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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341344/the-medial-temporal-lobe-functional-connectivity-patterns-associated-with-forming-different-mental-representations
#1
Signy Sheldon, Brian Levine
The medial temporal lobes (MTL), and more specifically the hippocampus, are critical for forming mental representations of past experiences - autobiographical memories - and for forming other 'non-experienced' types of mental representations, such as imagined scenarios. How the MTL coordinate with other brain areas to create these different types of representations is not well understood. To address this issue, we performed a task-based functional connectivity analysis on a previously published dataset in which fMRI data were collected as participants created different types of mental representations under three conditions...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340943/a-prospective-investigation-of-rumination-and-executive-control-in-predicting-overgeneral-autobiographical-memory-in-adolescence
#2
Tracy M Stewart, Simon C Hunter, Sinéad M Rhodes
The CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007), or capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA), and impaired executive control (X), is a model of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). Two mechanisms of the model, rumination and executive control, were examined in isolation and in interaction in order to investigate OGM over time. Across two time points, six months apart, a total of 149 adolescents (13-16 years) completed the minimal-instruction autobiographical memory test, a measure of executive control with both emotional and nonemotional stimuli, and measures of brooding rumination and reflective pondering...
January 16, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335322/identifying-patterns-of-communication-in-patients-attending-memory-clinics-a-systematic-review-of-observations-and-signs-with-potential-diagnostic-utility
#3
Cate Bailey, Norman Poole, Daniel J Blackburn
BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive complaints are commonly encountered in primary care and often result in memory clinic referral. However, meta-analyses have shown that such concerns do not consistently correspond to objective memory impairment or predict future dementia. Memory clinic referrals are increasing, with greater proportions of patients attending who do not have dementia. Studies of interaction during memory clinic assessments have identified conversational profiles that can differentiate between dementia and functional disorders of memory...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329060/affective-and-cognitive-reactivity-to-mood-induction-in-chronic-depression
#4
Anne Guhn, Philipp Sterzer, Friderike H Haack, Stephan Köhler
BACKGROUND: Chronic depression (CD) is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment, which has been proposed to lead to inefficient coping styles that are characterized by abnormal affective responsiveness and dysfunctional cognitive attitudes. However, while this notion forms an important basis for psychotherapeutic strategies in the treatment of CD, there is still little direct empirical evidence for a role of altered affective and cognitive reactivity in CD. The present study therefore experimentally investigated affective and cognitive reactivity to two forms of negative mood induction in CD patients versus a healthy control sample (HC)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328780/risk-factors-for-depression-an-autobiographical-review
#5
Constance Hammen
I have been given a priceless opportunity to reflect on my career in the remarkably productive field of risk factors for depression. Psychological research on depression exploded in the early years of my work. I try to give an account of the choices and challenges, and reflect on the influences, some calculated and some serendipitous, that determined the paths I have followed. I focus mostly on the robust depression risk factors that have influenced my research, including dysfunctional cognitions, stressful life events and circumstances, parental depression, interpersonal dysfunction, and being female, and I cover some of what I did but also the influential work of others...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317322/flashbulb-memories-is-the-amygdala-central-an-investigation-of-patients-with-amygdalar-damage
#6
Kerstin Spanhel, Kathrin Wagner, Maximilian J Geiger, Isabell Ofer, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Birgitta Metternich
Flashbulb memories (FM) are a subgroup of autobiographical memories referring to the circumstances in which a person first heard of a surprising, emotionally arousing event. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have been reported to be impaired in FM recall. As emotional arousal is central to FM, various authors have suggested a crucial role of the amygdala. However, to date, no studies have directly addressed this hypothesis. In this study, 33 TLE patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were tested on an FM task twice with a minimum interval of two months...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311533/a-modern-history-of-imperial-medicine-surrounding-hansen-s-disease-strategies-to-manage-public-opinion-in-modern-japanese-media
#7
Gijae Seo
The purpose of this study is to understand the reality of imperial medicine by exploring the strategic attitude of the Japanese authority targeting the public who were not patients of Hansen's disease. For this purpose, this study examines the mass media data related to Hansen's disease published in Korea and Japan during the Japanese colonial rule. Research on Hansen's disease can be divided into medical, sociohistorical, social welfare, and human rights approach. There are medical studies and statistics on the dissemination of medical information about Hansen's disease and management measures, the history of the management of the disease, guarantee of the rights of the patients and the welfare environment, and studies on the autobiographical, literary writings and oral statements on the life and psychological conflicts of the patients...
