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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766215/the-androgen-receptor-is-it-a-promising-target
#1
Ayca Gucalp, Tiffany A Traina
A growing body of literature supports the conclusion that the androgen receptor (AR) plays an important role in breast cancer pathogenesis and may prove to be a relevant therapeutic target for patients with AR-driven breast cancer. This has been most apparent in the subset of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), in whom approximately 50% of tumors may have androgen dependence. Recent phase 2 clinical trials of agents that antagonize AR or reduce androgen production have shown clinical benefit and efficacy to varying degrees...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760403/health-related-quality-of-life-for-immediate-versus-delayed-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-non-curable-prostate-cancer-trog-03-06-and-vcog-pr-01-03-toad-a-randomised-multicentre-non-blinded-phase-3-trial
#2
Gillian M Duchesne, Henry H Woo, Madeleine King, Steven J Bowe, Martin R Stockler, Alice Ames, Catherine D'Este, Mark Frydenberg, Andrew Loblaw, Shawn Malone, Jeremy Millar, Keen Hun Tai, Sandra Turner
BACKGROUND: Androgen-deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer who have relapsed with rising prostate-specific antigen concentration only (PSA-only relapse), or with non-curable but asymptomatic disease at diagnosis, could adversely affect quality of life at a time when the disease itself does not. We aimed to compare the effect of immediate versus delayed androgen-deprivation therapy on health-related quality of life over 5 years in men enrolled in the TOAD (Timing of Androgen Deprivation) trial...
July 28, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754850/the-regulation-of-hydroxysteroid-17%C3%AE-dehydrogenase-type-1-and-2-gene-expression-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines-by-estradiol-dihydrotestosterone-micrornas-and-genes-related-to-breast-cancer
#3
Erik Hilborn, Olle Stål, Andrey Alexeyenko, Agneta Jansson
AIM: To investigate the influence of estrogen, androgen, microRNAs, and genes implicated in breast cancer on the expression of HSD17B1 and HSD17B2. MATERIALS: Breast cancer cell lines ZR-75-1, MCF7, T47D, SK-BR-3, and the immortalized epithelial cell line MCF10A were used. Cells were treated either with estradiol or dihydrotestosterone for 6, 24, 48 hours, or 7 days or treated with miRNAs or siRNAs predicted to influence HSD17B expression Results and discussion...
July 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754843/hormone-induced-dna-damage-response-and-repair-mediated-by-cyclin-d1-in-breast-and-prostate-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Gabriele Di Sante, Agnese Di Rocco, Claudia Pupo, Mathew C Casimiro, Richard G Pestell
Cell cycle control proteins govern events that leads to the production of two identical daughter cells. Distinct sequential temporal phases, Gap 1 (G1), Gap 0 (G0), Synthesis (S), Gap 2 (G2) and Mitosis (M) are negotiated through a series of check points during which the favorability of the local cellular environment is assessed, prior to replicating DNA [1]. Cyclin D1 has been characterized as a key regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that promotes the G1/S-phase transition through phosphorylating the pRB protein...
July 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741260/the-androgen-receptor-supports-tumor-progression-after-the-loss-of-ovarian-function-in-a-preclinical-model-of-obesity-and-breast-cancer
#5
Elizabeth A Wellberg, L Allyson Checkley, Erin D Giles, Stevi J Johnson, Robera Oljira, Reema Wahdan-Alaswad, Rebecca M Foright, Greg Dooley, Susan M Edgerton, Sonali Jindal, Ginger C Johnson, Jennifer K Richer, Peter Kabos, Ann D Thor, Pepper Schedin, Paul S MacLean, Steven M Anderson
The androgen receptor (AR) has context-dependent roles in breast cancer growth and progression. Overall, high tumor AR levels predict a favorable patient outcome, but several studies have established a tumor promotional role for AR, particularly in supporting the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER-positive) breast cancers after endocrine therapy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that obesity promotes mammary tumor progression after ovariectomy (OVX) in a rat model of postmenopausal breast cancer...
July 24, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728221/-correlation-between-androgen-receptor-expression-and-surrogate-molecular-subtypes-in-invasive-breast-carcinoma
#6
X J Sun, K Zuo, S X Tang, H F Lu, R H Shui, B H Yu, X L Xu, Y F Cheng, X Y Tu, R Bi, W T Yang
Objective: To investigate androgen receptor(AR)expression in invasive breast carcinoma and the correlation with surrogate molecular breast carcinoma subtypes. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining of AR and other biomarkers was performed in a cohort of 870 cases of primary invasive breast carcinomas collected from August to December, 2016. The association of AR expression with different histological and surrogate molecular subtypes was analyzed. Results: The positive expression rate of AR in the immunohistochemistry-based surrogate subtypes was 96...
