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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471562/can-elastography-differentiate-isolated-fatty-liver-from-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
Veeral Ajmera, Rohit Loomba
Ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR)-based elastography have demonstrated excellent performance for noninvasive staging of fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, their ability to differentiate isolated fatty liver from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unclear. In this review, the authors provide background on elastography and review the ability of elastography to discriminate between isolated steatosis and NASH. Studies with available data on the diagnosis of NASH histology are limited to vibration-controlled transient elastography and MR elastography...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471357/obese-hypertensive-men-have-lower-circulating-proatrial-natriuretic-peptide-concentrations-despite-greater-left-atrial-size
#2
Camilla L Asferg, Ulrik B Andersen, Allan Linneberg, Jens P Goetze, Jørgen L Jeppesen
Background: Obese persons have lower circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations. It has been proposed that this natriuretic handicap plays a role in obesity-related hypertension. In contrast, hypertensive patients with left atrial enlargement have higher circulating NP concentrations. On this background, we investigated whether obese hypertensive men could have lower circulating NP concentrations despite evidence of pressure-induced greater left atrial size. Methods: We examined 98 obese men (body mass index (BMI) ≥30...
February 17, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471172/enhancing-glioblastoma-treatment-using-cisplatin-gold-nanoparticle-conjugates-and-targeted-delivery-with-magnetic-resonance-guided-focused-ultrasound
#3
Daniel Coluccia, Carlyn A Figueiredo, Megan YiJun Wu, Alexandra N Riemenschneider, Roberto Diaz, Amanda Luck, Christian Smith, Sunit Das, Cameron Ackerley, Meaghan O'Reilly, Kullervo Hynynen, James T Rutka
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A strategy to increase the efficacy of available drugs and enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutics through the blood brain barrier (BBB) is desperately needed. We investigated the potential of Cisplatin conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNP-UP-Cis) in combination with MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) to intensify GBM treatment. Viability assays demonstrated that GNP-UP-Cis greatly inhibits the growth of GBM cells compared to free cisplatin and shows marked synergy with radiation therapy...
February 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470939/free-breathing-pulmonary-mr-imaging-to-quantify-regional-ventilation
#4
Dante P I Capaldi, Rachel L Eddy, Sarah Svenningsen, Fumin Guo, John S H Baxter, A Jonathan McLeod, Parameswaran Nair, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
Purpose To measure regional specific ventilation with free-breathing hydrogen 1 (1 H) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging without exogenous contrast material and to investigate correlations with hyperpolarized helium 3 (3 He) MR imaging and pulmonary function test measurements in healthy volunteers and patients with asthma. Materials and Methods Subjects underwent free-breathing1 H and static breath-hold hyperpolarized3 He MR imaging as well as spirometry and plethysmography; participants were consecutively recruited between January and June 2017...
February 22, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470938/diagnostic-performance-of-mr-elastography-for-liver-fibrosis-in-children-and-young-adults-with-a-spectrum-of-liver-diseases
#5
Andrew T Trout, Rachel M Sheridan, Suraj D Serai, Stavra A Xanthakos, Weizhe Su, Bin Zhang, Daniel B Wallihan
Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography-derived liver stiffness to detect liver fibrosis in a pediatric and young adult population with a spectrum of liver diseases. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included patients younger than 21 years of age who underwent MR elastography and liver biopsy within 3 months of one another between January 2012 and September 2016 for indications other than liver transplantation or Fontan palliation of congenital heart disease...
February 22, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470640/quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-in-combination-with-water-fat-separation-for-simultaneous-liver-iron-and-fat-fraction-quantification
#6
Huimin Lin, Hongjiang Wei, Naying He, Caixia Fu, Shu Cheng, Jun Shen, Baisong Wang, Xu Yan, Chunlei Liu, Fuhua Yan
PURPOSES: To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous quantification of liver iron concentration (LIC) and fat fraction (FF) using water-fat separation and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). METHODS: Forty-five patients suspected of liver iron overload (LIO) were included. A volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence for QSM and FF, a fat-saturated gradient echo sequence for R2 * , a spin echo sequence for LIC measurements and MRS analyses for FF (FF-MRS) were performed...
February 22, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470596/mental-health-burden-in-a-national-sample-of-american-indian-and-alaska-native-adults-differences-between-multiple-race-and-single-race-subgroups
#7
Nancy L Asdigian, Ursula Running Bear, Janette Beals, Spero M Manson, Carol E Kaufman
PURPOSE: Research on American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) mental health disparities is based largely on either tribal populations or national samples of adults that do not account for multiracial AIANs, even though over 40% of AIANs identify with multiple racial groups. The present investigation extends this research by assessing mental health status in a national sample of multiracial AIAN adults relative to adults who identify exclusively as either AIAN or White. METHODS: 2012 BRFSS data were used to conduct multinomial logistic regression analyses comparing mental health outcomes among respondents who identified as either AIAN and one or more other races (AIAN-MR), AIAN-Single Race (AIAN-SR), or White-SR...