December 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295687/the-differential-contributions-of-visual-imagery-constructs-on-autobiographical-thinking
#8
Cagla Aydin
There is a growing theoretical and empirical consensus on the central role of visual imagery in autobiographical memory. However, findings from studies that explore how individual differences in visual imagery are reflected on autobiographical thinking do not present a coherent story. One reason for the mixed findings was suggested to be the treatment of visual imagery as an undifferentiated construct while evidence shows that there is more than one type of visual imagery. The present study investigates the relative contributions of different imagery constructs; namely, object and spatial imagery, on autobiographical memory processes...
February 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284340/on-the-advantage-of-autobiographical-memory-pliability-implantation-of-positive-self-defining-memories-reduces-trait-anxiety
#9
Veronika V Nourkova, Darya A Vasilenko
This paper is devoted to the mechanism of the positive construction of autobiographical memory. Positive construction consists of the spontaneous transformation of memories in the direction of the subjective enhancement of self-competence in past activities to anticipate improvement over time. We speculated that trait anxiety may indicate a failure to exhibit this mechanism that results in a deficit of affirmative self-esteem. We hypothesised that the implantation of positive self-defining memories in anxiety-evoking domains would decrease trait anxiety...
December 28, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283279/virtual-peer-delivered-memory-intervention-a-single-case-experimental-design-in-an-adolescent-with-chronic-memory-impairment
#10
Janine M Cooper, Stephen Lockett, Alissandra McIlroy, Linda Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with chronic memory impairment may develop coping strategies that enable functioning, yet these often remain undetectable using traditional psychometric measures. Personalized intervention studies that promote the use of such strategies designed specifically for use by this young cohort are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a novel virtual reality peer-delivered memory intervention on the everyday functioning and well-being of SE, a 17-year-old female with a history of chronic verbal memory issues, impaired autobiographical event recall and elevated mood symptoms...
December 28, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281940/the-cognitive-tools-that-support-mentally-constructing-event-and-scene-representations
#11
Signy Sheldon, Nadim El-Asmar
Constructing mental representations is critical for many cognitive tasks, yet it is unclear if forming different representations relies on distinct cognitive processes. We tested how episodic memory contributes to constructing scene and event-based mental scenarios as well as the effects of two types of imagery ability (object and spatial imagery) on this contribution. Forty participants were given a series of scenario cues that were classified as scenes (e.g., a beach) or events (e.g., a family meal) by independent raters...
December 27, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281060/measuring-wisdom-existing-approaches-continuing-challenges-and-new-developments
#12
Judith Glück
The question how wisdom can best be measured is still open to debate. Currently, there are two groups of wisdom measures: open-ended performance measures and self-report measures. This overview article describes the most popular current measures of wisdom: the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm, the Bremen Wisdom Paradigm, Grossmann's wise-reasoning approach, the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale, the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale, and the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory. It discusses the specific challenges of both open-ended and self-report approaches with respect to content validity, convergent and divergent validity, concurrent and discriminant validity, and ecological validity...
December 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261497/-studying-episodic-memory-dogs-as-a-biological-model
#13
Charlotte Duranton, Sarah Jeannin, Thierry Bedossa, Florence Gaunet
The ability to remember past events in all of their dimensions (what? where? when? i.e. autobiographic/episodic memory) is highly adaptive. Conversely, individuals who do not have such ability are less likely to benefit from recognizing situations similar to previous ones, e.g. to avoid being defeated several times. We will present the different types of memory and their ontogeny, focusing on those that are found in dogs. We will then describe more precisely the episodic memory, i.e. remembering events or actions from others, and their location and the time of the events and will present to which degree such a skill is found in dogs...
