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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634521/a-review-of-echocardiograms-in-hypertensive-patients-greater-than-60-years-in-a-community-based-family-medicine-program
#1
Shideh Doroudi, Michael D DeLisi, Vincent A DeBari
Background: Heart disease as a result of Hypertension is known to occur. Anatomical and functional changes of the heart can easily be detected by echocardiography, which is a safe and readily available study. Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of common echocardiographic changes in chronic hypertensive patients and to compare these changes in male and female populations. Design/methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study, on 227 hypertensive patients, 60 years and older, seen in St...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634514/cystic-lesions-of-peripheral-nerves-are-we-missing-the-diagnosis-of-the-intraneural-ganglion-cyst
#2
Jyoti Panwar, Anil Mathew, Binu P Thomas
AIM: To highlight the salient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the intraneural ganglion cyst (INGC) of various peripheral nerves for their precise diagnosis and to differentiate them from other intra and extra-neural cystic lesions. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the magnetic resonance (MR) images of a cohort of 245 patients presenting with nerve palsy involving different peripheral nerves was done. MR images were analyzed for the presence of a nerve lesion, and if found, it was further characterized as solid or cystic...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634268/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-60-years-of-research-and-development
#3
REVIEW
Peter Kolkhof, Lars Bärfacker
The cDNA of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was cloned 30 years ago, in 1987. At that time, spirolactone, the first generation of synthetic steroid-based MR antagonists (MRAs), which was identified in preclinical in vivo models, had already been in clinical use for 30 years. Subsequent decades of research and development by Searle & Co., Ciba-Geigy, Roussel Uclaf and Schering AG toward identifying a second generation of much more specific steroidal MRAs were all based on the initial 17-spirolactone construct...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634267/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-role-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-the-vasculature
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
Since the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was cloned 30 years ago, it has become clear that MR is expressed in extra-renal tissues, including the cardiovascular system, where it is expressed in all cells of the vasculature. Understanding the role of MR in the vasculature has been of particular interest as clinical trials show that MR antagonism improves cardiovascular outcomes out of proportion to changes in blood pressure. The last 30 years of research have demonstrated that MR is a functional hormone-activated transcription factor in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#5
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634265/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-coregulators-as-mediators-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-signalling-diversity
#6
REVIEW
Peter J Fuller, Jun Yang, Morag J Young
The cloning of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) 30 years ago was the start of a new era of research into the regulatory processes of MR signalling at target genes in the distal nephron, and subsequently in many other tissues. Nuclear receptor (NR) signalling is modified by interactions with coregulatory proteins that serve to enhance or inhibit the gene transcriptional responses. Over 400 coregulatory proteins have been described for the NR super family, many with functional roles in signalling, cellular function, physiology and pathophysiology...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634148/iodine-and-freeze-drying-enhanced-high-resolution-microct-imaging-for-reconstructing-3d-intraneural-topography-of-human-peripheral-nerve-fascicles
#7
Liwei Yan, Yongze Guo, Jian Qi, Qingtang Zhu, Liqiang Gu, Canbin Zheng, Tao Lin, Yutong Yu, Zitao Zeng, Sha Yu, Shuang Zhu, Xiang Zhou, Xi Zhang, Yunfei Du, Zhi Yao, Yao Lu, Xiaolin Liu
BACKGROUND: The precise annotation and accurate identification of the topography of fascicles to the end organs are prerequisites for studying human peripheral nerves. NEW METHOD: In this study, we present a feasible imaging method that acquires 3D high-resolution (HR) topography of peripheral nerve fascicles using an iodine and freeze-drying (IFD) micro-computed tomography (microCT) method to greatly increase the contrast of fascicle images. RESULTS: The enhanced microCT imaging method can facilitate the reconstruction of high-contrast HR fascicle images, fascicle segmentation and extraction, feature analysis, and the tracing of fascicle topography to end organs, which define fascicle functions...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634084/drug-delivery-to-melanoma-brain-metastases-can-current-challenges-lead-to-new-opportunities
#8
Gautham Gampa, Shruthi Vaidhyanathan, Jann N Sarkaria, William F Elmquist
Melanoma has a high propensity to metastasize to the brain, and patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBM) have an extremely poor prognosis. The recent approval of several molecularly-targeted agents (e.g., BRAF, MEK inhibitors) and biologics (anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies) has brought new hope to patients suffering from this formerly untreatable and lethal disease. Importantly, there have been recent reports of success in some clinical studies examining the efficacy of both targeted agents and immunotherapies that show similar response rates in both brain metastases and extracranial disease...
