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Ann-Kathrin Schoenfeld, Eric Lahrsen, Susanne Alban
The serpin C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) is the only regulator of classical complement activation as well as the major regulator of the contact system. Its importance is demonstrated by hereditary angioedema (HAE), a severe disease with potentially life-threatening attacks due to deficiency or dysfunction of C1-INH. C1-INH replacement is the therapy of choice in HAE. In addition, C1-INH showed to have beneficial effects in other diseases characterized by inappropriate complement and contact system activation. Due to some limitations of its clinical application, there is a need for improving the efficacy of therapeutically applied C1-INH or to enhance the activity of endogenous C1-INH...
2016: PloS One
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, James S Babb, Samir S Taneja, Justin M Ream
Purpose To test the impact of existing Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 (V2) decision rules, as well as of proposed adjustments to these decision rules, on detection of Gleason score (GS) 7 or greater (GS ≥7) prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Two radiologists independently provided PI-RADS V2 scores for the dominant lesion on 343 prostate magnetic resonance (MR) examinations. Diagnostic performance for GS ≥7 tumor was assessed by using MR imaging-ultrasonography fusion-targeted biopsy as the reference...
October 26, 2016: Radiology
Xin Chen, Zelan Ma, Yanqi Huang, Lan He, Cuishan Liang, Changzheng Shi, Zhongping Zhang, Changhong Liang, Zaiyi Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for monitoring the ultra-early (within 24 hours) treatment effect of sorafenib in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenografts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approval, 16 BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous HCC xenografts underwent serial Gaussian and non-Gaussian DWI at baseline and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours posttreatment using a 1...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jung Jae Park, Byung Kwan Park
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System v. 2 (PI-RADSv2) in triaging patients with prostate cancer according to Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2014, 456 patients with biopsy-proven cancer underwent multiparametric 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using T2 -weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequences, and then radical prostatectomy...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Masateru Kawakubo, Hiroshi Akamine, Yuzo Yamasaki, Atsushi Takemura, Kohtaro Abe, Kazuya Hosokawa, Junji Morishita, Michinobu Nagao
In this study, three-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (3D-PC MRI), a novel technique, was validated to assess pulmonary artery (PA) flow in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The MR data of PAs from 3D-PC and two-dimensional PC (2D-PC) from before and after treatment for 3 patients with CTEPH were retrospectively analyzed. Additionally, 3D- and 2D-PC MR scans of PA were performed in 5 healthy volunteers. Correlation of stroke volumes (SVs) obtained by 3D-PC and 2D-PC was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients...
October 25, 2016: Radiological Physics and Technology
Lior Weizman, Yonina C Eldar, Dafna Ben Bashat
PURPOSE: In many clinical MRI scenarios, existing imaging information can be used to significantly shorten acquisition time or to improve Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this paper the authors present a framework, referred to as FASTMER, for fast MRI by exploiting a reference image. METHODS: The proposed approach utilizes the possible similarity of the reference image to the acquired image, which exists in many clinical MRI imaging scenarios. Examples include similarity between adjacent slices in high resolution MRI, similarity between various contrasts in the same scan and similarity between different scans of the same patient...
October 2016: Medical Physics
A Neubert, Z Yang, C Engstrom, Y Xia, M W Strudwick, S S Chandra, J Fripp, S Crozier
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a key role in investigating early degenerative disorders and traumatic injuries of the glenohumeral cartilages. Subtle morphometric and biochemical changes of potential relevance to clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation can be assessed from measurements derived from in vivo MR segmentation of the cartilages. However, segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages, using approaches spanning manual to automated methods, is technically challenging, due to their thin, curved structure and overlapping intensities of surrounding tissues...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Andrik Rampun, Bernie Tiddeman, Reyer Zwiggelaar, Paul Malcolm
PURPOSE: In this paper the authors propose a texton based prostate computer aided diagnosis approach which bypasses the typical feature extraction process such as filtering and convolution which can be computationally expensive. The study focuses the peripheral zone because 75% of prostate cancers start within this region and the majority of prostate cancers arising within this region are more aggressive than those arising in the transitional zone. METHODS: For the model development, square patches were extracted at random locations from malignant and benign regions...
