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Angiotensin 2 AND NAD

Feng Zhang, Xingsheng Ren, Mingxia Zhao, Bing Zhou, Ying Han
The proliferation, migration and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of several cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) and Ang II are identified to be involved in regulating cardiovascular activity. The present study is designed to determine the interaction between Ang-(1-7) and Ang II on VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammation as well as their underlying mechanisms. We found that Ang-(1-7) significantly suppressed the positive effects of Ang II on VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammation, as well as on induction of the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 and increase of superoxide anion level and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in VSMCs, whereas Ang-(1-7) alone had no significant effects...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tengfei Zhou, Mengqian Zhang, Liang Zhao, Aiqin Li, Xiaomei Qin
Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense are believed to be contributors to the cardiovascular aging process. The transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a key role in orchestrating cellular antioxidant defenses and maintaining redox homeostasis. Our previous study showed that Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, alleviates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence by inhibiting Rac1 activation via cAMP/PKA (Zhao L, Li AQ, Zhou TF, Zhang MQ, Qin XM...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Mohammed Emehdi Atef, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
Gqα signaling has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, angiotensin II (Ang II) was also shown to induce its hypertrophic effect through Gqα and PKCδ activation. We recently showed the role of enhanced expression of Gqα/PLCβ1 proteins in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy, however, the role of PKCδ in VSMC hypertrophy in animal model is still lacking. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the role of PKCδ and the associated signaling mechanisms in VSMC hypertrophy using 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
2016: PloS One
Hui-Yu Bai, Masaki Mogi, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Harumi Kan-No, Kana Tsukuda, Xiao-Li Wang, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Toshifumi Yamauchi, Akinori Higaki, Li-Juan Min, Jun Iwanami, Masatsugu Horiuchi
We investigated the possibility that coadministration of rosuvastatin and compound 21 (C21), a selective angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor agonist, could exert synergistic preventive effects on vascular injury. Vascular injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement on the femoral artery in 9-week-old male C57BL/6J mice. Mice were treated with rosuvastatin and/or with C21 after cuff placement. Neointima formation was determined 14 days after the operation and cell proliferation, and superoxide anion production and expression of inflammatory cytokines were examined 7 days after cuff placement...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Verdiana Ravarotto, Elisa Pagnin, Giuseppe Maiolino, Antonio Fragasso, Gianni Carraro, Barbara Rossi, Lorenzo A Calò
HYPOTHESIS/INTRODUCTION: The pathophysiological role of oxidative stress (OxSt) in hypertension and target organ damage is recognized. Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces OxSt via NAD(P)H oxidase activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines/growth factors leading to cardiovascular-renal remodeling. Ang II stimulates the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway, which is deeply involved in the development of cardiovascular-renal remodeling via OxSt induction. Olmesartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, possesses antioxidant and activating nitric oxide system-related effects, which we have shown in terms of p22(phox) reduction, heme oxygenase-1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide increase...
December 2015: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Larissa Pernomian, Alejandro F do Prado, Mayara S Gomes, Laena Pernomian, Carlos H T P da Silva, Raquel F Gerlach, Ana M de Oliveira
AT1 antagonists effectively prevent atherosclerosis since AT1 upregulation and angiotensin II-induced proinflammatory actions are critical to atherogenesis. Despite the classic mechanisms underlying the vasoprotective and atheroprotective actions of AT1 antagonists, the cross-talk between angiotensin-converting enzyme-angiotensin II-AT1 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axes suggests other mechanisms beyond AT1 blockage in such effects. For instance, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity is inhibited by reactive oxygen species derived from AT1-mediated proinflammatory signaling...
October 5, 2015: European Journal of Pharmacology
David M Hasan, Robert M Starke, He Gu, Katina Wilson, Yi Chu, Nohra Chalouhi, Donald D Heistad, Frank M Faraci, Curt D Sigmund
Vascular inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protects against vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, whereas dominant-negative mutations in PPARγ promote atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction. We tested the role of PPARγ in aneurysm formation and rupture. Aneurysms were induced with a combination of systemic infusion of angiotensin-II and local injection of elastase in (1) mice that received the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 or the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone, (2) mice carrying dominant-negative PPARγ mutations in endothelial or smooth muscle cells, and (3) mice that received the Cullin inhibitor MLN4924...
