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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156409/it-s-in-the-details-the-role-of-selective-discussion-in-forgetting-of-children-s-autobiographical-memories
#1
Ruth Glynn, Karen Salmon, Jason Low
This experiment investigated whether retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) would be found in children's self-generated autobiographical memory recall. An adapted version of the RIF paradigm for adults' autobiographical memories was administered to 8- and 9-year-old children (N = 65). We hypothesized that RIF would be found in terms of both number of memories recalled and amount of memory detail reported. The relationship between memory detail at the retrieval practice phase and RIF magnitude was also investigated...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154290/positive-facial-expressions-during-retrieval-of-self-defining-memories
#2
Marie Charlotte Gandolphe, Jean Louis Nandrino, Gérald Delelis, Claire Ducro, Audrey Lavallee, Xavier Saloppe, Ahmed A Moustafa, Mohamad El Haj
In this study, we investigated, for the first time, facial expressions during the retrieval of Self-defining memories (i.e., those vivid and emotionally intense memories of enduring concerns or unresolved conflicts). Participants self-rated the emotional valence of their Self-defining memories and autobiographical retrieval was analyzed with a facial analysis software. This software (Facereader) synthesizes the facial expression information (i.e., cheek, lips, muscles, eyebrow muscles) to describe and categorize facial expressions (i...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154160/gender-identity-better-than-sex-explains-individual-differences-in-episodic-and-semantic-components-of-autobiographical-memory-and-future-thinking
#3
Laurie Compère, Eirini Rari, Thierry Gallarda, Adèle Assens, Marion Nys, Sandrine Coussinoux, Sébastien Machefaux, Pascale Piolino
A recently tested hypothesis suggests that inter-individual differences in episodic autobiographical memory (EAM) are better explained by individual identification of typical features of a gender identity than by sex. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating sex and gender related differences not only in EAM but also during retrieval of more abstract self-knowledge (i.e., semantic autobiographical memory, SAM, and conceptual self, CS), and considering past and future perspectives. No sex-related differences were identified, but regardless of the sex, feminine gender identity was associated with clear differences in emotional aspects that were expressed in both episodic and more abstract forms of AM, and in the past and future perspectives, while masculine gender identity was associated with limited effects...
November 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146175/autobiographical-memory-sources-of-threats-in-dreams
#4
Alexandre Lafrenière, Monique Lortie-Lussier, Allyson Dale, Raphaëlle Robidoux, Joseph De Koninck
Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18-24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream...
November 13, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143411/spontaneous-neural-activity-differences-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-quantitative-resting-state-meta-analysis-and-fmri-validation
#5
Seth G Disner, Craig A Marquardt, Bryon A Mueller, Philip C Burton, Scott R Sponheim
Identifying the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a critical step toward reducing its debilitating impact. Spontaneous neural activity, measured at rest using various neuroimaging techniques (e.g., regional homogeneity [ReHo], amplitude of low frequency fluctuations [ALFF]), can provide insight about baseline neurobiological factors influencing sensory, cognitive, or behavioral processes associated with PTSD. The present study used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct the largest-to-date quantitative meta-analysis of spontaneous neural activity in PTSD, including 457 PTSD cases, 292 trauma-exposed controls (TECs), and 293 non-traumatized controls (NTCs) across 22 published studies...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137716/-a-phantasia-and-severely-deficient-autobiographical-memory-scientific-and-personal-perspectives
#6
Nicholas W Watkins
I address two interlinked aspects of the diversity in our experiences of memory and the mind's eye. I summarise the long-appreciated role of imagery in mathematics and the physical sciences, and contrast it with the evidence that some scientists have had limited or zero imagery. I then recount the story of how I became aware of my own lack of mental imagery, and the accompanying deficit in my episodic memory, how I have sought scientific understanding of these conditions, and how they have affected my life.
