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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783915/rape-myth-acceptance-in-contemporary-times-a-comparative-study-of-university-students-in-india-and-the-united-kingdom
#1
Ravinder Barn, Ráchael A Powers
Much of the literature on rape, victim blaming, and rape myth acceptance is focused on the United States, and there is a general dearth of such scholarly activity in other countries. This article offers insights on university students' perspectives in two new country contexts-India and the United Kingdom. A total of 693 students contributed to the data collection for this study. Rape myth acceptance was fairly low for both countries, however, students in India were more likely to endorse rape myths. Several demographic characteristics were significant for rape myth acceptance in each country...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683078/is-sexual-objectification-and-victimization-of-females-in-video-games-associated-with-victim-blaming-or-victim-empathy
#2
Victoria Beck, Chris Rose
The goal of this study was to investigate whether the sexual objectification and virtual violence against females in video games increases negative attitudes toward females, when addressing a variety of noted methodological issues. Study participants were randomly assigned to a control group, where participants played Madden NFL 12, or an experimental group, where participants played Grand Theft Auto. In the experimental group, participants played the game with a confederate, who exposed participants to sexual objectification and violence against females...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642768/experiences-of-gender-based-violence-at-a-south-african-university-prevalence-and-effect-on-rape-myth-acceptance
#3
Gillian Finchilescu, Jackie Dugard
Instances of gender-based violence (GBV) on university campuses are rarely reported to the authorities. This makes it difficult to gauge the prevalence of this problem, which in turn affects efforts for prevention. This article describes a university-wide online survey aimed at assessing, first, the prevalence of GBV experienced by the three sectors in the community-students, academic and research staff, and professional/administrative staff. Many of the findings concurred with research elsewhere-students were the predominant victims of GBV; men were the main perpetrators; and instances of rape occurred mainly when the victim/survivor was under the influence of alcohol or drugs...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629635/juror-decision-making-in-acquaintance-and-marital-rape-the-influence-of-clothing-alcohol-and-preexisting-stereotypical-attitudes
#4
Kirsty Osborn, Josh P Davis, Susan Button, John Foster
Stereotypical biases about women's roles in intimate relationships including their marital status and lifestyle choices such as clothing and alcohol use influence juror attributions of rape case defendant guilt, potentially reducing access to justice for victims. Across two mock-juror decision-making experiments, participants read identical fictitious sexual assault vignettes varying in intoxicated defendant-complainant relationship (married vs. acquaintance), accompanied by photographs of complainant clothing at the crime (body revealing vs...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557711/preventing-sexual-violence-through-bystander-intervention-attitudes-behaviors-missed-opportunities-and-barriers-to-intervention-among-australian-university-students
#5
Rachel Kania, Jesse Cale
The concept of bystander intervention is gaining popularity in universities as a mechanism to prevent sexual violence. Prior research has focused on correlates of bystanders' intentions to intervene and intervention behaviors in situations where there is a risk of sexual violence. The current study builds on this literature by exploring the nature of missed opportunities, including perceived barriers to intervention. In all, 380 Australian undergraduate university students completed an online survey. Measures included a rape myth acceptance scale, bystander intentions to intervene, actual intervention behaviors, missed opportunities for intervention, and perceived barriers for missed opportunities...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518275/attributions-of-victim-blame-in-stranger-and-acquaintance-rape-a-quantitative-study
#6
Sofia Persson, Katie Dhingra, Sarah Grogan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To, on a sample of nurses and the general public, examine whether victim blame varies according to level of familiarly between victim and perpetrator. It also examines how Ambivalent Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance impact on this. BACKGROUND: Around one in five women will be victims of sexual assault during their lifetime. The majority are acquaintance rapes, and these victims are generally attributed more blame than victims of stranger rape...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503496/secondary-and-2-year-outcomes-of-a-sexual-assault-resistance-program-for-university-women
#7
Charlene Y Senn, Misha Eliasziw, Karen L Hobden, Ian R Newby-Clark, Paula C Barata, H Lorraine Radtke, Wilfreda E Thurston
We report the secondary outcomes and longevity of efficacy from a randomized controlled trial that evaluated a novel sexual assault resistance program designed for first-year women university students. Participants ( N = 893) were randomly assigned to receive the Enhanced Assess, Acknowledge, Act (EAAA) program or a selection of brochures (control). Perception of personal risk, self-defense self-efficacy, and rape myth acceptance was assessed at baseline; 1-week postintervention; and 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month postrandomization...
