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Hartmut Blank
Non-believed autobiographical memories [e.g. Mazzoni, G., Scoboria, A., & Harvey, L. (2010). Nonbelieved memories. Psychological Science, 21, 1334-1340] are striking examples of divergences between recollective experiences and beliefs in their correspondence to real events. After reviewing a broader range of similar phenomena, I argue that recollection-belief divergences can arise from normal, "healthy" metacognitive monitoring and control processes that balance memory recollections and reality constraints...
October 15, 2016: Memory
Michael J Armson, Hervé Abdi, Brian Levine
Autobiographical memory tests provide a naturalistic counterpoint to the artificiality of laboratory research methods, yet autobiographical events are uncontrolled and, in most cases, unverifiable. In this study, we capitalised on a scripted, complex naturalistic event - the mask fit test (MFT), a standardised procedure required of hospital employees - to bridge the gap between naturalistic and laboratory memory assessment. We created a test of recognition memory for the MFT and administered it to 135 hospital employees who had undertaken the MFT at various points over the past five years...
October 17, 2016: Memory
Jaclyn H Ford, David C Rubin, Kelly S Giovanello
Recent research suggests that emotional music clips can serve as a highly successful tool for eliciting rich autobiographical memories, and that the utility of these cues may be related to their subjective familiarity. The current study was designed to examine the effects of familiarity on phenomenological characteristics and neural recruitment during retrieval of autobiographical memories elicited by musical cues. Further, we were interested in understanding how these effects differ as a function of age. In an event-related functional neuroimaging study, participants retrieved autobiographical memories associated with age-specific popular musical clips...
September 2016: Psychomusicology
İlyas Göz, Ali I Tekcan, Aslı Aktan Erciyes
The main purpose of this study was to report age-based subjective age-of-acquisition (AoA) norms for 600 Turkish words. A total of 115 children, 100 young adults, 115 middle-aged adults, and 127 older adults provided AoA estimates for 600 words on a 7-point scale. The intraclass correlations suggested high reliability, and the AoA estimates were highly correlated across the four age groups. Children gave earlier AoA estimates than the three adult groups; this was true for high-frequency as well as low-frequency words...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Elayne Ahern, Maria Semkovska
Objective: Cognitive deficits are frequently observed in major depression. Yet, when these deficits emerge and how they relate to the depressed state is unclear. The aim of this 2-part systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the pattern and extent of cognitive deficits during a first-episode of depression (FED) and their persistence following FED remission. Method: Published, peer-reviewed articles on cognitive function in FED patients through October 2015 were searched. Meta-analyses with random-effects modeling were conducted...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
Chris R Brewin
Although clinical theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) claim that in this condition trauma memories tend to be disorganized and fragmented, this has been disputed by some autobiographical memory researchers, such as Rubin, Berntsen, and their colleagues (e.g., Rubin et al., 2016). In this article I review the evidence for and against the fragmentation hypothesis and identify important sources of methodological variability between the studies. This analysis suggests that fragmentation and disorganization are associated with differences in the type of narrative (specifically, with detailed rather than general narratives) and in the focus of the analysis (specifically, with a local focus on sections of text concerned with the worst moments of the trauma rather than with a global focus on the text as a whole)...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Lucas Giner, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Diego De La Vega, Philippe Courtet
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria)...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
H J Markowitsch, A Staniloiu
Retrograde amnesia is described as condition which can occur after direct brain damage, but which occurs more frequently as a result of a psychiatric illness. In order to understand the amnesic condition, content-based divisions of memory are defined. The measurement of retrograde memory is discussed and the dichotomy between "organic" and "psychogenic" retrograde amnesia is questioned. Briefly, brain damage-related etiologies of retrograde amnesia are mentioned. The major portion of the review is devoted to dissociative amnesia (also named psychogenic or functional amnesia) and to the discussion of an overlap between psychogenic and "brain organic" forms of amnesia...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Alexandra Ernst, Marion Sourty, Daniel Roquet, Vincent Noblet, Daniel Gounot, Frédéric Blanc, Jérôme de Seze, Liliann Manning
While the efficacy of mental visual imagery (MVI) to alleviate autobiographical memory (AM) impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has been documented, nothing is known about the brain changes sustaining that improvement. To explore this issue, 20 relapsing-remitting MS patients showing AM impairment were randomly assigned to two groups, experimental (n = 10), who underwent the MVI programme, and control (n = 10), who followed a sham verbal programme. Besides the stringent AM assessment, the patients underwent structural and functional MRI sessions, consisting in retrieving personal memories, within a pre-/post-facilitation study design...
