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Oxygen deficit in athletes

Adriano Marques de Almeida, Paulo Roberto Santos Silva, André Pedrinelli, Arnaldo J Hernandez
Although anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is considered a successful procedure in restoring knee stability, few studies have addressed the issue of aerobic capacity after ACL surgery. Soccer players need technical, tactical and physical skills to succeed, such as good knee function and aerobic capacity. Our purpose is to evaluate aerobic fitness in ACL injured professional football players and six months after ACL reconstruction compared to a control group. Twenty athletes with ACL injury were evaluated and underwent ACL reconstruction with hamstrings autograft, and were compared to twenty healthy professional soccer players...
2018: PloS One
Fábio J Lanferdini, Renata L Krüger, Bruno M Baroni, Caetano Lazzari, Pedro Figueiredo, Alvaro Reischak-Oliveira, Marco A Vaz
Some evidence supports that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces neuromuscular fatigue, so incrementing sports performance. A previous randomized controlled trial of our group showed increased exercise tolerance in male competitive cyclists treated with three different LLLT doses (3, 6, and 9 J/diode; or 135, 270, and 405 J/thigh) before time-to-exhaustion cycling tests. Now, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of these LLLT doses on the VO2 kinetics of athletes during cycling tests. Twenty male competitive cyclists (29 years) participated in a crossover, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial...
November 9, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Jonathan Watkins, Simon Platt, Erik Andersson, Kerry McGawley
PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to investigate pacing strategies and the distribution of physiological resources in best vs worst performances during a series of 4-min self-paced running time trials (RunTTs). METHODS: Five male and 5 female recreational runners (age 32 ± 7 y) completed a submaximal ramp test and 5 RunTTs on a motor-driven treadmill fitted with a speed-controlling laser system. The supramaximal oxygen-uptake (V̇O2 ) demand was estimated by linear extrapolation from the submaximal relationship between V̇O2 and speed, enabling computation of the accumulated oxygen deficit...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
R Schwesig, M Miserius, S Hermassi, K S Delank, F Noack, G Fieseler
BACKGROUND: Assessments of physical and physiological performance tests in soccer sports are still unspecific yet. There is also a lack of scientific validation using those as a "golden standard". Concerning match performance a large deficit also exist in sports and medical science. OBJECTIVE: The aim and purpose of this multicentric and prospective diagnostic study was to evaluate the validity of current established and recommended diagnostic tests for endurance and match performance (golden standard: real time of playing) in soccer...
March 2016: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Øyvind Sandbakk, Ann Magdalen Hegge, Thomas Losnegard, Øyvind Skattebo, Espen Tønnessen, Hans-Christer Holmberg
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to compare the physiological capacity and training characteristics of the world's six highest ranked female cross-country skiers (world class (WC)) with those of six competitors of national class (NC). METHODS: Immediately before the start of the competition season, all skiers performed three 5-min submaximal stages of roller skiing on a treadmill for measurement of oxygen cost, as well as a 3-min self-paced performance test using both the double poling (DP) and diagonal stride (DIA) techniques...
June 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
V L Andrade, A M Zagatto, C A Kalva-Filho, O C Mendes, C A Gobatto, E Z Campos, M Papoti
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the running anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a predictor of anaerobic capacity, compare it to the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and to compare the RAST's parameters with the parameters of 30-s all-out tethered running on a treadmill. 39 (17.0±1.4 years) soccer players participated in this study. The participants underwent an incremental test, 10 submaximal efforts [50-95% of velocity correspondent to VO(2MAX) (vVO(2MAX))] and one supramaximal effort at 110% of vVO(2MAX) for the determination of MAOD...
December 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Cleber Ferraresi, Thomas Beltrame, Fernando Fabrizzi, Eduardo Sanches Pereira do Nascimento, Marlus Karsten, Cristina de Oliveira Francisco, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Aparecida Maria Catai, Daniel Rodrigues Cardoso, Antonio Gilberto Ferreira, Michael R Hamblin, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto
Recently, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been used to improve muscle performance. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) and its mechanisms of action to improve muscle performance in an elite athlete. The kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2), blood and urine markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase--CK and alanine), and fatigue (lactate) were analyzed. Additionally, some metabolic parameters were assessed in urine using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR)...
