural analysis showed the disruptions of the lysosome-like organelles or the acetabular glands, followed by cytoplasmic lysis inside the worm body in N-251-treated group under electron microscopy...
October 19, 2016: Parasitology International
Panat Anuracpreeda, Amaya Watthanadirek, Runglawan Chawengkirttikul, Prasert Sobhon
A number of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against the 16 kDa antigen of Paramphistomum gracile (16 kDaAgPg) were produced in vitro by hybridoma technique. Reactivity and specificity of these MoAbs were evaluated by ELISA and immunoblotting assays. Seven MoAb clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1D10, 2D7, 3B10, 3D9, 4F1, 4G4, and 5G12. It was found to be IgM and kappa light chain isotypes. By immunoblotting and ELISA, all MoAbs reacted with purified 16 kDaAgPg at molecular weight (MW) of 16 kDa and with the native 16 kDa antigen at MW of 16 kDa in the whole body (WB) and excretory-secretory (ES) fractions, but not with tegumental antigens (TA) of adult fluke...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I Bukrinsky, Paul J Brindley
Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
James J Cody, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, André N Miller, Lucie Henein, Margaret M Mentink-Kane, Michael H Hsieh
Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO)-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC) at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Margarida Ressurreição, Firat Elbeyioglu, Ruth S Kirk, David Rollinson, Aidan M Emery, Nigel M Page, Anthony J Walker
During infection of their human definitive host, schistosomes transform rapidly from free-swimming infective cercariae in freshwater to endoparasitic schistosomules. The 'somules' next migrate within the skin to access the vasculature and are surrounded by host molecules that might activate intracellular pathways that influence somule survival, development and/or behaviour. However, such 'transactivation' by host factors in schistosomes is not well defined. In the present study, we have characterized and functionally localized the dynamics of protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation during early somule development in vitro and demonstrate activation of these protein kinases by human epidermal growth factor, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, particularly at the parasite surface...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Séverine Erismann, Serge Diagbouga, Peter Odermatt, Astrid M Knoblauch, Jana Gerold, Akina Shrestha, Tarnagda Grissoum, Aminata Kaboré, Christian Schindler, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Unsafe drinking water, unimproved sanitation and lack of hygiene pose health risks, particularly to children in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children in two regions of Burkina Faso. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in February 2015 with 385 children aged 8-14 years from eight randomly selected schools in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso...
October 18, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Thiago Almeida Pereira, Wing-Kin Syn, Frederico Figueiredo Amâncio, Pedro Henrique Diniz Cunha, Julia Fonseca Morais Caporali, Guilherme Vaz de Melo Trindade, Elisângela Trindade Santos, Márcia Maria Souza, Zilton Araújo Andrade, Rafal P Witek, William Evan Secor, Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira, José Roberto Lambertucci, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic acute schistosomiasis mansoni is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction against the migrating schistosomula and mature eggs after a primary infection. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of acute schistosomiasis are not fully elucidated. Osteopontin has been implicated in granulomatous reactions and in acute hepatic injury. Our aims were to evaluate if osteopontin plays a role in acute Schistosoma mansoni infection in both human and experimentally infected mice and if circulating OPN levels could be a novel biomarker of this infection...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
David U Olveda, Marianette Inobaya, Donald P McManus, Remigio M Olveda, Marilyn L Vinluan, Shu-Kay Ng, Donald A Harn, Yuesheng Li, Jerric R Guevarra, Alfred K Lam, Allen G P Ross
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of annual versus biennial praziquantel treatment regimens on the prevalence, intensity of infection, and liver fibrosis dynamics of Asiatic schistosomiasis (caused by Schistosoma japonicum) among individuals residing in 18 endemic barangays in Northern Samar, Philippines. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty-five subjects who reported symptoms of gastrointestinal illness and/or were believed to have clinical morbidity based on physical examination were selected for cohort follow-up...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Soad Nady, Mohamed Tarek M Shata, Mohammad A Mohey, Ayatollah El-Shorbagy
The role of T helper-17 (Th17) lymphocytes in the regulation of Schistosoma mansoni Soluble Egg Ags (SEA)-induced granuloma is unknown. The present study examined the effect of Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-22) on granulocytes recruitment and functions during SEA-induced granuloma formation in vitro in Schistosoma-infected and non-infected individuals. Granulocytes were isolated from 27 Schistosoma-infected patients and 13 controls and were used for granuloma induction using SEA-conjugated polyacrylamide beads in the presence of Th17 cytokines...
