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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805104/present-and-future-selves-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Alexandra Ernst, Joanne Allen, Lydia Dubourg, Céline Souchay
The study of the self in neuropsychological patients raises not only theoretical questions on the relationships between the self, autobiographical memory (AM), and episodic future thinking but also clinical issues for patients' daily life and care. We addressed this issue in Parkinson's disease patients for whom AM and future thinking impairments have been documented. All patients and controls generated and dated up past and future self-images and provided associated past and future events. Our findings suggest a subtle pattern of preservation/impairment of different dimensions (quantitative and qualitative) of self-images, which rely partially on the episodic quality of past and future events...
August 13, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804381/the-distribution-and-the-functions-of-autobiographical-memories-why-do-older-adults-remember-autobiographical-memories-from-their-youth
#2
Tabea Wolf, Daniel Zimprich
In the present study, the distribution of autobiographical memories was examined from a functional perspective: we examined whether the extent to which long-term autobiographical memories were rated as having a self-, a directive, or a social function affects the location (mean age) and scale (standard deviation) of the memory distribution. Analyses were based on a total of 5598 autobiographical memories generated by 149 adults aged between 50 and 81 years in response to 51 cue-words. Participants provided their age at the time when the recalled events had happened and rated how frequently they recall these events for self-, directive, and social purposes...
September 2016: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803766/different-neural-routes-to-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-healthy-people-and-individuals-with-left-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Cornelia McCormick, Morris Moscovitch, Taufik A Valiante, Melanie Cohn, Mary Pat McAndrews
Individuals with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are poor at recalling vivid details from autobiographical memories (AM), instead retrieving gist-like schematic memories. Recent research has suggested that this impoverished recall in comparison to controls may reflect (1) differential engagement of anterior vs posterior regions of the hippocampus (HC) and/or (2) differences between the engagement of the HC vs the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here we examined these hypotheses by comparing connectivity amongst hippocampal regions and between vmPFC and other brain regions during construction (retrieval of a particular event) vs elaboration (retrieval of perceptual detail) phases of AM recall in 12 individuals with left mTLE and 12 matched controls...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801245/episodic-future-thinking-and-future-based-decision-making-in-a-case-of-retrograde-amnesia
#4
Flavia De Luca, Francesca Benuzzi, Elena Bertossi, Davide Braghittoni, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, Elisa Ciaramelli
We investigated episodic future thinking (EFT) and future-based cognition and decision-making in patient SG, who developed a dense retrograde amnesia following hypoxia due to a cardiac arrest. Despite intact general cognitive and executive functioning, SG was unable to remember events from his entire lifetime. He had, however, relatively spared anterograde memory and general semantic knowledge. Voxel-based morphometry detected a reduction of gray matter in the thalamus, cerebellum and fusiform gyrus bilaterally, and, at a reduced threshold, in several regions of the autobiographical memory network, including the hippocampi...
August 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796452/in-praise-of-sociology
#5
Raewyn Connell
This reflection on the relevance of sociology starts with the different forms of social knowledge, and some autobiographical reflection on my engagement with the discipline. A research-based social science is made urgent by the prevalence of distortion and pseudoscience in the public realm. However, the research-based knowledge formation is embedded in a global economy of knowledge that centers on a privileged group of institutions and produces major imbalances on a world scale. Sociological data collection has important uses in policy and public discussion...
August 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796318/he-says-she-says-mothers-and-children-remembering-the-same-events
#6
Qi Wang, Qingfang Song
This study examined the consistency of memories for the same events in mothers and children, and how that varied as a function of culture and organizational components of memories. European American (EA) and Chinese immigrant (CI) mothers and their 6-year-old children (N = 127) independently recalled two emotionally salient events. In both cultures, mothers and children agreed more on factual event details and observable behaviors and less on subjective experiences and idiosyncratic interpretations. EA mothers and children told more diverse stories than did CI mothers and children...
August 10, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782382/attentional-biases-for-threat-after-fear-related-autobiographical-recall
#7
Laura Sagliano, Luigi Trojano, Valentina Di Mauro, Paola Carnevale, Marina Di Domenico, Caterina Cozzolino, Francesca D'Olimpio
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that affective state could enhance stimulus salience and modulate attention allocation for mood-congruent information, but contrasting data have been reported on the effects of mood induction on attentional biases for threat (ABTs) in non-clinical individuals. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether laboratory-induced negative mood can increase individuals' tendency to allocate attention on threatening stimuli, thus determining a difficulty in attentional disengagement from threat...