July 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723662/acetyl-lupeolic-acid-inhibits-akt-signaling-and-induces-apoptosis-in-chemoresistant-prostate-cancer-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Claudia Schmidt, Cornelia Loos, Lu Jin, Michael Schmiech, Christoph Q Schmidt, Menna El Gaafary, Tatiana Syrovets, Thomas Simmet
The triterpenoid acetyl-lupeolic acid (ac-LA) isolated from the oleogum resin of Boswellia carterii reduced the viability of a panel of cancer cell lines more efficiently than lupeol. There was no detectable intracellular conversion of ac-LA to lupeol and vice versa. In contrast to docetaxel, ac-LA did not induce selection of treatment-resistant cancer cells. By various parameters including DNA fragmentation, ac-LA was shown to induce apoptosis in androgen-independent PC-3 cells, whereas in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, ac-LA led to cell accumulation in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, but not to apoptosis...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720108/early-pregnancy-sex-steroids-during-primiparous-pregnancies-and-maternal-breast-cancer-a-nested-case-control-study-in-the-northern-sweden-maternity-cohort
#8
Renée T Fortner, Eglé Tolockiene, Helena Schock, Husam Oda, Hans-Åke Lakso, Göran Hallmans, Rudolf Kaaks, Paolo Toniolo, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Kjell Grankvist, Eva Lundin
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and parity are associated with subsequent breast cancer risk. Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest a role for pregnancy sex steroid hormones. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (1975-2007). Eligible women had provided a blood sample in the first 20 weeks of gestation during a primiparous pregnancy leading to a term delivery. The current study includes 223 cases and 417 matched controls (matching factors: age at and date of blood collection)...
July 18, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716460/ten-most-important-things-to-know-about-caring-for-transgender-patients
#9
REVIEW
Stuart R Chipkin, Fred Kim
Transgender people have a gender that is not in agreement with their birth sex. Previous barriers, including lack of provider knowledge, has created significant healthcare disparities for this population. Recent societal changes are increasing the numbers of transgender people seen by primary care. Ten key principles are provided to help primary practitioners create more welcoming environments and provide quality care to transgender patients. Overall, all members of the health care team (primary and specialty) need to become aware of the transition process and maintain communication regarding risks, benefits and goals...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687451/possible-roles-for-glucocorticoid-signalling-in-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Keely M McNamara, Ayako Kannai, Hironobu Sasano
Our understanding of breast cancer biology, and our ability to manipulate breast cancers have grown exponentially in the last 20 years. Much of that expansion has focused on the roles of steroids in driving these neoplasms. Initially this research focused on estrogens and progesterone receptors, and more recently on androgen actions in breast cancers. This review aims to make the case for glucocorticoids as the next essential steroid subclass that contributes significantly to our understanding of steroidogenic regulation of these neoplasms...
July 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686893/a-relationship-in-adrenal-androgen-levels-between-mothers-and-their-children-from-a-dioxin-exposed-region-in-vietnam
#11
Le Thai Anh, Teruhiko Kido, Seijiro Honma, Ho Dung Manh, Ikue Koike, Yuko Oyama, Hoang Duc Phuc, Rie Okamoto, Hideaki Nakagawa, Shoji F Nakayama, Dang Duc Nhu, Nguyen Hung Minh, Ngo Van Toan, Le Ke Son
Over the past decades, southern Vietnam has been burdened by dioxins from contaminated herbicides sprayed during the Vietnam War. In a previous study, we found that dioxin exposure decreased levels of salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal androgen, in 3-year-old children. In present study, to assess the relationship between adrenal hormones disruption in lactating mothers and in children, we compared mother-child pairs from dioxin- and nondioxin-contaminated regions. In 2010 and 2011, mother-child pairs from a dioxin hotspot region (n=37) and a non-contaminated region (n=47) were recruited and donated breast milk and serum samples for dioxin and steroid hormones determination...
July 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682787/in-utero-virilization-secondary-to-a-maternal-krukenberg-tumor-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#12
Carmen Bustamante, Alfonso Hoyos-Martínez, Daniela Pirela, Alejandro Díaz
BACKGROUND: Krukenberg tumors are ovarian metastatic adenocarcinomas with a primary origin usually located in the stomach, colon, gallbladder, pancreas, or breast. Occasionally, these tumors produce virilization in the affected individual due to androgen production by luteinization of the tumoral stroma. It is believed that during pregnancy these tumors are more likely to increase androgen production due to the elevated levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). High maternal androgens can cross the placenta producing virilization of the female fetus...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666860/novel-4-acetamide-2-alkylthio-n-acetanilides-resembling-nimesulide-synthesis-cell-viability-evaluation-and-in-silico-studies
#13
Mafalda Catarro, João Serrano, Eunice Cavalheiro, Susana Ramos, Adriana O Santos, Samuel Silvestre, Paulo Almeida
Since nimesulide, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is known to be a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 and shows activity against cancer cells, there has been much interest in developing related molecules with enhanced anticancer properties. Taking in consideration structural features of nimesulide analogues ten new ortho-(akylthio)-N-alkylacetanilides were synthesized and fully characterized. The antiproliferative effect of these acetanilides was evaluated against human breast (MCF-7) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cell lines as well as normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF)...