November 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128142/longitudinal-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-depression-on-the-neural-correlates-of-emotion-regulation
#7
Harry Rubin-Falcone, Jochen Weber, Ronit Kishon, Kevin Ochsner, Lauren Delaparte, Bruce Doré, Francesca Zanderigo, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Jeffrey M Miller
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for a substantial minority of patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), but its mechanism of action at the neural level is not known. As core techniques of CBT seek to enhance emotion regulation, we scanned 31 MDD participants prior to 14 sessions of CBT using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a task in which participants engaged in a voluntary emotion regulation strategy while recalling negative autobiographical memories. Eighteen healthy controls were also scanned...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123218/identification-of-a-neurocognitive-mechanism-underpinning-awareness-of-chronic-tinnitus
#8
Krysta J Trevis, Chris Tailby, David B Grayden, Neil M McLachlan, Graeme D Jackson, Sarah J Wilson
Tinnitus (ringing in the ears) is a common auditory sensation that can become a chronic debilitating health condition with pervasive effects on health and wellbeing, substantive economic burden, and no known cure. Here we investigate if impaired functioning of the cognitive control network that directs attentional focus is a mechanism erroneously maintaining the tinnitus sensation. Fifteen people with chronic tinnitus and 15 healthy controls matched for age and gender from the community performed a cognitively demanding task known to activate the cognitive control network in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122592/new-perspectives-on-the-brain-lesion-approach-implications-for-theoretical-models-of-human-memory
#9
Muireann Irish, Marlieke T R van Kesteren
Human lesion studies represent the cornerstone of modern day neuropsychology and provide an important adjunct to functional neuroimaging methods. The study of human lesion groups with damage to distinct regions of the brain permits the identification of underlying mechanisms and structures not only associated with, but essential for, complex cognitive processes. Here, we consider a recent review by McCormick et al. in which the power of the lesion model approach is elegantly presented with respect to a host of sophisticated cognitive endeavors, including autobiographical memory, future thinking, spatial navigation, and decision-making...
November 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122206/the-evolution-of-accelerated-long-term-forgetting-evidence-from-the-time-study
#10
Sharon Savage, Serge Hoefeijzers, Fraser Milton, Claire Streatfield, Michaela Dewar, Adam Zeman
OBJECTIVE: Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) occurs when newly learned information decays faster than normal over extended delays. It has been recognised most frequently in temporal lobe epilepsy, including Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA), but can also be drug-induced. Little is known about the evolution of ALF over time and its impacts upon other memory functions, such as autobiographical memory (ABM). Here we investigate the long-term outcome of ALF and ABM in a group of patients with TEA and a single case of baclofen-induced ALF...
October 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118403/quantitative-text-feature-analysis-of-autobiographical-interview-data-prediction-of-episodic-details-semantic-details-and-temporal-discounting
#11
J Peters, A Wiehler, U Bromberg
Autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking (i.e. the capacity to project oneself into an imaginary future) are typically assessed using the Autobiographical Interview (AI). In the AI, subjects are provided with verbal cues (e.g. "your wedding day") and are asked to freely recall (or imagine) the cued past (or future) event. Narratives are recorded, transcribed and analyzed using an established manual scoring procedure (Levine et al., 2002). Here we applied automatic text feature extraction methods to a relatively large (n = 86) set of AI data...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115176/interlaced-strands-health-psychology-in-brazil-from-an-autobiographic-perspective
#12
Mary Jane P Spink
The presence of psychology in Brazilian Health Settings is closely related to two socio-political movements: for the creation of the Brazilian Unified Health System in 1990 and for Psychiatric Reform. Each had a multidisciplinary stance closely associated with a socially committed approach to healthcare delivery and connected with prior experiences that influenced its policies, among them the National AIDS Programme. These developments are told as a tale that interlaced autobiographical data and the long road to a universal healthcare system that shaped the relationship between psychology and health in the country...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110517/functions-of-reminiscence-in-later-life-predicting-change-in-the-physical-and-mental-health-of-older-adults-over-time
#13
David B King, Philippe Cappeliez, Sarah L Canham, Norm O'Rourke
OBJECTIVE: Research has repeatedly shown that reminiscence affects the mental health and well-being of older adults contemporaneously and over time. Cross-sectional research also points to a link between reminiscence and physical health. The direction of this relationship is unclear, however. Does physical health affect how and why older adults think of themselves in the past? Or conversely, do various functions of reminiscence affect both mental and physical health now, and in future? METHODS: Online responses were collected from a primarily Canadian sample of 411 older adults at three time points, separated by eight months on average...
