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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530344/-suppression-of-a-non-trauma-related-threatening-thought-as-an-avoidance-strategy-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-patients
#1
Lilach Abramsky-Arazi, Zeev Kaplan, Hagit Cohen
AIMS: Our goal was to examine how suppression of nontrauma- related thoughts differs between PTSD patients and patients with non-PTSD anxiety disorder compared to a group of matched controls. BACKGROUND: Intrusive recollections of aspects of the traumatic event and its sequelae are at the core of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). People who have suffered a traumatic event may implement some form of avoidance coping strategies in order to deal with the unwanted memories that accompany them...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529358/how-do-psychiatrists-in-india-construct-their-professional-identity-a-critical-literature-review
#2
Clement Bayetti, Sushrut Jadhav, Smita N Deshpande
Psychiatric practice in India is marked by an increasing gulf between largely urban-based mental health professionals and a majority rural population. Based on the premise that any engagement is a mutually constructed humane process, an understanding of the culture of psychiatry including social process of local knowledge acquisition by trainee psychiatrists is critical. This paper reviews existing literature on training of psychiatrists in India, the cultural construction of their professional identities and autobiographical reflections...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527311/challenging-assumptions-from-emotion-dysregulation-psychological-treatments
#3
REVIEW
Andrada D Neacsiu, Megan Smith, Caitlin M Fang
BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatments assume that the inability to downregulate negative emotional arousal is a key problem in the development and maintenance of psychopathology and that lack of effective regulation efforts and a preference to use maladaptive regulation strategies is a primary mechanism. Though ubiquitous, there is limited empirical evidence to support this assumption. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether self-reported emotion dysregulation equated to difficulties reducing emotional arousal during a behavioral task and to primary use of maladaptive strategies to manage negative emotions...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502632/two-years-later-revisiting-autobiographical-memory-representations-in-vmpfc-and-hippocampus
#4
Heidi M Bonnici, Eleanor A Maguire
A long-standing question in memory neuroscience concerns how and where autobiographical memories of personal experiences are represented in the brain. In a previous high resolution multivoxel pattern analysis fMRI study, we examined two week old (recent) and ten year old (remote) autobiographical memories (Bonnici et al., 2012, J. Neurosci. 32:16982-16991). We found that remote memories were particularly well represented in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) compared to recent memories. Moreover, while both types of memory were represented within anterior and posterior hippocampus, remote memories were more easily distinguished in the posterior portion...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495600/the-effect-of-cortical-and-subcortical-lesions-on-spontaneous-expression-of-memory-encoded-and-emotionally-infused-information-evidence-for-a-role-of-the-ventral-stream
#5
Efthymia Efthymiopoulou, Dimitrios S Kasselimis, Apostolia Ghika, Andreas Kyrozis, Christos Peppas, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Michael Petrides, Constantin Potagas
The ventral stream of language processing has been implicated in the spontaneous expression of memory-encoded and emotionally infused information. The present study investigated whether left hemispheric lesions in post-stroke right-handed aphasic patients may be selectively associated with specific language functions. Speech rate was assessed with two tasks, one based on autobiographical memory of an emotionally infused event (stroke story narration) and the other based on information that is visually available at the time of speech generation ("cookie theft" picture description)...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493034/-a%C3%A2-japanese-in-marburg-excerpts-from-the-memories-jiden-of-the-japanese-bacteriologist-taichi-kitashima-1870-1956
#6
Ulrike Enke, Aeka Ishihara
The heart of this article is the transmission of selected chapters from the Japanese bacteriologist Taichi Kitashima's (1870-1956) autobiographical memoirs (in Japanese, Jiden) published in 1955, in which Kitashima reports on his stay in Marburg in a very personal and subjective way. Like other Japanese physicians of his generation, Kitashima spent several years in Germany in order to work with the serum researcher Emil von Behring and continued his education there. The contact came through Kitashima's teacher Shibasaburô Kitasato, who had worked with Behring in Berlin on questions of immunology...
