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L Tyler Mix, Julia Kirpich, Masato Kumauchi, Jie Ren, Mikas Vengris, Wouter D Hoff, Delmar S Larsen
We explored the photoisomerization mechanisms in novel homologs of Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP) from Leptospira biflexa to identify conserved features and functional diversity in the primary photochemistry of this family of photoreceptors. In close agreement with the prototypical PYP from Halorhodospira halophila, we observe excited state absorbance near 375 nm and stimulated emission near 500 nm, with triphasic excited state decay. While the excited state decay for Lbif PYP is the slowest among known PYPs due to the redistribution of the amplitudes of the three decay components, the quantum yield for productive photocycle entry is very similar to that of Hhal PYP...
October 17, 2016: Biochemistry
Sonja Sulkava, Hanna M Ollila, Jukka Alasaari, Sampsa Puttonen, Mikko Härmä, Katriina Viitasalo, Alexandra Lahtinen, Jaana Lindström, Auli Toivola, Raimo Sulkava, Mika Kivimäki, Jussi Vahtera, Timo Partonen, Kaisa Silander, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Tiina Paunio
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Tolerance to shift work varies; only some shift workers suffer from disturbed sleep, fatigue, and job-related exhaustion. Our aim was to explore molecular genetic risk factors for intolerance to shift work. METHODS: We assessed intolerance to shift work with job-related exhaustion symptoms in shift workers using the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey, and carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Illumina's Human610-Quad BeadChip (n = 176)...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Akiko Mori, Masatsugu Toyota, Masayoshi Shimada, Mika Mekata, Tetsuya Kurata, Masao Tasaka, Miyo T Morita
Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yoko Umeki, Hisashi Adachi, Mika Enomoto, Ako Fukami, Sachiko Nakamura, Yume Nohara, Erika Nakao, Akiko Sakaue, Tomoko Tsuru, Nagisa Morikawa, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
Objective There is little long-term data on the association between the serum albumin levels and mortality in community-based populations. We aimed to determine whether the serum albumin level is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cause-specific death in a community-based cohort study in Japan. Methods In 1999, we performed a periodic epidemiological survey over a 15-year period in a population of 1,905 healthy subjects (783 males, 1,122 females) who were older than 40 years of age and who resided in Tanushimaru, a rural community, in Japan...
2016: Internal Medicine
Mika Nishihara, Genki N Kanda, Tetsuya Suzuki, Shin'ichiro Yamakado, Hideyoshi Harashima, Hiroyuki Kamiya
Histone acetylation is associated with the activation of genes on chromosomes. Transgene expression from plasmid DNA might be increased by the acetylation of histones bound to plasmid DNA. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a positive feedback system, using a fusion protein of the sequence-specific DNA binding domain of yeast GAL4 and the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain of mouse CREB-binding protein (GAL4-HAT), in which GAL4-HAT promotes its own expression as well as that of a reporter gene product (luciferase)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Katelyn M Mika, Vincent J Lynch
Variation in female reproductive traits, such as fertility, fecundity, and fecundability, is heritable in humans, but identifying and functionally characterizing genetic variants associated with these traits has been challenging. Here, we explore the functional significance and evolutionary history of a T/C polymorphism of SNP rs2071473, which we have previously shown is an eQTL for TAP2 and significantly associated with fecundability (time to pregnancy). We replicated the association between the rs2071473 genotype and TAP2 expression by using GTEx data and demonstrated that TAP2 is expressed by decidual stromal cells at the maternal-fetal interface...
September 24, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Akihisa Okumura, Shinpei Abe, Hirokazu Kurahashi, Michihiko Takasu, Mitsuru Ikeno, Mika Nakazawa, Ayuko Igarashi, Toshiaki Shimizu
To evaluate changes in the attitudes of nonmedical university students toward epilepsy in 2015, the present study compared the results of questionnaire surveys from four different time periods: before media coverage of epilepsy-related car accidents (2008-2010), during a period of abundant media coverage (2011-2012), after media coverage (2013-2014), and after novel media coverage (2015). The nonmedical students that completed the questionnaire were divided into four groups: 2008-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Hidenori Nishihara, Naoki Kobayashi, Chiharu Kimura-Yoshida, Kuo Yan, Olga Bormuth, Qiong Ding, Akiko Nakanishi, Takeshi Sasaki, Mika Hirakawa, Kenta Sumiyama, Yasuhide Furuta, Victor Tarabykin, Isao Matsuo, Norihiro Okada
Acquisition of cis-regulatory elements is a major driving force of evolution, and there are several examples of developmental enhancers derived from transposable elements (TEs). However, it remains unclear whether one enhancer element could have been produced via cooperation among multiple, yet distinct, TEs during evolution. Here we show that an evolutionarily conserved genomic region named AS3_9 comprises three TEs (AmnSINE1, X6b_DNA and MER117), inserted side-by-side, and functions as a distal enhancer for wnt5a expression during morphogenesis of the mammalian secondary palate...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Kinichi Hotta, Takahisa Matsuda, Yasuo Kakugawa, Hiroaki Ikematsu, Nozomu Kobayashi, Ryoji Kushima, Atsushi Hozawa, Takeshi Nakajima, Taku Sakamoto, Mika Mori, Takahiro Fujii, Yutaka Saito
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer screening program using fecal immunochemical test had been conducted on an isolated island named Nii-jima. However, the participation rate of the program had been approximately 12%, which was lower than average level of Japan. This study aimed to evaluate the participation rate, safety and efficacy of a colorectal cancer screening program using colonoscopy on the island. METHODS: Educational campaigns were actively conducted every month using information bulletins and special propaganda pamphlets...