June 2017: Psychology of Women Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502508/sexual-assault-disclosure-the-effect-of-victim-race-and-perpetrator-type-on-empathy-culpability-and-service-referral-for-survivors-in-a-hypothetical-scenario
#8
Cortney A Franklin, Alondra D Garza
The aftermath of sexual assault warrants further attention surrounding the responses provided by those to whom survivors disclose, especially when perpetrator type or victim race may affect whether the bystander response is supportive or attributes culpability to the victim. Disclosure responses have significant consequences for survivors' posttrauma mental health and formal help-seeking behavior. The current study used a sample of 348 self-report, paper-and-pencil surveys administered during the fall 2015 semester to a purposive sample of undergraduate students with a mean age of 20...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482041/rape-myth-acceptance-and-rape-acknowledgment-the-mediating-role-of-sexual-refusal-assertiveness
#9
Amie R Newins, Laura C Wilson, Susan W White
Unacknowledged rape, defined as when an individual experiences an event that meets a legal or empirical definition of rape but the individual does not label it as such, is prevalent. Research examining predictors of rape acknowledgment is needed. Sexual assertiveness may be an important variable to consider, as an individual's typical behavior during sexual situations may influence rape acknowledgment. To assess the indirect effect of rape myth acceptance on rape acknowledgment through sexual refusal assertiveness, an online survey of 181 female rape survivors was conducted...
May 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455717/the-role-of-hypermasculinity-token-resistance-rape-myth-and-assertive-sexual-consent-communication-among-college-men
#10
Autumn Shafer, Rebecca R Ortiz, Bailey Thompson, Jennifer Huemmer
PURPOSE: A greater understanding of how college men's gendered beliefs and communication styles relate to their sexual consent attitudes and intentions is essential within the shifting context of negative to affirmative consent policies on college campuses. The results of this study can be used to help design more effective sexual consent interventions. METHODS: Three hundred seventy undergraduate college men completed cross-sectional online surveys. Hierarchical multiple regression examined how hypermasculinity, token resistance, rape myth acceptance, and sexual communication assertiveness were associated with consent-related attitudes, intentions, and interpretations...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447586/a-longitudinal-study-of-interest-and-membership-in-a-fraternity-rape-myth-acceptance-and-proclivity-to-perpetrate-sexual-assault
#11
Rita C Seabrook, Sarah McMahon, Julia O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relation between interest and membership in a fraternity and acceptance of sexual violence (eg, rape myth acceptance, proclivity to perpetrate sexual aggression) among first year college men. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 315 men were surveyed before their first year of college (June-August 2010) and again at 4 time points over the next year. METHODS: Participants responded to measures of rape myth acceptance and proclivity to perpetrate sexual aggression...
February 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332547/the-psychology-of-the-politics-of-rape-political-ideology-moral-foundations-and-attitudes-toward-rape
#12
Michael D Barnett, Emily N Hilz
Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects...
