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Janna N Vrijsen, Justin Dainer-Best, Sara M Witcraft, Santiago Papini, Paula Hertel, Christopher G Beevers, Eni S Becker, Jasper A J Smits
Memory bias is a risk factor for depression. In two independent studies, the efficacy of one CBM-Memory session on negative memory bias and depressive symptoms was tested in vulnerable samples. We compared positive to neutral (control) CBM-Memory trainings in highly-ruminating individuals (N = 101) and individuals with elevated depressive symptoms (N = 100). In both studies, participants studied positive, neutral, and negative Swahili words paired with their translations. In five study-test blocks, they were then prompted to retrieve either only the positive or neutral translations...
March 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Pamela Jacobsen, Emmanuelle Peters, Thomas Ward, Philippa A Garety, Mike Jackson, Paul Chadwick
BACKGROUND: Hearing voices can be a distressing and disabling experience for some, whilst it is a valued experience for others, so-called 'healthy voice-hearers'. Cognitive models of psychosis highlight the role of memory, appraisal and cognitive biases in determining emotional and behavioural responses to voices. A memory bias potentially associated with distressing voices is the overgeneral memory bias (OGM), namely the tendency to recall a summary of events rather than specific occasions...
March 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Shridhar Sharma
The paper is an autobiographical account of growth of Psychiatry in India, during the last six decades. It highlights on the development of treatment modalities in psychiatry especially on psychopharmacological drugs. The establishment of general hospital psychiatry and manpower development in the field of mental health are other areas which are discussed.
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Costanza Papagno
In this chapter, the neuropsychologic literature concerning memory deficits following parietal lesions is reviewed. Left inferior parietal lobule lesions definitely cause verbal short-term memory impairments, while right parietal lesions disrupt visuospatial short-term memory. Episodic memory, as well as autobiographic memory, does not seem to be impaired after both unilateral and bilateral parietal lesions, in contrast with neuroimaging studies reporting activation of the lateral parietal cortex during memory tasks...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Lynette J Tippett, Sally C Prebble, Donna Rose Addis
Diachronic unity is the belief that, despite changes, we are the same person across the lifespan. We propose that diachronic unity is supported by the experience of remembering the self over time during episodic recall (i.e., phenomenological continuity). However, we also predict that diachronic unity is also possible when episodic memory is impaired, as long as the ability to construct life narratives from semantic memory (i.e., semantic continuity) is intact. To examine this prediction, we investigated diachronic unity in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), two conditions characterised by disrupted phenomenological continuity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tom J Barry, Bert Lenaert, Dirk Hermans, Filip Raes, James W Griffith
Cognitive models of emotional disorders suggest that reduced autobiographical memory specificity that results from exposure to traumatic events may play an important role in the aetiology and maintenance of these disorders. However, there has yet to be a comprehensive meta-analysis of the association between trauma exposure and memory specificity, and the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms on this association. We searched PsycINFO and MEDLINE databases and extracted data from studies regarding the mean number or proportion of specific memories that participants with and without trauma exposure recalled on the Autobiographical Memory Test...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Wijnand A P van Tilburg, Martin Bruder, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides, Anja S Göritz
The authors aimed to (a) identify the cognitive appraisals underlying nostalgia and (b) compare nostalgia with other emotions in terms of its appraisal profile. In Study 1, participants (N = 1,125) generated narratives. Next, they reported the level of nostalgia and 31 other emotions that these narratives elicited. Subsequently, participants evaluated the narrative events on several cognitive appraisals. Events that elicited nostalgia were pleasant, involved an irretrievable loss, felt psychologically distant, and were unique-an appraisal profile that differed from all other emotions...
March 5, 2018: Emotion
Mohamad El Haj, Jean Louis Nandrino
We investigated whether patients with Korsakjoff's Sybdrome (KS) would demonstrate a discrepancy between (low) autobiographical specificity and (high) sense of reliving. We invited 20 KS patients and 24 controls to retrieve personal memories. After memory retrieval, they were invited to rate subjective characteristics of their recall (e.g., reliving, travel in time, remembering, realness). Besides this rating, we analyzed memories objectively with regard to specificity. Analysis demonstrated poorer sense of reliving and memory specificity in KS patients than in controls...
March 1, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Theodore E A Waters, Christin Köber, K Lee Raby, Tilmann Habermas, Robyn Fivush
OBJECTIVE: Narrative theories of personality assume that individual differences in coherence reflect consistent and stable differences in narrative style rather than situational and event specific differences (e.g., McAdams & McLean, 2013). However, this assumption has received only modest empirical attention. Therefore, we present two studies testing the theoretical assumption of a consistent and stable coherent narrative style. METHOD: Study 1 focused on the two most traumatic and most positive life events of 224 undergraduates...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Personality
R Rodney Howell
Mike, a memorable young patient with untreated phenylketonuria, as well as others affected by genetic disorders that could be treated if diagnosed in infancy, launched my six-decade career. This autobiographical article reflects on my childhood, early research, and professional experiences in pediatric genetics. My laboratory research focused on inborn errors of metabolism, including the glycogen storage diseases. My effort to organize newborn screening through the recommended uniform screening panel shaped and standardized newborn screening nationwide...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
Amee Baird, Gail A Robinson
Neuropsychological consequences of bi-thalamic damage are scarcely known. This case study documents cognitive (in particular memory and executive) functioning in a man with a medial bi-thalamic infarct in the first year (8 and 12 months) post injury. NG showed persistent memory (including autobiographical) impairment, but improved executive functions at one year post injury. On a response inhibition task his speed of response improved but his ability to inhibit a "prepotent" automatic response declined, corresponding to an increase in behavioral disinhibition...