May 10, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484402/to-resolve-or-not-to-resolve-that-is-the-question-the-dual-path-model-of-incongruity-resolution-and-absurd-verbal-humor-by-fmri
#7
Ru H Dai, Hsueh-Chih Chen, Yu C Chan, Ching-Lin Wu, Ping Li, Shu L Cho, Jon-Fan Hu
It is well accepted that the humor comprehension processing involves incongruity detection and resolution and then induces a feeling of amusement. However, this three-stage model of humor processing does not apply to absurd humor (so-called nonsense humor). Absurd humor contains an unresolvable incongruity but can still induce a feeling of mirth. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the neural mechanisms of absurd humor. Specifically, we aimed to investigate the neural substrates associated with the complete resolution of incongruity resolution humor and partial resolution of absurd humor...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481176/do-overgeneral-memories-make-us-feel-better-an-experimental-examination
#8
Sarah L Bunnell, Andrea Follmer Greenhoot
A critical assumption of the CaR-FA-X model, that overgeneral memory is partly attributable to the "functional avoidance" of specific details about one's past experiences, has not been experimentally tested. Further, while it is assumed that the reinforcing properties of said avoidance leads to the emergence of an overgeneral recall style over time, this question has not been addressed developmentally. To explore these issues, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, 41 children and adolescents (Mage = 12 years) were randomly assigned to recall overgeneral or specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test; participants later listened to their memories and provided pre- and post-tests of their emotional states at four time points: before and after memory generation and before and after memory exposure...
May 8, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480473/the-imia-history-working-group-inception-through-the-imia-history-taskforce-and-major-events-leading-up-to-the-50th-anniversary-of-imia
#9
C A Kulikowski, G Mihalas, R A Greenes, V Yacubsohn, H-A Park
BACKGROUND: The 50th Anniversary of IMIA will be celebrated in 2017 at the World Congress of Medical Informatics in China. This takes place 50 years after the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) Societies approved the formation of a new Technical Committee (TC) 4 on Medical Information Processing, which was the predecessor of IMIA, under the leadership of Dr. Francois Grémy. The IMIA History Working Group (WG) was approved in 2014 to document and write about the history of the field and its organizations...
May 8, 2017: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476207/real-time-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-amygdala-neurofeedback-changes-positive-information-processing-in-major-depressive-disorder
#10
Kymberly D Young, Masaya Misaki, Catherine J Harmer, Teresa Victor, Vadim Zotev, Raquel Phillips, Greg J Siegle, Wayne C Drevets, Jerzy Bodurka
BACKGROUND: In participants with major depressive disorder who are trained to upregulate their amygdalar hemodynamic responses during positive autobiographical memory recall with real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training, depressive symptoms diminish. This study tested whether amygdalar rtfMRI-nf also changes emotional processing of positive and negative stimuli in a variety of behavioral and imaging tasks. METHODS: Patients with major depressive disorder completed two rtfMRI-nf sessions (18 received amygdalar rtfMRI-nf, 16 received control parietal rtfMRI-nf)...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474279/revelation-effects-in-remembering-forecasting-and-perspective-taking
#11
Deanne L Westerman, Jeremy K Miller, Marianne E Lloyd
The revelation effect is a robust phenomenon in episodic memory whereby stimuli that immediately follow a simple cognitive task are more likely to garner positive responses on a variety of memory tests, including autobiographical memory judgments. Six experiments investigated the revelation effect for judgments of past and future events as well as judgments made from others' perspectives. The purpose of this work was to determine whether these subjectively distinct judgments are subject to the same decision-making biases, as might be expected if they are governed by similar processes (e...