June 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633971/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-depicts-brain-activity-in-models-of-acute-and-chronic-pain-a-new-window-to-study-experimental-spontaneous-pain
#9
I M Devonshire, J J Burston, L Xu, A Lillywhite, M J Prior, D J G Watson, C M Greenspon, S J Iwabuchi, D P Auer, V Chapman
Application of functional imaging techniques to animal models is vital to understand pain mechanisms, but is often confounded by the need to limit movement artefacts with anaesthesia, and a focus on evoked responses rather than clinically relevant spontaneous pain and related hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to measure neural responses during on-going pain that underpins hyperalgesia in pre-clinical models of nociception...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633957/displacement-patterns-of-stranded-i-125-seeds-after-permanent-brachytherapy-of-the-prostate-dosimetry-in-the-operating-room-put-into-perspective
#10
Marcel J Steggerda, Ferrie van den Boom, Thelma Witteveen, Luc M F Moonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The reliability of post-implant dosimetry in the OR depends on the geometrical variability of implant and anatomy after the procedure. The purpose was to gain detailed information on seed displacement patterns in different sectors of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 33 patients with stranded seed implants the seed geometry and the dose distribution were compared between the situation in the OR just after the procedure, based on ultrasound images, and the situation after 1month, based on registered CT and MR images...
June 17, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633808/impact-of-mr-guided-boiling-histotripsy-in-distinct-murine-tumor-models
#11
Martijn Hoogenboom, Dylan C Eikelenboom, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Arend Heerschap, Pieter Wesseling, Martijn H den Brok, Jurgen J Fütterer, Gosse J Adema
Interest in mechanical high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is rapidly growing. Boiling histotripsy (BH) is applied for mechanical fragmentation of soft tissue into submicron fragments with limited temperature increase using the shock wave and cavitation effects of HIFU. Research on BH has been largely limited to ex vivo experiments. As a consequence, the in vivo pathology after BH treatment and the relation to preexistent tissue characteristics are not well understood. This study reports on in vivo MR guided BH treatment, either with 100 or 200 pulses per focal spot, in three different subcutaneous mouse tumor models: a soft-tissue melanoma (B16OVA), a compact growing thymoma (EL4), and a highly vascularized neuroblastoma (9464D)...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633143/tumor-associated-macrophages-in-the-development-of-4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Kentaro Miki, Yorihisa Orita, Yuka Gion, Soshi Takao, Kyotaro Ohno, Mai Takeuchi, Toshihiro Ito, Akira Minoura, Tomoyasu Tachibana, Hidenori Marunaka, Takuma Makino, Akihiro Matsukawa, Kazunori Nishizaki, Tadashi Yoshino, Yasuharu Sato
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the distribution of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the development of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to elucidate the role of TAMs in the progression of tongue SCC. METHODS: The expression of the macrophage markers nitric oxide synthase, Retnla, and mannose receptor 1 in the development of tongue SCC was longitudinally observed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, an immunohistochemical study using an anti-mannose receptor (MR) antibody was performed...
June 21, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633109/endothelial-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-arterial-neointima-formation-associated-with-acid-sphingomyelinase-during-hypercholesterolemia
#13
Saisudha Koka, Min Xia, Yang Chen, Owais M Bhat, Xinxu Yuan, Krishna M Boini, Pin-Lan Li
The NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported to be activated by atherogenic factors, whereby endothelial injury and consequent atherosclerotic lesions are triggered in the arterial wall. However, the mechanisms activating and regulating NLRP3 inflammasomes remain poorly understood. The present study tested whether acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and ceramide associated membrane raft (MR) signaling platforms contribute to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and atherosclerotic lesions during hypercholesterolemia. We found that 7-ketocholesterol (7-Keto) or cholesterol crystal (ChC) markedly increased the formation and activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes in mouse carotid arterial endothelial cells (CAECs), as shown by increased colocalization of NLRP3 with ASC or caspase-1, enhanced caspase-1 activity and elevated IL-1β levels, which were markedly attenuated by mouse Asm siRNA, ASM inhibitor- amitriptyline, and deletion of mouse Asm gene...