April 2018: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332529/alcohol-related-victim-behavior-and-rape-myth-acceptance-as-predictors-of-victim-blame-in-sexual-assault-cases
#13
Mónica Romero-Sánchez, Barbara Krahé, Miguel Moya, Jesús L Megías
Two studies analyzed the influence of victim behavior, drink type, and observer rape myth acceptance (RMA) on attributions of blame to victims of sexual assault. In Study 1, people higher in RMA blamed the victim more when she accepted rather than rejected the aggressor's invitation to buy her a drink. In Study 2, we analyzed if the effects depended on who offered the invitation for a drink (a friend or aggressor). RMA was more closely related to victim blame when she accepted (vs. rejected) the offer of a drink from the aggressor...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295008/undergraduate-men-s-self-reports-of-sexual-assault-and-perceptions-of-college-campus-acquaintance-rape
#14
M Colleen McDaniel, Dario N Rodriguez
Acquaintance rape is distressingly common on college campuses. Differing models of the perpetration of sexual assault make diverging predictions regarding the degree to which individual differences may distinguish among such sexual offenders and nonoffenders. Much research investigating these issues has primarily sampled students from large, commuter colleges. Such data may not generalize to students in other university settings (e.g., private schools, students in university housing). The present study sought to examine the rate of self-reported sexual assault among college men at a private school at which most students live in university housing...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294942/the-interaction-between-observer-sex-and-sexual-identity-on-attributions-of-blame-with-a-heterosexual-female-victim
#15
Bridget K Diamond-Welch, Olivia Mann, Melissa L Bass, Craig Tollini
This article examines the difference in blame attribution between men and women, heterosexuals and homosexuals, and heterosexual males, heterosexual females, gay males, and lesbians in response to a vignette depicting the acquaintance rape of a heterosexual female ( n = 177). While the levels of empathy for the victim and blaming of the perpetrator were high for every group and blaming of the victim and rape myth acceptance were low for every group, some important trends emerged. Consistent with previous research, women reported higher rates of empathy for the victim, lower rape myth acceptance, and lower victim blaming than did men...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294935/intervening-in-a-sketchy-situation-exploring-the-moral-motivations-of-college-bystanders-of-sexual-assault
#16
Samuel C Gable, Sharon Lamb, Madeline Brodt, Leah Atwell
This mixed-methods research explored the moral motivations of undergraduates who identified as bystanders in a situation of potential sexual assault. In the quantitative analysis, we examined the difference between interveners and noninterveners with regard to their scores on the Moral Foundations Questionnaire-30 Item (MFQ-30), which considers five moral foundations from Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) of care/harm, fairness/cheating, loyalty/betrayal, authority/subversion, and sanctity/degradation, as well as measures of bystander attitudes (BAS-R) and rape-myth acceptance (IRMA, modified)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294932/rape-myth-acceptance-among-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-mostly-heterosexual-college-students
#17
Meredith G F Worthen
Although there is a wealth of existing research on various correlates and patterns of rape myth acceptance (RMA), including how RMA relates to homophobia (i.e., antigay and antilesbian perspectives) and negativity toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women rape victims, no research to date has specifically focused on RMA among LGB and "mostly heterosexual" men and women. The current study examines how gender, sexual identity, personal experiences with rape (i.e., knowing/being a survivor), feminist identity, patriarchal gender norms, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and the interactions among these relate to LGB college students' ( n = 389; 24% gay/lesbian, 19% bisexual, 57% mostly heterosexual) RMA using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Short Form...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294924/an-empirical-exploration-into-the-measurement-of-rape-culture
#18
Nicole L Johnson, Dawn M Johnson
Feminist scholars have long argued the presence of a "rape culture" within the United States; however, limited efforts have been made to quantify this construct. A model of rape culture was first proposed in 1980 and expanded in the 1990s in an effort to quantify rape myth acceptance. This model posits that five underlying components make up a rape culture: traditional gender roles, sexism, adversarial sexual beliefs, hostility toward women, and acceptance of violence. Although these components are proposed as cultural phenomenon and thus distinct from individually held beliefs, they have been exclusively explored on an individual level...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294839/blame-attributions-in-multiple-perpetrator-rape-cases-the-impact-of-sympathy-consent-force-and-beliefs
#19
Kerstin Adolfsson, Leif A Strömwall, Sara Landström
Victims of multiple perpetrator rape (MPR) have been found to be an especially vulnerable group. This study examined effects of MPR and perpetrators' use of force on attributions of victim and perpetrator blame. In two large experiments (total N = 2,928), Swedish community members read scenarios depicting an MPR and subsequently made several ratings of blame, rape myth acceptance (RMA), just world beliefs, sympathy for the victim, perception of consent, and trust in the legal system. Data were analyzed with a multianalytical approach using both analyses of variance as well as exploratory analyses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294676/religiousness-and-rape-myth-acceptance-risk-and-protective-effects
#20
Samantha Ensz, Peter J Jankowski
This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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