July 2015: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Anna Barrero, Pau Erola, Raúl Bescós
UNLABELLED: The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) and the fluid balance through the race. METHODS: Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI) during the race...
January 2015: Nutrients
Kaito Iwayama, Ryosuke Kawabuchi, Insung Park, Reiko Kurihara, Masashi Kobayashi, Masanobu Hibi, Sachiko Oishi, Koichi Yasunaga, Hitomi Ogata, Yoshiharu Nabekura, Kumpei Tokuyama
Whole body fat oxidation increases during exercise. However, 24-h fat oxidation on a day with exercise often remains similar to that of sedentary day, when energy intake is increased to achieve an energy-balanced condition. The present study aimed to examine a possibility that time of the day when exercise is performed makes differences in 24-h fat oxidation. As a potential mechanism of exercise affecting 24-h fat oxidation, its relation to exercise-induced transient energy deficit was examined. Nine young male endurance athletes underwent three trials of indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber, in which they performed a session of 100 min of exercise before breakfast (AM), after lunch (PM), or two sessions of 50 min of exercise before breakfast and after lunch (AM/PM) at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake...
January 1, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
Samantha B Allen, Keith P Cross
Exertional heat stroke incidence is on the rise and has become the third leading cause of death in high school athletes. It is entirely preventable, yet this is a case of a 15-year-old, 97-kg male football player who presented unresponsive and hyperthermic after an August football practice. His blood pressure was 80/30, and his pulse was 180. He had a rectal temperature of 107.3°F, and upon entering the emergency department, he was rapidly cooled in 40 minutes. As he progressed, he developed metabolic acidosis, elevated liver enzymes, a prolapsed mitral valve with elevated troponin levels, and worsening hypotension even with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support...
December 2014: Pediatric Emergency Care
Mohsen Hasanli, Rohollah Nikooie, Malihe Aveseh, Fashi Mohammad
This study predicted aerobic and anaerobic capacities using relative changes of arterial blood lactate during the isocapnic buffering phase (relative [La]ISBP). Fourteen male professional cyclists (sprint-trained [n = 6] and endurance [n = 8]) performed 2 exercise sessions to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer; 1 incremental standard test to determine the isocapnic buffering phase, buffering capacities, and relative [La]ISBP and 1 supramaximal exercise test to determine maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD)...
February 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Micah Gross, Kathrin Bieri, Hans Hoppeler, Barbara Norman, Michael Vogt
INTRODUCTION: Supplementation with beta-alanine may have positive effects on severe-intensity, intermittent, and isometric strength-endurance performance. These could be advantageous for competitive alpine skiers, whose races last 45 to 150 s, require metabolic power above the aerobic maximum, and involve isometric muscle work. Further, beta-alanine supplementation affects the muscle force-frequency relationship, which could influence explosiveness. We explored the effects of beta-alanine on explosive jump performance, severe exercise energy metabolism, and severe-intensity ski-like performance...
December 2014: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Marília Santos Andrade, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Fernanda Patti Nakamoto, Moisés Cohen, Antonio Carlos da Silva
BACKGROUND: A dynamic sub-maximum exercise with the same absolute intensity, performed with different muscle groups, may present exacerbated cardiorespiratory responses. Therefore, cardiorespiratory responses to unilateral exercise may identify bilateral differences. The purpose of this study was to verify whether the cardiorespiratory responses to lower limb exercise display counter-lateral differences, and if they could be used to assist athletes and health professionals involved in rehabilitation...