August 7, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781928/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-autobiographical-memories-in-everyday-life
#8
Sabine Schönfeld, Anke Ehlers
Evidence from self-reports and laboratory studies suggests that recall of nontrauma autobiographical memories may be disturbed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but investigations in everyday life are sparse. This study investigated unintentional nontrauma and trauma memories in trauma survivors with and without PTSD (N = 52), who kept an autobiographical memory diary for a week. We investigated whether unintentional nontrauma memories show an overgeneral memory bias and further memory abnormalities in people with PTSD, and whether unintentional trauma memories show distinct features...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768208/autobiographical-memory-deficits-in-patients-with-depression-follow-a-temporal-distribution
#9
Sarah V Biedermann, Traute Demirakca, Alexander Sartorius, Matthias K Auer, Gabriele Ende, Fabrice Berna
Autobiographical memory deficits are known in depression. The temporal distribution thereof across periods of life has rarely been considered yet. Autobiographical memories for 5 life periods were investigated in 27 depressed in-patients and compared to 31 matched healthy controls using the Bielefelder Autobiographisches Gedächtnis Inventar. Depressed patients reported significantly less details in memories dating from childhood to 30 years, correlating with severity of depression. Memories from childhood and recent periods were less positive in depressed patients...
July 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759780/neural-correlates-of-evaluating-self-and-close-other-in-physical-academic-and-prosocial-domains
#10
R van der Cruijsen, S Peters, E A Crone
Behavioral studies showed that self-concept can be distinguished into different domains, but few neuroimaging studies have investigated either domain-specific or valence-specific activity. Here, we investigated whether evaluating self- and mother-traits in three domains (physical, academic, prosocial) relies on similar or distinct brain regions. Additionally, we explored the topical discussion in the literature on whether vmPFC activity during self-evaluations is induced by valence or importance of traits. Participants evaluated themselves and their mothers on positive and negative traits in three domains...
July 28, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757002/narrative-construction-is-intact-in-episodic-amnesia
#11
Nazim Keven, Jake Kurczek, R Shayna Rosenbaum, Carl F Craver
Autobiographical remembering and future imagining overlap in their underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms. The hippocampus and surrounding regions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL), known for their role in forming and maintaining autobiographical episodic memories, are also thought to play an essential role in fictitious and future constructions. Amnesic individuals with bilateral hippocampal damage cannot reconstruct their past personal experiences and also have severe deficits in the ability to construct coherent fictitious or future narratives...
July 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756101/autobiographical-memory-compromise-in-individuals-with-alcohol-use-disorders-towards-implications-for-psychotherapy-research
#12
REVIEW
Jean-Louis Nandrino, Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Mohamad El Haj
It has been found that Autobiographical memory (i.e., memory for personal experiences and facts about the self) are not properly maintained in people with alcohol-use disorders (AUD). The present paper offers a comprehensive overview of findings regarding the consequences of AUD on autobiographical memory. More specifically, we offer a theoretical model (the AMAUD Autobiographical Memory and Alcohol Use Disorders model) according to which chronic alcohol consumption compromises emotion regulation as well as executive control, which maintains the construction of autobiographical memory...
July 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755853/search-and-recovery-of-autobiographical-and-laboratory-memories-shared-and-distinct-neural-components
#13
Zachary A Monge, Erik A Wing, Jared Stokes, Roberto Cabeza
Functional neuroimaging evidence suggests that there are differences in the neural correlates of episodic memory for laboratory stimuli (laboratory memory) and for events from one's own life (autobiographical memory). However, this evidence is scarce and often confounded with differences in memory testing procedures. Here, we directly compared the neural mechanisms underlying the search and recovery of autobiographical and laboratory memories while minimizing testing differences. Before scanning, participants completed a laboratory memory encoding task in which they studied four-word "chains" spread across three word pairs...