October 2016: Medical Physics
A A Heikal, K Wachowicz, B G Fallone
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between the k-space sampling patterns used for compressed sensing MR spectroscopic imaging (CS-MRSI) and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the metabolite maps. This relationship may allow the desired frequency content of the metabolite maps to be quantitatively tailored when designing an undersampling pattern. METHODS: Simulations of a phantom were used to calculate the MTF of Nyquist sampled (NS) 32 × 32 MRSI, and four-times undersampled CS-MRSI reconstructions...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Thijs Bruins Slot, Eelco Lens, Astrid van der Horst, Remy Klaassen, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven, Geertjan van Tienhoven, Jeanin E van Hooft, Aart J Nederveen, Arjan Bel
PURPOSE: Biliary stents may cause susceptibility artifacts, gradient-induced artifacts, and radio frequency (RF) induced artifacts on magnetic resonance images, which can hinder accurate target volume delineation in radiotherapy. In this study, the authors investigated and quantified the magnitude of these artifacts for stents of different materials. METHODS: Eight biliary stents made of nitinol, platinum-cored nitinol, stainless steel, or polyethylene from seven vendors, with different lengths (57-98 mm) and diameters (3...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Maxence Borot de Battisti, Baudouin Denis de Senneville, Metha Maenhout, Jan J W Lagendijk, Marco van Vulpen, Gilion Hautvast, Dirk Binnekamp, Marinus A Moerland
PURPOSE: The development of MR-guided high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is under investigation due to the excellent tumor and organs at risk visualization of MRI. However, MR-based localization of needles (including catheters or tubes) has inherently a low update rate and the required image interpretation can be hampered by signal voids arising from blood vessels or calcifications limiting the precision of the needle guidance and reconstruction. In this paper, a new needle tracking prototype is investigated using fiber Bragg gratings (FBG)-based sensing: this prototype involves a MR-compatible stylet composed of three optic fibers with nine sets of embedded FBG sensors each...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Enrico Franco, Mike Ristic, Marc Rea, Wladyslaw M W Gedroyc
PURPOSE: Percutaneous ablation under MRI-guidance allows treating otherwise inoperable liver tumors locally using a catheter probe. However, manually placing the probe is an error-prone and time consuming task that requires a considerable amount of training. The aim of this paper was to present a pneumatically actuated robotic instrument that can assist clinicians in MRI-guided percutaneous intervention of the liver and to assess its functionality in a clinical setting. The robot positions a needle-guide inside the MRI scanner bore and assists manual needle insertions outside the bore...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Ruiliang Bai, Dan Benjamini, Jian Cheng, Peter J Basser
Previously, we showed that compressive or compressed sensing (CS) can be used to reduce significantly the data required to obtain 2D-NMR relaxation and diffusion spectra when they are sparse or well localized. In some cases, an order of magnitude fewer uniformly sampled data were required to reconstruct 2D-MR spectra of comparable quality. Nonetheless, this acceleration may still not be sufficient to make 2D-MR spectroscopy practicable for many important applications, such as studying time-varying exchange processes in swelling gels or drying paints, in living tissue in response to various biological or biochemical challenges, and particularly for in vivo MRI applications...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Ben-Gang Qin, Jian-Tao Yang, Yi Yang, Hong-Gang Wang, Guo Fu, Li-Qiang Gu, Ping Li, Qing-Tang Zhu, Xiao-Lin Liu, Jia-Kai Zhu
Three-dimensional diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (3D DW-SSFP) of high-resolution magnetic resonance has emerged as a promising method to visualize the peripheral nerves. In this study, the application value of 3D DW-SSFP brachial plexus imaging in the diagnosis of brachial plexus injury (BPI) was investigated. 33 patients with BPI were prospectively examined using 3D DW-SSFP MR neurography (MRN) of brachial plexus. Results of 3D DW-SSFP MRN were compared with intraoperative findings and measurements of electromyogram (EMG) or somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) for each injured nerve root...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Deepak Ranjan Nayak, Ratnakar Dash, Banshidhar Majhi
This paper presents an automatic classification system for segregating pathological brain from normal brains in magnetic resonance imaging scanning. The proposed system employs contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization scheme to enhance the diseased region in brain MR images. Two-dimensional stationary wavelet transform is harnessed to extract features from the preprocessed images. The feature vector is constructed using the energy and entropy values, computed from the level-2 SWT coefficients. Then, the relevant and uncorrelated features are selected using symmetric uncertainty ranking filter...
