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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824689/eccentric-cycling-a-promising-modality-for-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#1
Lauren C Chasland, Daniel J Green, Andrew J Maiorana, Kazunori Nosaka, Andrew Haynes, Lawrence Dembo, Louise H Naylor
INTRODUCTION: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by dyspnea and poor exercise tolerance, which decreases aerobic capacity (V˙O2peak), a measure strongly correlated with quality of life and mortality. In healthy populations, eccentric (ECC) cycling can be performed at a lower oxygen demand for matched workload, compared to concentric (CON) cycling, but few studies have previously investigated ECC cycling in CHF. We hypothesized that, when matched for external workload (Watts), an ECC cycling bout would be performed at a lower cardiorespiratory load (V˙O2) than CON in patients with CHF...
November 7, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766133/the-effect-of-a-moderately-low-and-high-carbohydrate-intake-on-crossfit-performance
#2
Kurt A Escobar, Jacobo Morales, Trisha A Vandusseldorp
CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of <6 g/kg/day were randomly assigned into a CHO (n = 9) or control (C) group (n =9) and underwent a 9-day training protocol. During days 1, 5, and 9, performance was measured as repetitions completed during a 12 minute CrossFit workout...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763583/altered-gas-exchange-at-peak-exercise-in-obese-adolescents-implications-for-verification-of-effort-during-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#3
Nastasia Marinus, Liene Bervoets, Guy Massa, Kenneth Verboven, An Stevens, Tim Takken, Dominique Hansen
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is advised ahead of exercise intervention in obese adolescents to assess medical safety of exercise and physical fitness. Optimal validity and reliability of test results are required to identify maximal exercise effort. As fat oxidation during exercise is disturbed in obese individuals, it remains an unresolved methodological issue whether the respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) is a valid marker for maximal effort during exercise testing in this population...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614882/markers-of-biological-stress-in-response-to-a-single-session-of-high-intensity-interval-training-and-high-volume-training-in-young-athletes
#4
Yvonne Kilian, Florian Engel, Patrick Wahl, Silvia Achtzehn, Billy Sperlich, Joachim Mester
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes. METHODS: Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min(-1) kg(-1) peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90-95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output)...
September 10, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514312/variation-in-hospital-utilization-at-the-end-of-life-for-patients-with-cancer-in-the-emilia-romagna-region-of-italy
#5
Daniel Z Louis, Sarah E Hegarty, Maurizio Leoni, Rossana De Palma, Stefan Varga, Rita Melotti
INTRODUCTION: Despite the preference of many patients to die at home, high proportions of patients with advanced cancer undergo major procedures, receive intensive care, and die in the hospital. The goal of this study is to examine variation in hospital utilization and site of death for patients dying with poor-prognosis cancer in the Regione Emilia-Romagna (RER), Italy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-level study using administrative data. Patients were included if they died in 2012 and had at least one hospital admission for metastatic or poor-prognosis cancer within 180 days of death...
August 5, 2016: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487418/oxygen-uptake-respiratory-exchange-ratio-or-total-distance-a-comparison-of-methods-to-equalize-exercise-volume-in-wistar-rats
#6
L S Paes, J P Borges, F A Cunha, M G C Souza, F Z G A Cyrino, D A Bottino, E Bouskela, P Farinatti
This study compared strategies to equalize the volume of aerobic exercise performed with different intensities by Wistar rats, based on the distance covered during exercise bouts and energy expenditure (EE, isocaloric sessions) obtained from oxygen uptake (V̇O2) or respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Thirty-three male rats (270.5±12.8 g) underwent maximal exercise tests to determine V̇O2 reserve (V̇O2R), being randomly assigned to three groups: moderate-intensity continuous exercise at speed corresponding to 50% V̇O2R (MIC; n=11); high-intensity continuous exercise at 80% V̇O2R (HIC; n=11); and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HII; n=11) at 60% V̇O2R (3 min) and 80% V̇O2R (4 min)...