October 13, 2016: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Hanna Knihtilä, Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anna S Pelkonen, Satu Kalliola, Mika J Mäkelä, L Pekka Malmberg
INTRODUCTION: Early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been recognized. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is suitable for assessment of lung function also in preschool children, and some novel indices have been connected to assessment of small airway function. However, limited data exist on the sensitivity of these new indices to detect lung function deficits in young symptomatic children. METHODS: IOS measurements of 103 healthy preschool children were evaluated to establish reference equations for the difference between respiratory resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5-20), the relative difference of R5-20 (R5-20%), and area under the reactance curve (AX)...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Lekhendra Tripathee, Shichang Kang, Chhatra Mani Sharma, Dipesh Rupakheti, Rukumesh Paudyal, Jie Huang, Mika Sillanpää
This study investigates the contamination levels and risk assessments of 14 elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in three sub-basins of Himalayan rivers. Water samples were collected and the hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), and water quality index (WQI) were calculated. Total average concentrations of the metals were 135.03, 80.10 and 98.34 µg/L in Gandaki, Indrawati and Dudh Koshi rivers, respectively. The results of HQ and HI were less than unity, suggesting a low risk of metals in the region...
October 12, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yoshiki Takai, Tatsuro Misu, Shuhei Nishiyama, Hirohiko Ono, Hiroshi Kuroda, Ichiro Nakashima, Ryuta Saito, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Toshihiro Kumabe, Shunji Mugikura, Mika Watanabe, Masashi Aoki, Kazuo Fujihara
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the pathogenic factors and mechanisms underlying the development of concentric demyelinating lesions in Balo disease. METHODS: We conducted serial clinical, MRI, and histopathologic assessments of concentric lesion formation in a case of relapsing Balo disease. RESULTS: The patient experienced 2 attacks caused by left parietal and left frontal lesions in 5 years. In MRI findings from both episodes of expanding lesions, there were diffusion-restricted rings that antedated the appearance of gadolinium enhancement; subsequently, typical concentric T2 lesions appeared concurrently with the disappearance of this enhancement...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Michael M Lipp, Richard Batycky, Jerome Moore, Mika Leinonen, Martin I Freed
Inhaled drugs offer advantages, such as rapid onset of action, but require formulations and delivery systems that reproducibly and conveniently administer the drug. CVT-301 is a powder formulation of levodopa delivered by a breath-actuated inhaler that has been developed for treating OFF episodes (motor fluctuations between doses of standard oral levodopa) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We present preclinical, phase 1, and phase 2 results for CVT-301. In dogs insufflated with a levodopa powder, plasma levodopa peaked in all animals 2...
October 12, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Kana Yanagihara, Yujung Liu, Kei Kanie, Kazuo Takayama, Minako Okamura, Mitsuhi Hirata, Takayuki Fukuda, Mika Suga, Hiroki Nikawa, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Ryuji Kato, Miho K Furue
Functional hepatocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have potential as tools for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity in the early phases of drug development. However, the propensity of hPSC lines to differentiate into specific lineages is reported to differ. The ability to predict low propensity of hPSCs to differentiate into hepatocytes would facilitate the selection of useful hPSC clones and substantially accelerate development of hPSC-derived hepatocytes for pharmaceutical research...
October 12, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Alan S Brown, David Gyllenberg, Heli Malm, Ian W McKeague, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Miia Artama, Mika Gissler, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Myrna M Weissman, Jay A Gingrich, Andre Sourander
Importance: Speech/language, scholastic, and motor disorders are common in children. It is unknown whether exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy influences susceptibility to these disorders. Objective: To examine whether SSRI exposure during pregnancy is associated with speech/language, scholastic, and motor disorders in offspring up to early adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective birth cohort study examined national population-based register data in Finland from 1996 to 2010...