December 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260597/a-review-of-adolescent-autobiographical-memory-and-the-implications-for-assessment-of-unaccompanied-minors-refugee-determinations
#14
Zoe Given-Wilson, Matthew Hodes, Jane Herlihy
The number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) is increasing, and unlike those who arrive with their parents, UASC are subject to interview to determine refugee status. The limited amount of objective evidence available in most asylum claims means that the UASC's account of their experiences often becomes key in deciding whether or not the young person is granted protection. Research indicates that assumptions about human memory influence decision-makers' views on asylum seekers' accounts; however, these do not necessarily appear to fit with the published research on autobiographical memory and may lead to an unfair decision...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251552/unraveling-the-mobilization-of-memory-in-research-with-refugees
#15
Ruth Kevers, Peter Rober, Lucia De Haene
In this article, we explore how narrative accounts of trauma are co-constructed through the interaction between researcher and participant. Using a narrative multiple-case study with Kurdish refugee families, we address how this process takes place, investigating how researcher and participants were engaged in relational, moral, collective, and sociopolitical dimensions of remembering, and how this led to the emergence of particular ethical questions. Case examples indicate that acknowledging the multilayered co-construction of remembering in the research relationship profoundly complicates existing deontological guidelines that predominantly emphasize the researcher's responsibility in sensitively dealing with participants' alleged autobiographical trauma narratives...
December 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249198/beyond-competence-perspectives-from-two-centuries
#16
Reena George, Kumar Narayanan
A sense of failure and guilt can often be associated with the death of a patient. Using the Serenity Prayer as a framework, we present autobiographical narratives describing encounters that happened in Vellore, India over a hundred years apart. Powerlessness in the face of death, we suggest, is not the same as ignorance or incompetence. It could well be the breakthrough to a deeper wisdom and lasting empowerment.
July 2017: Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246541/autobiographical-memory-the-ageing-brain-and-mechanisms-of-psychological-interventions
#17
REVIEW
Andrew P Allen, Caoilainn Doyle, Seán Commins, Richard A P Roche
Elucidating the impact of healthy cognitive ageing and dementia on autobiographical memory (AM) may help deepen our theoretical understanding of memory and underlying neural changes. The distinction between episodic and semantic autobiographical memory is particularly informative in this regard. Psychological interventions, particularly those involving reminiscence or music, have led to differential effects on episodic and semantic autobiographical memory. We propose that executive function is a key mediator of psychological therapies on autobiographical memory...
December 12, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246485/autobiographical-memory-from-experiences-to-brain-representations
#18
EDITORIAL
Asaf Gilboa, Shayna Rosenbaum, Avi Mendelsohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243518/synaesthesia-is-linked-to-more-vivid-and-detailed-content-of-autobiographical-memories-and-less-fading-of-childhood-memories
#19
Taylor Chin, Jamie Ward
People with synaesthesia have enhanced memory on a wide range of laboratory tests of episodic memory, but very little is known about their real-world memory. This study used a standard measure of autobiographical remembering (the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire, AMQ) considering four constructs (Recollection, Belief, Impact and Rehearsal) and two time periods (recent memories from adulthood, remote memories from childhood). Synaesthetes reported more Recollection (e.g., sensory detail) and Belief (e.g...
December 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221830/distinguishable-memory-retrieval-networks-for-collaboratively-and-non-collaboratively-learned-information
#20
Flora Vanlangendonck, Atsuko Takashima, Roel M Willems, Peter Hagoort
Learning often occurs in communicative and collaborative settings, yet almost all research into the neural basis of memory relies on participants encoding and retrieving information on their own. We investigated whether learning linguistic labels in a collaborative context at least partly relies on cognitively and neurally distinct representations, as compared to learning in an individual context. Healthy human participants learned labels for sets of abstract shapes in three different tasks. They came up with labels with another person in a collaborative communication task (collaborative condition), by themselves (individual condition), or were given pre-determined unrelated labels to learn by themselves (arbitrary condition)...
December 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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