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Tyler Morhart, Stuart Read, Garth Wells, Michael Jacobs, Scott Rosendahl, Sven Achenbach, Ian James Burgess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Nathan Worts, Michael Young, Jeff Field, Randy Bartels, Jason Jones, Jeff Squier
Spatial frequency modulated imaging (SPIFI) is a powerful imaging method that when used in conjunction with multiphoton contrast mechanisms has the potential to improve the spatial and temporal scales that can be explored within a single nonlinear optical microscope platform. Here we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that it is possible to fabricate inexpensive masks using femtosecond laser micromachining that can be readily deployed within the multiphoton microscope architecture to transform the system from a traditional point-scanning system to SPIFI and gain the inherent advantages that follow...
June 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Yuxiong Xue, Yusong Wang, Sichao Zhou, Hongwei Chen, Guanghao Rui, Bing Gu, Qiwen Zhan
Generation of vectorial optical fields with arbitrary polarization distribution is of great interest in plenty of applications. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the generation of a second-order full Poincaré (FP) beam and its application in two-dimensional (2D) flattop beam shaping with spatially variant polarization under a high numerical aperture focusing condition. In addition, the force mechanism of the focal field with 2D flattop beam profile is numerically studied, demonstrating the feasibility to trap a dielectric Rayleigh particle in three-dimensional space...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Pan Zhang, Hangzhou Yang, Kok-Sing Lim, Harith Ahmad, Qiangzhou Rong, Qin Tian, Xiangzi Ding
An in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for relative humidity (RH) and temperature measurements. The MZI is formed by a grapefruit-shaped photonic crystal fiber (G-PCF) cascaded with a short section of multimode fiber that serves as a mode coupler. To enhance sensitivity to humidity, femtosecond laser micromachining was performed to remove a portion of cladding of the G-PCF to expose its core to the ambient medium. The output interference spectrum is fast Fourier transformed to produce a spatial frequency spectrum that describes the intensity composition of the cladding modes in the MZI...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Luis A Velosa-Moncada, Luz Antonio Aguilera-Cortés, Max A González-Palacios, Jean-Pierre Raskin, Agustin L Herrera-May
Primary tumors of patients can release circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to flow inside of their blood. The CTCs have different mechanical properties in comparison with red and white blood cells, and their detection may be employed to study the efficiency of medical treatments against cancer. We present the design of a novel MEMS microgripper with rotatory electrostatic comb-drive actuators for mechanical properties characterization of cells. The microgripper has a compact structural configuration of four polysilicon layers and a simple performance that control the opening and closing displacements of the microgripper tips...
May 22, 2018: Sensors
Amirabbas Pirouz, F Levent Degertekin
This paper reports an improved CMOS compatible low temperature sacrificial layer fabrication process for Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs). The process adds the fabrication step of silicon oxide evaporation which is followed by a lift-off step to define the membrane support area without a need for an extra mask. This simple addition improves reliability by reducing the electric field between the top and bottom electrodes everywhere except the moving membrane without affecting the vacuum gap thickness...
August 2018: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering: Structures, Devices, and Systems
José A Rodrigo, Tatiana Alieva
A scalar polymorphic beam is designed with independent control of its intensity and phase along a strongly focused laser curve of arbitrary shape. This kind of beam has been found crucial in the creation of freestyle laser traps able to confine and drive the motion of micro/nano-particles along reconfigurable 3D trajectories in real time. Here, we present and experimentally prove the concept of vector polymorphic beam adding the benefit of independent design of the light polarization along arbitrary curves...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Srinivas Hanasoge, Peter J Hesketh, Alexander Alexeev
Organisms use hair-like cilia that beat in a metachronal fashion to actively transport fluid and suspended particles. Metachronal motion emerges due to a phase difference between beating cycles of neighboring cilia and appears as traveling waves propagating along ciliary carpet. In this work, we demonstrate biomimetic artificial cilia capable of metachronal motion. The cilia are micromachined magnetic thin filaments attached at one end to a substrate and actuated by a uniform rotating magnetic field. We show that the difference in magnetic cilium length controls the phase of the beating motion...
May 8, 2018: Soft Matter
Kailiang Chen, Byung Chul Lee, Kai E Thomenius, Butrus T Khuri-Yakub, Hae-Seung Lee, Charles G Sodini
We propose a column-row-parallel imaging front-end architecture for integrated and low-power 3-D medical ultrasound imaging. The column-row-parallel architecture offers linear-scaling interconnection, acquisition, and programming time with row-by-row or column-by-column operations, while supporting volumetric imaging functionality and fault-tolerance against possible transducer element defects with per-element controls. The combination of column-parallel selection logic, row-parallel selection logic, and per-element selection logic reaches a balance between flexible imaging aperture definition and manageable imaging data/control interface to a 2-D array...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Tom Bolze, Patrick Nuernberger
Femtosecond vortex beams with adjustable temporal pulse shapes are generated. These shaped laser pulses are characterized in the spectral domain by determination of the spectral amplitude and phase as well as in the spatial domain by expansion of the beam profile in a superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian transversal laser modes. The experiments demonstrate that the temporal pulse shapes impressed with a pulse shaper based on a programmable liquid-crystal spatial light modulator are basically unaltered by subsequent transmission through a spiral phase plate, while a high-quality optical vortex is imposed...