July 2015: Hypertension
Meng Zhang, Da-Nian Qin, Yu-Ping Suo, Qing Su, Hong-Bao Li, Yu-Wang Miao, Jing Guo, Zhi-Peng Feng, Jie Qi, Hong-Li Gao, Jian-Jun Mu, Guo-Qing Zhu, Yu-Ming Kang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain plays an important role in the progression of hypertension and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major component of ROS. The aim of this study is to explore whether endogenous H2O2 changed by polyethylene glycol-catalase (PEG-CAT) and aminotriazole (ATZ) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates neurotransmitters, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and cytokines, and whether subsequently affects the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in high salt-induced hypertension...
June 15, 2015: Toxicology Letters
Xiaomiao Zhang, Fengying Gao, Yunqi Yan, Zheng Ruan, Zhenwei Liu
Acute lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (ALIRI) is a serious disease that seriously affects human's life. In this study, we aimed to explore a more effective treatment method by combining human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for ALIRI. Fifty rats were firstly divided into five groups, namely sham surgery group (sham) and four model groups (model, ACE2, HUMSCs and HUMSCs + ACE2) that were reperfused with 0.1 ml physiological saline (PS), 0.1 ml PS containing 1 × 10(6) lentiviral-ACE2/HUMSCs/ACE2 + UMSCs, respectively...
April 2015: Cell Biochemistry and Function
R Hernanz, S Martínez-Revelles, R Palacios, A Martín, V Cachofeiro, A Aguado, L García-Redondo, M T Barrús, P R de Batista, A M Briones, M Salaices, M J Alonso
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling contributes to inflammatory cardiovascular diseases, but its role in hypertension and the associated vascular damage is not known. We investigated whether TLR4 activation contributed to angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension and the associated vascular structural, mechanical and functional alterations. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: AngII was infused (1.44 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1), s.c.) for 2 weeks in C57BL6 mice, treated with a neutralizing anti-TLR4 antibody or IgG (1 μg · day(-1); systolic BP (SBP) and aortic cytokine levels were measured...
June 2015: British Journal of Pharmacology
Junya Kuroda, Tetsuro Ago, Ataru Nishimura, Kuniyuki Nakamura, Ryu Matsuo, Yoshinobu Wakisaka, Masahiro Kamouchi, Takanari Kitazono
BACKGROUND: Pericytes are multifunctional cells surrounding capillaries and postcapillary venules. In brain microvasculature, pericytes play a pivotal role under physiological and pathological conditions by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aims of this study were to elucidate the source of ROS and its regulation in human brain pericytes. METHODS: The expression of Nox enzymes in the cells was evaluated using RT-PCR and western blot. Superoxide production was determined by superoxide dismutase-inhibitable chemiluminescence...
2014: Journal of Vascular Research
Fabing Liu, Fengying Gao, Qian Li, Zhenwei Liu
Acute lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (ALIRI) is featured as non-specific alveolar damage, lung edema and hypoxemia, often occurring within 72 h after surgery. It is the leading cause for primary graft failure and mortality after lung surgery and transplantation. Here we aimed to find a more effective therapeutic approach to treat ALIRI. We evaluated the combinational effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the rat ALIRI model. HUMSCs were isolated for lentiviral-ACE2 transfection...
October 2014: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Priscila R De Batista, Roberto Palacios, Angela Martín, Raquel Hernanz, Cindy T Médici, Marito A S C Silva, Emilly M Rossi, Andrea Aguado, Dalton V Vassallo, Mercedes Salaices, María J Alonso
Hypertension is considered as a low-grade inflammatory disease, with adaptive immunity being an important mediator of this pathology. TLR4 may have a role in the development of several cardiovascular diseases; however, little is known about its participation in hypertension. We aimed to investigate whether TLR4 activation due to increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to hypertension and its associated endothelial dysfunction. For this, we used aortic segments from Wistar rats treated with a non-specific IgG (1 µg/day) and SHRs treated with losartan (15 mg/kg·day), the non-specific IgG or the neutralizing antibody anti-TLR4 (1 µg/day), as well as cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from Wistar and SHRs...