October 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Chang Heon Choi, So-Yeon Park, Jung-In Kim, Jin Ho Kim, Kyubo Kim, Joel Carlson, Jong Min Park
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the plan quality of tri-Co-60 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for spine stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). METHODS: A total of 20 patients with spine metastasis were retrospectively selected. For each patient, a tri-Co-60 IMRT plan and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan were generated. The spinal cords were defined based on magnetic resonance images for the tri-Co-60 IMRT, while isotropic 1 mm margins were added to the spinal cords for the VMAT plans...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Yuki Makino, Yasuharu Imai, Takumi Igura, Sachiyo Kogita, Yoshiyuki Sawai, Kazuto Fukuda, Takayuki Iwamoto, Junya Okabe, Manabu Takamura, Norihiko Fujita, Masatoshi Hori, Tetsuo Takehara, Masatoshi Kudo, Takamichi Murakami
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Extracted-overlay fusion imaging is a novel computed tomography/magnetic resonance-ultrasonography (CT/MR-US) imaging technique in which a target tumor with a virtual ablative margin is extracted from CT/MR volume data and synchronously overlaid on US images. We investigated the applicability of the technique to intraoperative evaluation of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 85 HCCs treated with RFA using extracted-overlay fusion imaging for guidance and evaluation...
October 2016: Liver Cancer
Oscar A Debats, Ansje S Fortuin, Hanneke J M Meijer, Thomas Hambrock, Geert J S Litjens, Jelle O Barentsz, Henkjan J Huisman
OBJECTIVES: The key to MR lymphography is suppression of T2* MR signal in normal lymph nodes, while retaining high signal in metastatic nodes. Our objective is to quantitatively compare the ability of ferumoxtran-10 and ferumoxytol to suppress the MR signal in normal pelvic lymph nodes. METHODS: In 2010, a set of consecutive patients who underwent intravenous MR Lymphography (MRL) were included. Signal suppression in normal lymph nodes in T2*-weighted images due to uptake of USPIO (Ultra-Small Superparamagnetic Particles of Iron Oxide) was quantified...
2016: PeerJ
Monika Cichocka, Justyna Kozub, Paulina Karcz, Andrzej Urbanik
BACKGROUND: The aim of this (1)HMRS study was to identify any potential regional differences in the metabolic spectrum in the brains of healthy children. MATERIAL/METHODS: Forty-nine healthy children aged 6-15 years (mean 11.6 years) were examined, including 21 girls and 28 boys. A 1.5T MR system (xi Signa HD 1.5T General Electric) was used in patient examinations. The VOI (Volume of Interest) was defined in 7 locations: the frontal lobe in the right and left hemispheres, the basal ganglia in the right and left hemispheres, hippocampus in the right and left hemispheres and cerebellum...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
Inger R de Ridder, Puck S S Fransen, Debbie Beumer, Olvert A Berkhemer, Lucie A van den Berg, Marieke J Wermer, Hester Lingsma, Wim H van Zwam, Yvo B Roos, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Charles B Majoie, Aad van der Lugt, Diederik W J Dippel
INTRODUCTION: Stroke etiology and outcome after ischemic stroke differ between men and women. We examined if sex modifies the effect of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) in a randomized clinical trial of IAT for acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. We tested for interaction between sex and treatment and estimated the treatment effect by sex with multiple ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for prognostic factors...
September 2016: Interventional Neurology
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