February 22, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470522/quantification-of-edematous-changes-by-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-gastrocnemius-muscles-after-spinal-nerve-ligation
#8
Koji Abe, Toshiyasu Nakamura, Eiko Yamabe, Koichi Oshio, Takeshi Miyamoto, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Kazuki Sato
Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) exhibit diverse symptoms, such as neuropathic pain, allodynia, local edema and skin color changes in the affected lesion. Although nerve injury may cause CRPS, pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the syndrome are unclear, and local edema, a characteristic of CRPS, has not been evaluated quantitatively for technical reasons. Here, using a rat spinal nerve ligation-induced CRPS model, we show that edematous changes in gastrocnemius muscle can be detected quantitatively by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470139/microstructural-investigation-of-masticatory-muscles-a-pre-and-post-treatment-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-a-bruxism-case
#9
Enricomaria Mormina, Francesca Granata, Michele Gaeta, Marcello Longo, Alessandro Calamuneri, Alessandro Arrigo, Francesco De Ponte, Sergio Lucio Vinci, Luciano Catalfamo, Enrico Nastro Siniscalchi
We evaluated, by means of a non-invasive procedure based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging, the masticatory muscular microstructure in a 55 year-old-female patient affected by bruxism. The patient underwent MR examination before and after one month of splint therapy, when she referred the complete disappearance of all symptoms. By means of Diffusion Tensor Imaging we observed changes at microstructural level of masticatory muscular complex. We conclude that DTI may be a useful instrument both to perform panoramic reconstruction of the masticatory muscle complex and to investigate microstructural modifications related to the pain relief in bruxism...
February 22, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469988/dorsal-root-ganglia-volume-differentiate-schwannomatosis-and-neurofibromatosis-2
#10
Tim Godel, Victor-Felix Mautner, Said Farschtschi, Mirko Pham, Daniel Schwarz, Moritz Kronlage, Isabel Gugel, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Philipp Bäumer
Schwannomatosis and neurofibromatosis type 2 are hereditary tumor syndromes and peripheral neuropathy has been reported in both. We prospectively applied in-vivo morphometric measurement of dorsal root ganglia volume in 16 schwannomatosis, 14 neurofibromatosis type 2 patients, and 26 healthy controls by MR-Neurography. Compared to healthy controls, dorsal root ganglia hypertrophy was a consistent finding in neurofibromatosis type 2 (L3: +267%, L4: +235%, L5: +241%, S1: +300% and S2: +242%, Bonferroni-adjusted p<0...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469659/grading-of-oligodendroglial-tumors-of-the-brain-with-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-imaging
#11
Muhammad Atif Naveed, Pradeep Goyal, Ajay Malhotra, Xiang Liu, Sonali Gupta, Manisha Mangla, Rajiv Mangla
Purpose We explored whether advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques could grade oligodendrogliomas. Methods Forty patients (age 9-61 years) with oligodendroglial tumors were selected. There were 23 patients with World Health Organization grade II (group 1) and 17 patients with grade III (group 2) tumors. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated by b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 . Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) images were obtained during the first pass of a bolus of gadolinium-based contrast...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469316/-clinical-features-of-imported-schistosomiasis-mansoni-in-beijing-city%C3%AF-a-report-of-6-cases
#12
Zou Yang, Wang Lei, Li Xiao-Li, Tian Xiao-Jun, Li Wei, An Yi-Jun, Qi Zhi-Qun, Li Jing-Jing, Wang Fei, Huang Min-Jun
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features of 6 patients with imported schistosomiasis mansoni, including the epidemic history, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests and therapeutic effect, so as to provide references for improving the levels of diagnosis and treatment of physicians. METHODS: The clinical data of 6 patients with imported schistosomiasis mansoni from January 2009 to July 2016 were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: All the 6 imported patients with schistosomiasis mansoni had a clear history of cercarial infested water exposure...
March 10, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469172/segmentation-of-hip-cartilage-in-compositional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-fast-accurate-reproducible-and-clinically-viable-semi-automated-methodology
#13
Dr Scott Fernquest, Dr Daniel Park, Dr Marija Marcan, Mr Antony Palmer, Dr Irina Voiculescu, Prof Sion Glyn-Jones
Manual segmentation is a significant obstacle in the analysis of compositional MRI for clinical decision-making and research. Our aim was to produce a fast, accurate, reproducible, and clinically viable semi-automated method for segmentation of hip MRI. We produced a semi-automated segmentation method for cartilage segmentation of hip MRI sequences consisting of a two step process: (1) fully automated hierarchical partitioning of the data volume generated using a bespoke segmentation approach applied recursively, followed by (2) user selection of the regions of interest using a region editor...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469144/identification-of-a-novel-ligand-for-the-atad2-bromodomain-with-selectivity-over-brd4-through-a-fragment-growing-approach
#14
Duncan C Miller, Mathew P Martin, Santosh Adhikari, Alfie Brennan, Jane A Endicott, Bernard T Golding, Ian R Hardcastle, Amy Heptinstall, Stephen Hobson, Claire Jennings, Lauren Molyneux, Yvonne Ng, Stephen R Wedge, Martin E M Noble, Celine Cano
ATAD2 is an ATPase that is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and associated with a poor patient prognosis. This protein has been suggested to function as a cofactor for a range of transcription factors, including the proto-oncogene MYC and the androgen receptor. ATAD2 comprises an ATPase domain, implicated in chromatin remodelling, and a bromodomain which allows it to interact with acetylated histone tails. Dissection of the functional roles of these two domains would benefit from the availability of selective, cell-permeable pharmacological probes...