June 15, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632786/diagnostic-accuracy-of-magnetic-resonance-computed-tomography-and-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-radiological-multimodality-assessment-of-peribiliary-liver-metastases
#14
Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Orlando Catalano, Antonio Avallone, Raffaele Palaia, Gerardo Botti, Fabiana Tatangelo, Francesco Granata, Marco Cascella, Francesco Izzo, Antonella Petrillo
PURPOSE: We compared diagnostic performance of Magnetic Resonance (MR), Computed Tomography (CT) and Ultrasound (US) with (CEUS) and without contrast medium to identify peribiliary metastasis. METHODS: We identified 35 subjects with histological proven peribiliary metastases who underwent CEUS, CT and MR study. Four radiologists evaluated the presence of peribiliary lesions, using a 4-point confidence scale. Echogenicity, density and T1-Weigthed (T1-W), T2-W and Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) signal intensity as well as the enhancement pattern during contrast studies on CEUS, CT and MR so as hepatobiliary-phase on MRI was assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632492/is-the-location-of-the-signal-intensity-weighted-centroid-a-reliable-measurement-of-fluid-displacement-within-the-disc
#15
Vahid Abdollah, Eric C Parent, Michele C Battié
Degenerated discs have shorter T2-relaxation time and lower MR signal. The location of the signal-intensity-weighted-centroid reflects the water distribution within a region-of-interest (ROI). This study compared the reliability of the location of the signal-intensity-weighted-centroid to mean signal intensity and area measurements. L4-L5 and L5-S1 discs were measured on 43 mid-sagittal T2-weighted 3T MRI images in adults with back pain. One rater analysed images twice and another once, blinded to measurements...
June 20, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632404/medial-and-lateral-rectus-muscle-insertion-distance-and-width-in-esotropia-and-exotropia-patients
#16
Leyla Niyaz, Ozlem Eski Yucel, Adem Gul
PURPOSE: The hypothesis that the extraocular muscle insertion distance and muscle width may be associated with the type and size of deviation was tested. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 129 patients who had surgery for horizontal strabismus or retinal detachment. The insertion distances and widths of the medial rectus (MR) and lateral rectus (LR) muscles were measured intraoperatively in esotropia, exotropia, and buckling surgery (control group) patients...
June 20, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632031/mr-imaging-of-the-anterior-visual-pathway-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-correlation-with-octopus-101-perimetry-and-spectralis-optical-coherence-tomography-findings
#17
Mehmet Giray Ersoz, Yeliz Pekcevik, Emre Ayintap, İrfan Botan Gunes, Duygu Kunak Mart, Ersin Yucel, Gamze Türe
PURPOSE: To investigate structural changes in the visual pathway measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its relationship with the clinical severity of glaucoma in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 28 patients with POAG and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. All the subjects underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the peripapillary retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL). The optic nerve diameter (OND), chiasma height (Ch), and lateral geniculate nucleus height (LGNh) were measured bilaterally using a 1...
February 28, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631853/high-sensitivity-mr-acoustic-radiation-force-imaging-using-transition-band-balanced-steady-state-free-precession
#18
Yuan Zheng, Michael Marx, G Wilson Miller, Kim Butts Pauly
PURPOSE: MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) provides a method to visualize the focal spot of a focused ultrasound (FUS) beam without introducing a significant temperature rise. With conventional spoiled MR-ARFI pulse sequences, the ARFI phase always equals the motion-encoded phase. In this work, MR-ARFI using transition band balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) is presented, which improves the sensitivity of MR-ARFI with high acquisition speed. THEORY AND METHODS: Motion-encoding gradients (MEG) are inserted into bSSFP sequences for MR-ARFI...
June 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631523/the-association-among-prematurity-cochlear-hyperintensity-and-hearing-loss
#19
Michael A Wien, Matthew T Whitehead
Background Prematurity is a major risk factor for neonatal hearing loss. Recent advancements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have made it possible to evaluate structural details of the membranous labyrinths in premature infants that have heretofore been inaccessible. Objective We compared the prevalence of abnormal cochlear signal intensity in premature and term neonates and evaluated for a potential link with hearing loss. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed 148 consecutive MR exams performed in premature (< 37 weeks' gestation) and term neonates performed over a 30-month period...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631160/role-of-imaging-in-the-follow-up-of-t2-t3-glottic-cancer-treated-by-transoral-laser-microsurgery
#20
Filippo Marchi, Cesare Piazza, Marco Ravanelli, Giovanna Gaggero, Giampiero Parrinello, Alberto Paderno, Pietro Perotti, Marta Filauro, Roberto Maroldi, Giorgio Peretti
An unblinded retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was carried out on 138 patients affected by glottic pT2 and selected pT3 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) treated by transoral laser microsurgery (TLM). The entire cohort was divided into two groups: Group A included 78 "high-risk" patients (pT2 with impaired vocal cord mobility, pT3 for anterior paraglottic and/or pre-epiglottic space invasion, presence of angioembolization, perineural spread, and positive lymph nodes in the neck) who underwent postoperative surveillance by endoscopy and imaging (CT or MR), while Group B included 60 "low-risk" patients (pT2 with absence of the above-mentioned features) who underwent endoscopic follow-up alone...
June 19, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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