May 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Carlos Matellan, Armando E Del Río Hernández
The difficulty in translating conventional microfluidics from laboratory prototypes to commercial products has shifted research efforts towards thermoplastic materials for their higher translational potential and amenability to industrial manufacturing. Here, we present an accessible method to fabricate and assemble polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic devices in a "mask-less" and cost-effective manner that can be applied to manufacture a wide range of designs due to its versatility. Laser micromachining offers high flexibility in channel dimensions and morphology by controlling the laser properties, while our two-step surface treatment based on exposure to acetone vapour and low-temperature annealing enables improvement of the surface quality without deformation of the device...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dong Huang, Deyao Zhao, Xiaoxia Wang, Chunhui Li, Tongren Yang, Lili Du, Zewen Wei, Qiang Cheng, Huiqing Cao, Zicai Liang, Yuanyu Huang, Zhihong Li
Rationale: Delivery of nucleic acid molecules into skin remains a main obstacle for various types of gene therapy or vaccine applications. Here we propose a novel electroporation approach via combined use of a microneedle roller and a flexible interdigitated electroporation array (FIEA) for efficient delivery of DNA and siRNA into mouse skin. Methods: Using micromachining technology, closely spaced gold electrodes were made on a pliable parylene substrate to form a patch-like electroporation array, which enabled close surface contact between the skin and electrodes...
2018: Theranostics
Walter Fu, Logan G Wright, Pavel Sidorenko, Sterling Backus, Frank W Wise
Ultrafast fiber lasers have the potential to make applications of ultrashort pulses widespread - techniques not only for scientists, but also for doctors, manufacturing engineers, and more. Today, this potential is only realized in refractive surgery and some femtosecond micromachining. The existing market for ultrafast lasers remains dominated by solid-state lasers, primarily Ti:sapphire, due to their superior performance. Recent advances show routes to ultrafast fiber sources that provide performance and capabilities equal to, and in some cases beyond, those of Ti:sapphire, in compact, versatile, low-cost devices...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Alexis Courbet, Patrick Amar, François Fages, Eric Renard, Franck Molina
Biological systems have evolved efficient sensing and decision-making mechanisms to maximize fitness in changing molecular environments. Synthetic biologists have exploited these capabilities to engineer control on information and energy processing in living cells. While engineered organisms pose important technological and ethical challenges, de novo assembly of non-living biomolecular devices could offer promising avenues toward various real-world applications. However, assembling biochemical parts into functional information processing systems has remained challenging due to extensive multidimensional parameter spaces that must be sampled comprehensively in order to identify robust, specification compliant molecular implementations...
April 26, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
Ralf Riedinger, Andreas Wallucks, Igor Marinković, Clemens Löschnauer, Markus Aspelmeyer, Sungkun Hong, Simon Gröblacher
Entanglement, an essential feature of quantum theory that allows for inseparable quantum correlations to be shared between distant parties, is a crucial resource for quantum networks 1 . Of particular importance is the ability to distribute entanglement between remote objects that can also serve as quantum memories. This has been previously realized using systems such as warm2,3 and cold atomic vapours4,5 , individual atoms 6 and ions7,8 , and defects in solid-state systems9-11 . Practical communication applications require a combination of several advantageous features, such as a particular operating wavelength, high bandwidth and long memory lifetimes...
April 2018: Nature
Chang Liu, Chenyang Xue, Binzhen Zhang, Guojun Zhang, Changde He
Currently, breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women all over the world. A novel 3D breast ultrasound imaging ring system using the linear array transducer is proposed to decrease costs, reduce processing difficulties, and improve patient comfort as compared to modern day breast screening systems. The 1 × 128 Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (PMUT) linear array is placed 90 degrees cross-vertically. The transducer surrounds the mammary gland, which allows for non-contact detection...
April 25, 2018: Sensors
Gayatri P Gautam, Tobias Burger, Andrew Wilcox, Michael J Cumbo, Steven W Graves, Menake E Piyasena
We introduce a new method to construct microfluidic devices especially useful for bulk acoustic wave (BAW)-based manipulation of cells and microparticles. To obtain efficient acoustic focusing, BAW devices require materials that have high acoustic impedance mismatch relative to the medium in which the cells/microparticles are suspended and materials with a high-quality factor. To date, silicon and glass have been the materials of choice for BAW-based acoustofluidic channel fabrication. Silicon- and glass-based fabrication is typically performed in clean room facilities, generates hazardous waste, and can take several hours to complete the microfabrication...
May 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Somasekhar R Chinnadayyala, Ilhwan Park, Sungbo Cho
The authors report on a microneedle-based amperometric nonenzymatic glucose sensor for painless and continuous monitoring of glucose. It consists of 3 × 5 sharp stainless steel microneedles micromachined from a stainless steel substrate. The microneedles are 600 and 100 μm in height and width, respectively. Nafion and platinum black were sequentially coated onto the tip of gold-coated microneedles and used for nonenzymatic (direct) sensing of glucose. Attractive features of the modified microneedle electrode include (a) a low working potential (+0...
April 7, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
David Moore, Ravi F Saraf
Microcontact printing (μCP) is a valuable technique used to fabricate complex patterns on surfaces for applications such as sensors, cell seeding, self-assembled monolayers of proteins and nanoparticles, and micromachining. The process is very precise but is typically confined to depositing a single type of ink per print, which limits the complexity of using multifunctionality patterns. Here we describe a process by which two inks are printed concomitantly in a single operation to create an alternating pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics...
April 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tigran Baghdasaryan, Thomas Geernaert, Karima Chah, Christophe Caucheteur, Kay Schuster, Jens Kobelke, Hugo Thienpont, Francis Berghmans
It is common belief that photonic crystals behave similarly to isotropic and transparent media only when their feature sizes are much smaller than the wavelength of light. Here, we counter that belief and we report on photonic crystals that are transparent for anomalously high normalized frequencies up to 0.9, where the crystal's feature sizes are comparable with the free space wavelength. Using traditional photonic band theory, we demonstrate that the isofrequency curves can be circular in the region above the first stop band for triangular lattice photonic crystals...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
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