November 7, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094761/sadness-and-ruminative-thinking-independently-depress-people-s-moods
#14
Azra Jahanitabesh, Brittany A Cardwell, Jamin Halberstadt
Depression and rumination often co-occur in clinical populations, but it is not clear which causes which, or if both are manifestations of an underlying pathology. Does rumination simply exacerbate whatever affect a person is experiencing, or is it a negative experience in and of itself? In two experiments we answer this question by independently manipulating emotion and rumination. Participants were allocated to sad or neutral (in Experiment 1), or sad, neutral or happy (Experiment 2) mood conditions, via a combination of emotionally evocative music and autobiographical recall...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092667/manipulating-the-reported-age-in-earliest-memories
#15
Ineke Wessel, Theresa Schweig, Rafaële J C Huntjens
Previous work suggests that the estimated age in adults' earliest autobiographical memories depends on age information implied by the experimental context [e.g., Kingo, O. S., Bohn, A., & Krøjgaard, P. (2013). Warm-up questions on early childhood memories affect the reported age of earliest memories in late adolescence. Memory, 21(2), 280-284. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2012.729598 ] and that the age in decontextualised snippets of memory is younger than in more complete accounts (i.e., event memories [Bruce, D...
November 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080248/insidious-the-relationship-patients-have-with-their-eating-disorders-and-its-impact-on-symptoms-duration-of-illness-and-self-image
#16
Emma Forsén Mantilla, David Clinton, Andreas Birgegård
OBJECTIVES: In published clinical and autobiographical accounts of eating disorders, patients often describe their disorder in personified ways, that is, relating to the disorder as if it were an entity, and treatment often involves techniques of externalization. By encouraging patients to think about their eating disorder as a relationship, this study aimed to examine how young female patients experience their eating disorder as acting towards them, how they react in response, and whether these interactions are associated with symptoms, illness duration, and self-image...
October 28, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077139/-doctor-will-i-get-my-memory-back-electroconvulsive-therapy-and-cognitive-side-effects-in-daily-practice
#17
E Verwijk, J Obbels, H P Spaans, P Sienaert
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing or about to undergo electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are often afraid they will experience negative cognitive side-effects. AIM: To answer questions that patients and referring clinicians often ask about cognitive problems that can result from ECT. METHOD: To discuss, on the basis of clinical perception and literature, the cognitive problems resulting from ECT. RESULTS: The cognitive problems resulting from ect are threefold: short-term postictal confusion (immediately after the treatment), anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069623/the-effect-of-impaired-verbal-memory-retrieval-on-autobiographical-memory-across-different-life-periods-in-schizophrenia
#18
Amalia Alexiadou, Vasilis P Bozikas, Mary H Kosmidis, Eleni Parlapani, Grigoris Kiosseoglou, Konstantinos Fokas
OBJECTIVES: Autobiographical memory (AM) involves recollection of personal events and facts about one's life. Αim of the present study was to investigate AM in schizophrenia patients, and, in particular, patients' ability to recall autobiographical memories after controlling for verbal memory and verbal fluency deficits. METHOD: Participants included 40 schizophrenia patients (23 male) and 40 healthy controls (23 male), matched for age, gender, educational level, and premorbid intellectual functioning...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067352/combined-mnemonic-strategy-training-and-high-definition-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Benjamin M Hampstead, Krishnankutty Sathian, Marom Bikson, Anthony Y Stringer
INTRODUCTION: Memory deficits characterize Alzheimer's dementia and the clinical precursor stage known as mild cognitive impairment. Nonpharmacologic interventions hold promise for enhancing functioning in these patients, potentially delaying functional impairment that denotes transition to dementia. Previous findings revealed that mnemonic strategy training (MST) enhances long-term retention of trained stimuli and is accompanied by increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the lateral frontal and parietal cortices as well as in the hippocampus...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066962/self-referential-information-alleviates-retrieval-inhibition-of-directed-forgetting-effects-an-erp-evidence-of-source-memory
#20
Xinrui Mao, Yujuan Wang, Yanhong Wu, Chunyan Guo
Directed forgetting (DF) assists in preventing outdated information from interfering with cognitive processing. Previous studies pointed that self-referential items alleviated DF effects due to the elaboration of encoding processes. However, the retrieval mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. Based on the dual-process framework of recognition, the retrieval of self-referential information was involved in familiarity and recollection. Using source memory tasks combined with event-related potential (ERP) recording, our research investigated the retrieval processes of alleviative DF effects elicited by self-referential information...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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