August 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662179/small-leucine-zipper-protein-functions-as-a-negative-regulator-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-breast-cancer
#14
Juyeon Jeong, Sodam Park, Hyoung-Tae An, Minsoo Kang, Jesang Ko
The nuclear transcription factor estrogen receptor α (ERα) plays a critical role in breast cancer progression. ERα acts as an important growth stimulatory protein in breast cancer and the expression level of ERα is tightly related to the prognosis and treatment of patients. Small leucine zipper protein (sLZIP) functions as a transcriptional cofactor by binding to various nuclear receptors, including glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. However, the role of sLZIP in the regulation of ERα and its involvement in breast cancer progression is unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659298/nutritional-metabolomics-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-a-prospective-study
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Mary C Playdon, Regina G Ziegler, Joshua N Sampson, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, Henry J Thompson, Melinda L Irwin, Susan T Mayne, Robert N Hoover, Steven C Moore
Background: The epidemiologic evidence for associations between dietary factors and breast cancer is weak and etiologic mechanisms are often unclear. Exploring the role of dietary biomarkers with metabolomics can potentially facilitate objective dietary characterization, mitigate errors related to self-reported diet, agnostically test metabolic pathways, and identify mechanistic mediators.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of diet-related metabolites with the risk of breast cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial...
August 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657118/clinicopathologic-findings-in-female-to-male-gender-affirming-breast-surgery
#16
Ellen G East, Katherine M Gast, William M Kuzon, Emily Roberts, Lili Zhao, Julie M Jorns
AIMS: Gender dysphoria is a diagnosis wherein an individual identifies as the opposite gender. Management of patients seeking female-to-male (FTM) transition includes hormonal therapy and surgical intervention, including mastectomy. We aim to characterize the immunohistologic findings in resection specimens from FTM patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed 68 cases (67 patients, 1 with re-excision) of FTM breast tissue resection by collecting clinical data, reviewing breast imaging and pathology reports (gross fibrous density, specimen weight and number of cassettes submitted), and reviewing pathology slides (number of tissue pieces submitted, number of terminal duct lobule units [TDLUs], and presence of histologic findings)...
June 28, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643022/androgen-receptor-expression-and-breast-cancer-mortality-in-a-population-based-prospective-cohort
#17
Karin Elebro, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Helena Jernström, Signe Borgquist
PURPOSE: The increase in clinical trials with androgen receptor (AR)-targeting drugs emphasizes the need of clarifying the role of AR expression in different breast cancer subtypes. AR confers good prognosis in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, but its role in ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to elaborate on previous findings of a differential prognostic role for AR depending on ER status, using breast cancer mortality (BCM) as endpoint, in a population-based cohort from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study...
June 22, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640164/associations-between-postmenopausal-endogenous-sex-hormones-and-c-reactive-protein-a-clearer-picture-with-regional-adiposity-adjustment
#18
Shannon M Conroy, Heather K Neilson, Rachel O'Reilly, Christy G Woolcott, Frank Z Stanczyk, Kerry S Courneya, Christine M Friedenreich
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the pathogenesis of inflammatory-related diseases after menopause, we studied the adiposity-independent association between endogenous sex hormones and C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of inflammation. METHODS: We conducted a secondary, cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (2003-2007), including 319 healthy, postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy...
June 19, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633436/membrane-androgen-receptor-zip9-induces-croaker-ovarian-cell-apoptosis-via-stimulatory-g-protein-alpha-subunit-and-mapkinase-signaling
#19
Aubrey Converse, Chenan Zhang, Peter Thomas
Recent studies show that androgen-induced apoptosis in Atlantic croaker primary granulosa/theca (G/T) cells and in human breast and prostate cancer cell lines is mediated by the novel membrane androgen receptor ZIP9 which belongs to the SLC39A zinc transporter family. However, the apoptotic signaling pathways remain unclear because ZIP9 activates an inhibitory G protein in human cancer cells, whereas recombinant croaker ZIP9 activates a stimulatory G protein (Gs) in transfected cancer cells. Here we investigated androgen-dependent apoptotic pathways in order to identify the signaling pathways regulated through wild-type croaker ZIP9 in ovarian follicle cells...
June 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624515/development-of-selective-androgen-receptor-modulators-sarms
#20
REVIEW
Ramesh Narayanan, Christopher C Coss, James T Dalton
The Androgen Receptor (AR), a member of the steroid hormone receptor family, plays important roles in the physiology and pathology of diverse tissues. AR ligands, which include circulating testosterone and locally synthesized dihydrotestosterone, bind to and activate the AR to elicit their effects. Ubiquitous expression of the AR, metabolism and cross reactivity with other receptors limit broad therapeutic utilization of steroidal androgens. However, the discovery of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and other tissue-selective nuclear hormone receptor modulators that activate their cognate receptors in a tissue-selective manner provides an opportunity to promote the beneficial effects of androgens and other hormones in target tissues with greatly reduced unwanted side-effects...
June 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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