October 14, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Xing-Quan Wang, Feng-Peng Wang, Wei Chen, Jun Huang, Kateryna Bazaka, Kostya Ken Ostrikov
Schistosoma japonicum is a widespread human and animal parasite that causes intestinal and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis linked to colon, liver and bladder cancers, and anemia. Estimated 230 million people are currently infected with Schistosoma spp, with 779 million people at risk of contracting the parasite. Infection occurs when a host comes into contact with cercariae, a planktonic larval stage of the parasite, and can be prevented by inactivating the larvae, commonly by chemical treatment. We investigated the use of physical non-equilibrium plasma generated at atmospheric pressure using custom-made dielectric barrier discharge reactor to kill S...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Julie N R Collins, James J Collins
Schistosomes are flatworm parasites that claim the lives of more than 200,000 people in poverty-stricken regions every year. Much of the pathology due to infection is the direct result of injury spurred by the parasite's eggs becoming lodged in host tissues. Thus, asking basic questions about germ cell biology may not only identify novel therapeutic approaches, but could also uncover conserved mechanisms that regulate the germline in diverse metazoa. Here, we detail useful methods for studying the schistosome germline including EdU labeling, whole-mount in situ hybridization, and RNA interference...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yuzheng Huang, Wei Li, Wuguang Lu, Chunrong Xiong, Yang Yang, Huaijiang Yan, Kun Connie Liu, Peng Cao
As one of the three major human pathogens that cause schistosomiasis, Schistosoma japonicum is the only one that is endemic in China. Despite great progress on schistosomiasis control over the past 50 years in China, S. japonicum transmission still occurs in certain endemic regions, which causes significant public health problems and enormous economic losses. During different life stages, parasites are able to survive dramatic osmolality changes between its vector, fresh water, and mammal host. However, the molecular mechanism of parasite osmoregulation remains unknown...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Arminder Deol, Joanne P Webster, Martin Walker, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Fiona M Fleming, Antonio Montresor, Michael D French
BACKGROUND: Understanding whether schistosomiasis control programmes are on course to control morbidity and potentially switch towards elimination interventions would benefit from user-friendly quantitative tools that facilitate analysis of progress and highlight areas not responding to treatment. This study aimed to develop and evaluate such a tool using large datasets collected during Schistosomiasis Control Initiative-supported control programmes. METHODS: A discrete-time Markov model was developed using transition probability matrices parameterized with control programme longitudinal data on Schistosoma mansoni obtained from Uganda and Mali...
October 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Hong Zhu, Shun-Xiang Cai, Jian-Bing Liu, Zu-Wu Tu, Jing Xia, Xiao-Wei Shan, Juan Qiu, Yong Jiang, Ying Xiao, Li Tang, Xi-Bao Huang
BACKGROUND: The province of Hubei is located in the middle of China, near the middle and lower reaches of the River Yangtze, and is an area where schistosomiasis is endemic. It is challenging to control this disease in this environment, and it would be useful to identify clusters of infection and transmission, as well as their distributions during recent years. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis in Hubei, in order to facilitate the effective control and elimination of this disease...
October 4, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Adane Derso, Endalkachew Nibret, Abaineh Munshea
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women...
September 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kensuke Nakatani, Takaharu Kato, Shinichiro Okada, Risa Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Nishida, Hiroyasu Komuro, Maki Iida, Shiro Tsujimoto, Toshiyuki Suganuma
Some reports suggest the positive correlation between Schistosoma japonicum infection and colorectal cancer, however the sufficient evidence that supports a causal relationship between them has not been established. Japan used be an endemic area of S. japonicum infection for 40 years ago. But now all of Japan is a non-endemic area of S. japonicum infection. We report a case of ascending colon cancer associated with deposited ova of S. japonicum in non-endemic area.
2016: IDCases
Anna Leonidova, Mireille Vargas, Jörg Huwyler, Jennifer Keiser
One of the major neglected tropical diseases, schistosomiasis, is currently treated and controlled with a single drug, praziquantel. The quest for an alternative drug is fueled by its lack of activity against juvenile Schistosoma and the fear of emerging resistance. The synthetic ozonide OZ418 has shown high activity against Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum in vivo, but its drug disposition remains unknown. To bridge this gap, our study determined the basic pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of a single oral dose (400 mg/kg) of OZ418 in uninfected mice...
October 3, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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