February 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468721/measurements-and-simulation-of-rf-heating-of-implanted-stereo-electroencephalography-electrodes-during-mr-scans
#15
Bhumi Bhusal, Pallab Bhattacharyya, Tanvir Baig, Stephen Jones, Michael Martens
PURPOSE: To assess RF-induced heating during MRI of patients with implanted stereo-electroencephalography electrodes. METHODS: Simulations and experimental measurements using phantom and a head-only transmit/receive coil on a 3T MR system were performed to evaluate temperature increases at the tip of an 8-contact stereo-electroencephalography electrode and an insulated wire partially immersed into the phantom. The lengths of wire producing maximum (resonant condition) and minimum (anti-resonant condition) heating were evaluated for different entry modes and penetration depths...
February 21, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468715/clinical-safety-tolerability-pharmacokinetics-and-effects-on-urinary-electrolyte-excretion-of-azd997-a-novel-selective-mineralocorticoid-receptor-modulator
#16
Fredrik Erlandsson, Muna Albayaty, Ligia Chialda, Hans Ericsson, Carl Amilon, Karin Nelander, Rasmus Jansson-Löfmark, Linda Wernevik, Magnus Kjaer, Krister Bamberg, Judith Hartleib-Geschwindner
AIMS: AZD9977 is the first MR modulator in clinical development exerting similar organ protection as eplerenone with minimal urinary electrolyte effects in pre-clinical studies. The aim was to perform the initial clinical assessment of AZD9977. METHODS: A first in man trial explored doses from 5-1200 mg. To study effects on urinary electrolyte excretion an additional randomized placebo controlled cross-over 4 period clinical trial was performed. 23 healthy volunteers were administered fludrocortisone alone or in combination with AZD9977, eplerenone or both...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468469/technical-aspects-of-cardiac-pet-mri
#17
Atsuro Masuda, Ayaka Nemoto, Yasuchika Takeishi
PET/MRI is a novel modality that enables to combine PET and MR images, and has significant potential to evaluate various cardiac diseases through the combination of PET molecular imaging and MRI functional imaging. Precise management of technical issues, however, is necessary for cardiac PET/MRI. This article describes several technical points, including patient preparation, MR attenuation correction, parallel acquisition of PET with MRI, clinical aspects, and image quality control.
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468233/two-dimensional-fe-3-o-4-mos-2-nanocomposites-for-a-magnetorheological-fluid-with-enhanced-sedimentation-stability
#18
Guangshuo Wang, Yingying Ma, Guohua Cui, Nannan Li, Xufeng Dong
Superparamagnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were successfully deposited on the surface of MoS2 nanosheets (Fe3 O4 /MoS2 ) by a sonochemical method and the obtained Fe3 O4 /MoS2 nanocomposites were used as a promising candidate for a magnetorheological (MR) fluid. This MR fluid was prepared from the Fe3 O4 /MoS2 nanocomposites and its corresponding MR performances were examined using a rotational rheometer. The MR fluid based on Fe3 O4 /MoS2 showed typical MR effects with increasing viscosity, shear stress, yield stress and dynamic shear modulus depending on the applied magnetic fields...
February 22, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468177/csf-neurogranin-or-tau-distinguish-typical-and-atypical-alzheimer-disease
#19
Henrietta Wellington, Ross W Paterson, Aida Suárez-González, Teresa Poole, Chris Frost, Ulrika Sjöbom, Catherine F Slattery, Nadia K Magdalinou, Manja Lehmann, Eric Portelius, Nick C Fox, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Jonathan M Schott
Objective: To assess whether high levels of cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin are found in atypical as well as typical Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Immunoassays were used to measure cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin in 114 participants including healthy controls ( n  = 27), biomarker-proven amnestic Alzheimer's disease ( n  = 68), and the atypical visual variant of Alzheimer's ( n  = 19) according to international criteria. CSF total-tau, Aβ42, and neurofilament light concentrations were investigated using commercially available assays...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467756/the-macrophage-mannose-receptor-regulate-mannan-induced-psoriasis-psoriatic-arthritis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-like-disease-models
#20
Cecilia Hagert, Outi Sareila, Tiina Kelkka, Sirpa Jalkanen, Rikard Holmdahl
The injection of mannan into mice can result in the development of psoriasis (Ps) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), whereas co-injection with antibodies toward collagen type II leads to a chronic rheumatoid-like arthritis. The critical event in all these diseases is mannan-mediated activation of macrophages, causing more severe disease if the macrophages are deficient in neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (Ncf1), i.e., lack the capacity to make a reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. In this study, we investigated the role of one of the receptors binding mannan; the macrophage mannose receptor (MR, CD206)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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