October 12, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Christina Loley, Maris Alver, Themistocles L Assimes, Andrew Bjonnes, Anuj Goel, Stefan Gustafsson, Jussi Hernesniemi, Jemma C Hopewell, Stavroula Kanoni, Marcus E Kleber, King Wai Lau, Yingchang Lu, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Christopher P Nelson, Majid Nikpay, Liming Qu, Elias Salfati, Markus Scholz, Taru Tukiainen, Christina Willenborg, Hong-Hee Won, Lingyao Zeng, Weihua Zhang, Sonia S Anand, Frank Beutner, Erwin P Bottinger, Robert Clarke, George Dedoussis, Ron Do, Tõnu Esko, Markku Eskola, Martin Farrall, Dominique Gauguier, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Christopher B Granger, Alistair S Hall, Anders Hamsten, Stanley L Hazen, Jie Huang, Mika Kähönen, Theodosios Kyriakou, Reijo Laaksonen, Lars Lind, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K E Magnusson, Eirini Marouli, Evelin Mihailov, Andrew P Morris, Kjell Nikus, Nancy Pedersen, Loukianos Rallidis, Veikko Salomaa, Svati H Shah, Alexandre F R Stewart, John R Thompson, Pierre A Zalloua, John C Chambers, Rory Collins, Erik Ingelsson, Carlos Iribarren, Pekka J Karhunen, Jaspal S Kooner, Terho Lehtimäki, Ruth J F Loos, Winfried März, Ruth McPherson, Andres Metspalu, Muredach P Reilly, Samuli Ripatti, Dharambir K Sanghera, Joachim Thiery, Hugh Watkins, Panos Deloukas, Sekar Kathiresan, Nilesh J Samani, Heribert Schunkert, Jeanette Erdmann, Inke R König
In recent years, genome-wide association studies have identified 58 independent risk loci for coronary artery disease (CAD) on the autosome. However, due to the sex-specific data structure of the X chromosome, it has been excluded from most of these analyses. While females have 2 copies of chromosome X, males have only one. Also, one of the female X chromosomes may be inactivated. Therefore, special test statistics and quality control procedures are required. Thus, little is known about the role of X-chromosomal variants in CAD...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yoshihito Kadota, Toshinori Hirai, Hideo Nakamura, Keishi Makino, Shigetoshi Yano, Shinichiro Nishimura, Machiko Tateishi, Minako Azuma, Mika Kitajima, Yasuyuki Yamashita
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether 3T diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has an additive value relative to contrast-enhanced MR imaging for the detection of disseminated lesions in patients with primary malignant brain tumors. METHODS: We included consecutive 12 patients with nodular disseminated lesions of primary malignant brain tumors that were confirmed by surgery or follow-up MR imaging. All underwent conventional MR imaging, DWI at b = 1000 and 3000 s/mm(2), post-contrast T1-weighted and 3D gradient-echo imaging at 3T...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Takayasu Ito, Eiji Ishikawa, Hiroshi Matsuo, Mika Fujimoto, Tomohiro Murata, Kenichi Isoda, Hitoshi Mizutani, Masaaki Ito
Renal failure and infectious disease are strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with severe generalized recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB-sev gen). However, it is reportedly difficult to introduce hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). We encountered a 32-year-old man with RDEB-sev gen in whom hemodialysis with a native AVF was introduced that favorably affected his long-term survival. This patient eventually died because of cachexia related to the recurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma 51 months after hemodialysis introduction...
May 2016: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Mika Ishige, Tatsuo Fuchigami, Erika Ogawa, Hiromi Usui, Ryutaro Kohira, Yoriko Watanabe, Shori Takahashi
Glutaric acidemia type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Previous studies have reported subdural hemorrhage in untreated patients with glutaric acidemia type 1. However, there is only one report of severe acute subdural hemorrhage after minor head trauma in a patient with glutaric acidemia type 1 under guideline-recommended treatment. We report a second case of life-threatening severe acute subdural hemorrhage after a minor head trauma in a patient with glutaric acidemia type 1...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Dawid Panek, Anna Więckowska, Tomasz Wichur, Marek Bajda, Justyna Godyń, Jakub Jończyk, Kamil Mika, Jana Janockova, Ondrej Soukup, Damijan Knez, Jan Korabecny, Stanislav Gobec, Barbara Malawska
The complexity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) calls for search of multifunctional compounds as potential candidates for effective therapy. A series of phthalimide and saccharin derivatives linked by different alicyclic fragments (piperazine, hexahydropyrimidine, 3-aminopyrrolidine or 3-aminopiperidine) with phenylalkyl moieties attached have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated as multifunctional anti-AD agents with cholinesterase, β-secretase and β-amyloid inhibitory activities. In vitro studies showed that the majority of saccharin derivatives with piperazine moiety and one phthalimide derivative with 3-aminopiperidine fragment exhibited inhibitory potency toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with EeAChE IC50 values ranging from 0...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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