March 1, 2018: Neurocase
Freya Thiel, Brian D Ostafin, Jana R Uppendahl, Lenka J Wichmann, Marco Schlosser, Marije Aan Het Rot
RATIONALE: Drinking alcohol is associated with various interpersonal effects, including effects on cognitive empathy. Empathic accuracy (EA) is a form of cognitive empathy concerned with perceivers' accuracy in inferring a target's thoughts and feelings. The effects of alcohol on EA have not previously been studied. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of a moderate alcohol dose on EA in social drinkers. METHODS: Fifty-four men with varying levels of hazardous drinking according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) participated in a randomized, double-blind, between-group study...
February 28, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Giuseppe Riva, Antonios Dakanalis
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM V) eating problems are the clinical core of eating disorders (EDs). However, the importance of shape and weight overvaluation symptoms in these disorders underlines the critical role of the experience of the body in the etiology of EDs. This article suggests that the transdiagnostic centrality of these symptoms in individuals with EDs may reflect a deficit in the processing and integration of multisensory bodily representations and signals...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Stella Mihailova, Laura Jobson
The study investigated several associations between depression and intrusive negative autobiographical memories. A systematic literature search identified 23 eligible studies (N = 2,582), which provided 59 effect sizes. Separate meta-analyses indicated that depression was moderately, positively associated with intrusive memory frequency, memory distress, maladaptive memory appraisals, memory avoidance, and memory rumination. Intrusive memory vividness was not significantly associated with depression. There were insufficient data to examine the relationship between depression and memory vantage perspective...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Nic M Weststrate, Michel Ferrari, Marc A Fournier, Kate C McLean
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine laypeople's subjective understanding of their own wisdom development. To do this, autobiographical memories of wisdom-fostering life events were examined for (a) life-event characteristics, and (b) self-reflective processes believed to support growth in wisdom through life experience. Methods: Midlife adults (N = 482) provided a written autobiographical memory of a wisdom-fostering life event. Memories were content analyzed by expert coders for life-event characteristics (i...
February 20, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Ivan Mangiulli, Tiziana Lanciano, Marko Jelicic, Kim van Oorsouw, Fabiana Battista, Antonietta Curci
Participants who are asked to simulate amnesia for a mock crime have a weaker memory for this event when they have to give up their role as a feigner, than those who are not asked to feign memory loss. According to the source monitoring framework (SMF), this memory-undermining effect of simulating amnesia for a crime would be due to misattribution of the right source of information. However, we know that the content of self-generated information (e.g., feigned version of the crime) might be preserved and recognised over time as a result of elaborative cognitive processing...
February 18, 2018: Memory
Angela Trovato Salinaro, Manuela Pennisi, Rosanna Di Paola, Maria Scuto, Rosalia Crupi, Maria Teresa Cambria, Maria Laura Ontario, Mario Tomasello, Maurizio Uva, Luigi Maiolino, Edward J Calabrese, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Vittorio Calabrese
Human life develops and expands not only in time and space, but also in the retrograde permanent recollection and interweaving of memories. Therefore, individual human identity depends fully on a proper access to the autobiographical memory. Such access is hindered or lost under pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, including recently associated oxidant pathologies, such as ocular neural degeneration occurring in glaucoma or neurosensorial degeneration occurring in Menière's disease. Oxidative stress and altered antioxidant systems have been suggested to play a role in the aetiology of major neurodegenerative disorders, and altered expression of genes sensing oxidative stress, as well as decreased cellular stress response mechanisms could synergistically contribute to the course of these oxidant disorders...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Cope Feurer, Mary L Woody, Aliona Tsypes, Katie L Burkhouse, Katelynn Champagne, Brandon E Gibb
Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) has been established as a risk factor for depression in both youth and adults, but questions remain as to how OGM develops. Although theorists have proposed that the experience of stressful life events may contribute to the development of OGM, no studies have examined the impact of negative life events on prospective changes in OGM. The goal of the current study was to address this gap in the literature. Participants included 251 mothers and their biological children (aged 8-14 years old at the initial assessment)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Adriana Del Palacio-Gonzalez, Lynn A Watson, Dorthe Berntsen
Previous research has documented robust individual differences in the functions served by autobiographical memories, and shown that different autobiographical memory functions are related to both positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being, and that their frequency varies with age. In this study, we examined the unique relationship between autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and whether such relationships varied with age across adulthood. A representative sample of 1040 adult Danes (20-70 years old) reported the frequency with which they recall autobiographical memories for different purposes as well as their level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms...
February 15, 2018: Memory
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