May 4, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473793/time-frame-affects-vantage-point-in-episodic-and-semantic-autobiographical-memory-evidence-from-response-latencies
#12
Jerzy J Karylowski, Blazej Mrozinski
Previous research suggests that, with the passage of time, representations of self in episodic memory become less dependent on their initial (internal) vantage point and shift toward an external perspective that is normally characteristic of how other people are represented. The present experiment examined this phenomenon in both episodic and semantic autobiographical memory using latency of self-judgments as a measure of accessibility of the internal vs. the external perspective. Results confirmed that in the case of representations of the self retrieved from recent autobiographical memories, trait-judgments regarding unobservable self-aspects (internal perspective) were faster than trait judgments regarding observable self-aspects (external perspective)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466472/blind-cave-of-eternal-night-the-work-of-mourning-in-tagore-s-play-of-four
#13
Kamalika Mitra
This paper correlates Sigmund Freud and Rabindranath Tagore's writings on mourning through two specific texts. Despite being contemporaries and profoundly influential, Tagore and Freud's spheres of influence have tended to be separate, so that there have been but few attempts at connecting their philosophies. This essay examines the second chapter of Tagore's novella Play of Four (Chaturanga, 1916) in the light of Freud's essay 'Mourning and melancholia' (1917). It explores how mourning may at once demand confirmation and denial; how it affects love and desire...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457978/emotion-regulation-to-idiographic-stimuli-testing-the-autobiographical-emotion-regulation-task
#14
Brittany C Speed, Amanda R Levinson, James J Gross, Dimitris N Kiosses, Greg Hajcak
Mounting evidence suggests that the ability to regulate emotion is crucial for psychological well-being. However, one important limitation of prior emotion regulation studies is that they rely on standardized stimuli low in personal relevance. To address this limitation, the current study employed a novel event-related potential (ERP) paradigm designed to investigate the late positive potential (LPP) as a measure of emotional reactivity and regulation to idiographic stimuli in 49 young adults. The Autobiographical Emotion Regulation Task (AERT) is a word-viewing task in which participants identify neutral and emotionally-charged autobiographical memories and generate keywords unique to each memory...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456330/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-blockade-on-the-degrading-effects-of-eye-movements-on-negative-autobiographical-memories
#15
Marianne Littel, J Leon Kenemans, Johanna M P Baas, H N Alexander Logemann, Nellie Rijken, Malou Remijn, Rutger J Hassink, Iris M Engelhard, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During EMDR, patients make horizontal eye movements (EMs) while simultaneously recalling a traumatic memory, which renders the memory less vivid and emotional when it is later recalled again. Recalling highly emotional autobiographical memories enhances noradrenergic neurotransmission. Noradrenaline (NA) strengthens memory (re)consolidation. However, memories become less vivid after recall+EMs...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448791/self-grounding-visual-auditory-and-olfactory-autobiographical-memories
#16
Igor Knez, Louise Ljunglöf, Artin Arshamian, Johan Willander
Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4years, participated in a study involving a three×three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self...
April 24, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447818/correction-to-weststrate-and-gl%C3%A3-ck-2017
#17
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Hard-earned wisdom: Exploratory processing of difficult life experience is positively associated with wisdom" by Nic M. Weststrate and Judith Glück (Developmental Psychology, 2017[Apr], Vol 53[4], 800-814). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-12497-007.) Laypersons and experts believe that wisdom is cultivated through a diverse range of positive and negative life experiences. Yet, not all individuals with life experience are wise. We propose that one possible determinant of growth in wisdom from life experience is self-reflection...
April 27, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446254/functional-neuroimaging-of-sex-differences-in-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-depression
#18
K D Young, J Bodurka, W C Drevets
BACKGROUND: Females are more likely than males to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of autobiographical memory (AM) recall between males and females diagnosed with MDD. AM overgenerality is a persistent cognitive deficit in MDD, the magnitude of which is correlated with depressive severity only in females. Delineating the neurobiological correlates of this deficit may elucidate the nature of sex-differences in the diathesis for developing MDD...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441521/lost-in-distractors-reduced-autobiographical-memory-specificity-and-dispersed-activation-spreading-over-distractors-in-working-memory
#19
Keisuke Takano, Jun Moriya, Filip Raes
Studies on autobiographical memory retrieval highlight the prominence of rapid and direct access to a specific event memory. Because it has been believed that autobiographical memory retrieval mostly relies on an effortful generative process, there is little empirical evidence on the early stage of information processing that contributes to autobiographical memory specificity (AMS). Therefore, we investigated the associations between AMS and automatic activation of information stimulated by rapid presentation of emotional words...
April 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440873/flashbulb-memories-of-the-paris-attacks
#20
Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Mohamad El Haj
Flashbulb memories are vivid autobiographical memories of the circumstances where an individual first learns about emotionally significant public events. Our paper assesses whether these memories were triggered by the attacks of Friday 13 November 2015 in Paris. Two hundred and ninety-one participants answered a web-based questionnaire that assessed their memory of the circumstances in which they first learned of the attacks. The questionnaire also assessed vividness, rehearsal, emotion, surprise and novelty...
April 25, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
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