2014: PloS One
Binbin Sheng, Zhaojuan Zheng, Min Lv, Haiwei Zhang, Tong Qin, Chao Gao, Cuiqing Ma, Ping Xu
BACKGROUND: (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid [(R)-HPBA] is a key precursor for the production of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. However, the product yield and concentration of reported (R)-HPBA synthetic processes remain unsatisfactory. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Y52L/F299Y mutant of NAD-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-nLDH) in Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was found to have high bio-reduction activity toward 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyric acid (OPBA)...
2014: PloS One
Arata Fukushima, Shintaro Kinugawa, Shingo Takada, Shouji Matsushima, Mochamad Ali Sobirin, Taisuke Ono, Masashige Takahashi, Tadashi Suga, Tsuneaki Homma, Yoshihiro Masaki, Takaaki Furihata, Tomoyasu Kadoguchi, Takashi Yokota, Koichi Okita, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
We previously reported that insulin resistance was induced by the impairment of insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle from heart failure (HF) via NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent oxidative stress. (Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is involved in the activation of local renin-angiotensin system and subsequent oxidative stress. We thus examined whether (P)RR inhibitor, handle region peptide (HRP), could ameliorate insulin resistance in HF after myocardial infarction (MI) by improving oxidative stress and insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle...
September 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yanqiu Zhang, Yongtao Zhang, Jianqiang Kou, Chunsheng Wang, Kunzheng Wang
Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to induce receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts associated with its effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential pathways by which Ang II induces RANKL expression and the role of ROS in Ang II-induced RANKL expression in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Treatment with Ang IIinduced RANKL expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in osteoblasts, which was attenuated by pre-treatment with an AT1 receptor antagonist (olmesartan), ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine, NAC), or the ERK inhibitor (U0126), but not with AT2R antagonist (PD123319)...
November 2014: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Larissa Pernomian, Mayara Santos Gomes, Carolina Baraldi Araujo Restini, Ana Maria de Oliveira
We hypothesized that endothelial AT1-activated NAD(P)H oxidase-driven generation of reactive oxygen species during type I-diabetes impairs carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality, which accounts for the impaired carotid flow in diabetic rats. We also hypothesized that angiotensin-(1-7) chronic treatment of diabetic rats restores carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality and carotid flow. Relaxant curves for angiotensin II or angiotensin-(1-7) were obtained in carotid from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
2014: BioMed Research International
Stephen P Gray, Karin Jandeleit-Dahm
With the increasing incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, it is predicted that more than half of Americans will have diabetes or pre-diabetes by 2020. Diabetic patients develop vascular complications at a much faster rate in comparison to non-diabetic individuals, and cardiovascular risk is increased up to tenfold. With the increasing incidence of diabetes across the world, the development of vascular complications will become an increasing medical burden. Diabetic vascular complications affect the micro- and macro-vasculature leading to kidney disease often requiring dialysis and transplantation or cardiovascular disease increasing the risk for myocardial infarction, stroke and amputations as well as leading to premature mortality...
May 2014: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Yunzi Ma, Hong Li, Zhongbao Yue, Jinlei Guo, Suowen Xu, Jian Xu, Yanyan Jia, Na Yu, Boyu Zhang, Shenglan Liu, Min Liu, Weiwei Shao, Shaorui Chen, Peiqing Liu
Cryptotanshinone (CTS), a bioactive constituent extracted from a Chinese traditional herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), demonstrates multiple protective effects against cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to explore the effects of CTS in vitro by cultured adult rat cardiac fibroblasts stimulated with angiotensin II (Ang II) and in vivo by rats with acute myocardial infarction. Our data showed that in cardiac fibroblasts, CTS attenuated Ang II-induced upregulation of fibronectin, connective tissue growth factor, cyclooxygenase-2, and normalized Ang II-induced upregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2)...
July 2014: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Hairuo Wen, Judith K Gwathmey, Lai-Hua Xie
Angiotensin II (Ang II), an endogenous peptide hormone, plays critical roles in the pathophysiological modulation of cardiovascular functions. Ang II is the principle effector of the renin-angiotensin system for maintaining homeostasis in the cardiovascular system, as well as a potent stimulator of NAD(P)H oxidase, which is the major source and primary trigger for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in various tissues. Recent accumulating evidence has demonstrated the importance of oxidative stress in Ang II-induced heart diseases...
August 23, 2012: World Journal of Hypertension
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