2014: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
James P Finn, Rob J Wood, John F Marsden
The main finding of this study was that for heat acclimatised athletes, there was no significant difference (p=0.58) in anaerobic capacity for temperate (21.8 ± 0.5 °C; 52 ± 5 % relative humidity) compared with warm conditions (29.6 ± 0.5 °C; 51 ± 9 % relative humidity). Anaerobic capacity was estimated using the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) during constant intensity cycling at 120% peak rate of O2 consumption until exhaustion. This yielded mean MAOD values of 3.3 ± 0.9 and 3.5 ± 1.1 L for temperate and warm conditions, respectively...
December 2003: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Kerry McGawley, Hans-Christer Holmberg
PURPOSE: Cross-country-ski races place complex demands on athletes, with events lasting between approximately 3 min and 2 h. The aim of the current study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic measures derived from a short time trial (TT) between male and female skiers using diagonal cross-country skiing. METHODS: Twenty-four highly trained cross-country skiers (12 male and 12 female, age 17.4 ± 1.4 y, body mass 68.2 ± 8.9 kg, height 174 ± 8 cm) participated...
January 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Michelle L Keightley, Rajeet Singh Saluja, Jen-Kai Chen, Isabelle Gagnon, Gabriel Leonard, Michael Petrides, Alain Ptito
Abstract In children, the importance of detecting deficits after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion has grown with the increasing popularity of leisure physical activities and contact sports. Whereas most postconcussive symptoms (PCS) are similar for children and adults, the breadth of consequences to children remains largely unknown. To investigate the effect of mTBI on brain function, we compared working memory performance and related brain activity using blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 15 concussed youths and 15 healthy age-matched control subjects...
March 1, 2014: Journal of Neurotrauma
Dionne A Noordhof, Philip F Skiba, Jos J de Koning
Anaerobic capacity/anaerobically attributable power is an important parameter for athletic performance, not only for short high-intensity activities but also for breakaway efforts and end spurts during endurance events. Unlike aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity cannot be easily quantified. The 3 most commonly used methodologies to quantify anaerobic capacity are the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit method, the critical power concept, and the gross efficiency method. This review describes these methods, evaluates if they result in similar estimates of anaerobic capacity, and highlights how anaerobic capacity is used during sporting activities...
September 2013: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Maddison J Jones, Peter Peeling
PURPOSE: To compare the differences in peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and lactate threshold (LT2) between the 7 × 4-min incremental step test (7-ST) and the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test protocols in sprint kayak athletes. METHODS: Nine highly trained kayak athletes performed the 2 laboratory test protocols. The 7-ST involved six 4-min submaximal incremental stages, each separated by a 1-min recovery, before a 4-min all-out effort. The MAOD test involved four 4-min submaximal incremental stages (also with each stage separated by a 1-min recovery), followed by 20-min recovery and a 4-min all-out effort...
March 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
David C Poole, Andrew M Jones
Muscular exercise requires transitions to and from metabolic rates often exceeding an order of magnitude above resting and places prodigious demands on the oxidative machinery and O2-transport pathway. The science of kinetics seeks to characterize the dynamic profiles of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and muscular systems and their integration to resolve the essential control mechanisms of muscle energetics and oxidative function: a goal not feasible using the steady-state response. Essential features of the O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics response are highly conserved across the animal kingdom...
April 2012: Comprehensive Physiology
B Sperlich, T Schiffer, U Hoffmann, H K Strueder, W Hollmann
The increase in oxygen uptake > 100 ml · min-1 during steady state exercise when elevating the inspired fractional air content (FinO2) from 0.21-1.00 defines the "spirografic oxygen deficit" (SOD). The purpose of this study was 2-fold: 1) determine the SOD at different exercise intensities in healthy participants and 2) investigate if a correlation exists among key variables of cardiopulmonary exercise testing. 12 men (24±2 yrs; 183±4 cm; 83.5±5.3 kg) performed cycle tests to determine maximal power output (Pmax), the power output at the first (PVT1) and the second ventilatory threshold (PVT2), at 4 mmol · l-1 blood lactate (P4) and lactate threshold (PLT)...
December 2013: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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