October 9, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Ponnusamy Subramaniam, Bob Woods
BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is increasing interest in using information and communication technology to help older adults with dementia to engage in reminiscence work. Now, the feasibility of such approaches is beginning to be established. The purpose of this study was to establish an evidence-base for the acceptability and efficacy of using multimedia digital life storybooks with people with dementia in care homes, in comparison with conventional life storybooks, taking into account the perspectives of people with dementia, their relatives, and care staff...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Sophia Schneider, Stefanie Brassen
Brooding rumination is considered a central aspect of depression in midlife. As older people tend to review their past, rumination tendency might be particularly crucial in late life since it might hinder older adults to adequately evaluate previous events. We scanned 22 non-depressed older adults with varying degrees of brooding tendency with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while they performed the construction and elaboration of autobiographical memories. Behavioral findings demonstrate that brooders reported lower mood states, needed more time for memory construction and rated their memories as less detailed and less positive...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Qi Wang
I call the attention of psychologists to the pivotal role of cultural psychology in extending and enriching research programs. I argue that it is not enough to simply acknowledge the importance of culture and urge psychologists to practice cultural psychology in their research. I deconstruct five assumptions about cultural psychology that seriously undermine its contribution to the building of a true psychological science, including that cultural psychology (a) is only about finding group differences, (b) does not appertain to group similarities, (c) concerns only group-level analysis, (d) is irrelevant to basic psychological processes, and (e) is used only to confirm the generalizability of theories...
September 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Liwen Zhang, Lisette van der Meer, Esther M Opmeer, Jan-Bernard C Marsman, Henricus G Ruhé, André Aleman
Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social functioning and illness symptoms. Therefore, we investigated functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection in BD with past psychosis and schizophrenia. Twenty-three BD-patients, 17 schizophrenia-patients and 21 health controls (HC) performed a self-reflection task, including the conditions self-reflection, close other-reflection and semantic control...
September 27, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Nicole R Brandon, Denise R Beike, Holly E Cole
Autobiographical memories (AMs) can be used to create and maintain closeness with others [Alea, N., & Bluck, S. (2003). Why are you telling me that? A conceptual model of the social function of autobiographical memory. Memory, 11(2), 165-178]. However, the differential effects of memory specificity are not well established. Two studies with 148 participants tested whether the order in which autobiographical knowledge (AK) and specific episodic AM (EAM) are shared affects feelings of closeness. Participants read two memories hypothetically shared by each of four strangers...
August 11, 2016: Memory
Charlotte E Wittekind, Lena Jelinek, Birgit Kleim, Christoph Muhtz, Steffen Moritz, Fabrice Berna
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by altered autobiographical memories (AM) of the traumatic incident itself as well as of non-trauma-related events. Several studies have shown that trauma-exposed individuals developing PTSD have a reduced capacity to access specific past events that are not related to the traumatic event compared to those who do not develop PTSD. However, one study including a group of elderly adults did not find significant differences in AM between PTSD and non-PTSD participants...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Nir Halevy
Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Carol Westby, Barbara Culatta
Purpose: Speech-language pathologists know much more about children's development of fictional narratives than they do about children's development of personal narratives and the role these personal narratives play in academic success, social-emotional development, and self-regulation. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide clinicians with strategies for assessing and developing children's and adolescents' personal narratives. Method: This tutorial reviews the literature on (a) the development of autobiographical event narratives and life stories, (b) factors that contribute to development of these genres, (c) the importance of these genres for the development of sense of self-identity and self-regulation, (d) deficits in personal narrative genres, and (e) strategies for eliciting and assessing event narratives and life stories...
September 27, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Adam J O Dede, Christine N Smith
It is well established that patients with memory impairment have more difficulty retrieving memories from the recent past relative to the remote past and that damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a key role in this pattern of impairment. The precise role of the MTL and how it may interact with other brain regions remains an area of active research. We investigated the role of structures in a memory network that supports remembering. Our chapter focuses on two types of memory: episodic memory and semantic memory...
September 28, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Anna Bortolan
In this study I explore from a phenomenological perspective the relationship between affectivity and narrative self-understanding in depression. Phenomenological accounts often conceive of the disorder as involving disturbances of the narrative self and suggest that these disturbances are related to the alterations of emotions and moods typical of the illness. In this paper I expand these accounts by advancing two sets of claims. In the first place, I suggest that, due to the loss of feeling characteristic of the illness, the narratives with which the patients identified prior to the onset of depression are altered in various ways, thus leading to the weakening or abandonment of the narratives themselves...
September 27, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Marie St-Laurent, Morris Moscovitch, Mary Pat McAndrews
We assessed whether perceptual richness, a defining feature of episodic memory, depends on the engagement and integrity of the hippocampus during episodic memory retrieval. We tested participants' memory for complex laboratory events (LEs) that differed in perceptual content: short stories were either presented as perceptually rich film clips or as perceptually impoverished narratives. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while retrieving these LEs (narratives and clips), as well as events from their personal life (autobiographical memories)...
August 27, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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