July 26, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754306/episodic-memory-following-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-ventral-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-and-electroconvulsive-therapy
#14
Isidoor O Bergfeld, Mariska Mantione, Mechteld L C Hoogendoorn, Ferdinand Horst, Peter Notten, P Richard Schuurman, Damiaan Denys
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are effective treatments for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, a common side effect of ECT is autobiographical memory loss (e.g., personal experiences), whereas the impact of DBS on autobiographical memories has never been established. OBJECTIVE: Comparing autobiographical memories following DBS and ECT. METHODS: In two hospitals in The Netherlands, we interviewed 25 TRD patients treated with DBS of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule (vALIC), 14 TRD patients treated with ECT and 22 healthy controls (HC) with the Autobiographical Memory Inventory - Short Form (AMI-SF) in a prospective, longitudinal study between March 2010 and August 2016...
July 19, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746833/can-an-experimental-self-efficacy-induction-through-autobiographical-recall-modulate-analogue-posttraumatic-intrusions
#15
Julie Krans, Adam D Brown, Michelle L Moulds
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research has shown a link between self-efficacy appraisals and PTSD symptoms. Less is known about the relation between perceived self-efficacy and specific PTSD symptoms such as intrusions. These two experiments tested the causal relationship between perceived self-efficacy and intrusions from a trauma film. METHODS: In Experiment I, healthy student participants received a self-efficacy manipulation consisting of the recall of autobiographical memories of success (high self-efficacy condition), failure (low self-efficacy condition) or 'important' memories (control condition)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745947/identity-narrative-density-preliminary-findings-from-scoring-emotional-valence-of-autobiographical-events
#16
A Novac, R G Bota, B Blinder
Autobiographical Memory is a form of declarative episodic memory known to have a significant role in identity, self-regulation, and socialization. Conceivably, it may also influence outcome of psychopathology. This is a preliminary report in which the authors are proposing the notion of Identity Narrative (IdN), a set of implicit memories acquired throughout life and consolidated according to a gradient of emotional valence. IdN may constitute an implicit scaffolding for autobiographical memory. Identity Narrative Density (IND) is a score of emotional valence referring to life events that contribute to the construction of an IdN...
July 26, 2017: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744722/temporal-encoding-strategies-result-in-boosts-to-final-free-recall-performance-comparable-to-spatial-ones
#17
Nichole Bouffard, Jared Stokes, Hannah J Kramer, Arne D Ekstrom
The method of loci is a highly effective mnemonic that recruits existing salient memory for spatial locations and uses the information as a scaffold for remembering a list of items (Yates, 1966). One possible account for the effectiveness of the spatial method of loci comes from the perspective that it utilizes evolutionarily preserved mechanisms for spatial navigation within the hippocampus (Maguire et al. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(8), 4398-4403, 2000; O'Keefe & Nadel, 1978; Rodriguez et al...
July 25, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743322/presentation-of-the-coding-and-assessment-system-for-narratives-of-trauma-casnot-application-in-spanish-battered-women-and-preliminary-analyses
#18
Violeta Fernández-Lansac, María Crespo
This study introduces a new coding system, the Coding and Assessment System for Narratives of Trauma (CASNOT), to analyse several language domains in narratives of autobiographical memories, especially in trauma narratives. The development of the coding system is described. It was applied to assess positive and traumatic/negative narratives in 50 battered women (trauma-exposed group) and 50 nontrauma-exposed women (control group). Three blind raters coded each narrative. Inter-rater reliability analyses were conducted for the CASNOT language categories (multirater Kfree coefficients) and dimensions (intraclass correlation coefficients)...
July 26, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733697/perspectives-of-newly-diagnosed-advanced-cancer-patients-receiving-dignity-therapy-during-cancer-treatment
#19
Ann Marie Dose, Lori M Rhudy
PURPOSE: Dignity therapy is a psychosocial intervention that has been used primarily at the end of life to improve quality of life and other patient outcomes, but many individuals are unable to complete it due to health decline and death. The purpose of this study was to identify what individuals with advanced pancreatic or lung cancer with limited life expectancy, undergoing active cancer treatment describe during the dignity therapy intervention as important to them when not immediately facing end of life...
July 21, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728513/ingratiation-attempts-in-real-life-determinants-of-their-success
#20
Helmut Lamm
A total of 272 students at a German university were asked to write down the story of an ingratiation attempt they had made and one they had received. They were then asked to reflect on each episode via a questionnaire. All but one participant reported that they had performed at least one of the four tactics postulated in Jones's ingratiation theory: compliments, favor-doing, opinion conformity, and positive self-presentation. In the case of received ingratiation, we found higher success ratings for nondependent (vs...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
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