July 28, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27410770/ten-days-of-intermittent-low-dose-carbon-monoxide-inhalation-does-not-significantly-alter-hemoglobin-mass-aerobic-performance-predictors-or-peak-power-exercise-tolerance
#7
B J Ryan, J A Goodrich, W Schmidt, L A Kane, W C Byrnes
Carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing procedures are used to assess hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) but recent evidence suggests that CO is a signaling molecule that may alter physiological functions. We examined the effects of 10 days of intermittent, low-dose CO inhalation on Hbmass, aerobic performance predictors, and peak-power exercise tolerance. 18 recreationally-active men were randomized to either CO or placebo inhalation groups in a single-blind, pre-post parallel-groups trial. Primary outcomes were assessed before and after an intervention period during which subjects inhaled a bolus of 1...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408778/branched-chain-amino-acid-restriction-in-zucker-fatty-rats-improves-muscle-insulin-sensitivity-by-enhancing-efficiency-of-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-acyl-glycine-export
#8
Phillip J White, Amanda L Lapworth, Jie An, Liping Wang, Robert W McGarrah, Robert D Stevens, Olga Ilkayeva, Tabitha George, Michael J Muehlbauer, James R Bain, Jeff K Trimmer, M Julia Brosnan, Timothy P Rolph, Christopher B Newgard
OBJECTIVE: A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-related metabolic signature is strongly associated with insulin resistance and predictive of incident diabetes and intervention outcomes. To better understand the role that this metabolite cluster plays in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, we studied the impact of BCAA restriction in a rodent model of obesity in which BCAA metabolism is perturbed in ways that mirror the human condition. METHODS: Zucker-lean rats (ZLR) and Zucker-fatty rats (ZFR) were fed either a custom control, low fat (LF) diet, or an isonitrogenous, isocaloric LF diet in which all three BCAA (Leu, Ile, Val) were reduced by 45% (LF-RES)...
July 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376240/nonlinear-multiscale-regularisation-in-mr-elastography-towards-fine-feature-mapping
#9
Eric Barnhill, Lyam Hollis, Ingolf Sack, Jürgen Braun, Peter R Hoskins, Pankaj Pankaj, Colin Brown, Edwin J R van Beek, Neil Roberts
: Fine-featured elastograms may provide additional information of radiological interest in the context of in vivo elastography. Here a new image processing pipeline called ESP (Elastography Software Pipeline) is developed to create Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) maps of viscoelastic parameters (complex modulus magnitude |G(*)| and loss angle ϕ) that preserve fine-scale information through nonlinear, multi-scale extensions of typical MRE post-processing techniques. METHODS: A new MRE image processing pipeline was developed that incorporates wavelet-domain denoising, image-driven noise estimation, and feature detection...
June 4, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354539/measuring-the-short-term-substrate-utilization-response-to-high-carbohydrate-and-high-fat-meals-in-the-whole-body-indirect-calorimeter
#10
Andrei Gribok, Jayme L Leger, Michelle Stevens, Reed Hoyt, Mark Buller, William Rumpler
The paper demonstrates that minute-to-minute metabolic response to meals with different macronutrient content can be measured and discerned in the whole-body indirect calorimeter. The ability to discriminate between high-carbohydrate and high-fat meals is achieved by applying a modified regularization technique with additional constraints imposed on oxygen consumption rate. These additional constraints reduce the differences in accuracy between the oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers. The modified technique was applied to 63 calorimeter sessions that were each 24 h long...
June 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312352/commonly-used-reference-values-underestimate-oxygen-uptake-in-healthy-50-year-old-swedish-women
#11
M Genberg, B Andrén, L Lind, H Hedenström, A Malinovschi
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard among clinical exercise tests. It combines a conventional stress test with measurement of oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) and CO2 production. No validated Swedish reference values exist, and reference values in women are generally understudied. Moreover, the importance of achieved respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and the significance of breathing reserve (BR) at peak exercise in healthy individuals are poorly understood. We compared VO 2 at maximal load (peakVO 2 ) and anaerobic threshold (VO 2@ AT ) in healthy Swedish individuals with commonly used reference values, taking gender into account...
June 16, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293507/oxygen-consumption-and-substrate-utilization-during-and-after-resistance-exercises-performed-with-different-muscle-mass
#12
Paulo Farinatti, Antonio G Castinheiras Neto, Paulo R S Amorim
This study investigated the energy expenditure (EE) and substrate utilization reflected by the respiratory-exchange ratio (RER) during and after resistance exercises performed with different muscle mass. Ten male volunteers (mean±SD; 26±4yr, 179±6cm, 77±8kg) performed multiple sets of the horizontal leg press (LP) and chest fly (CF) (5 sets of 10 repetitions with 15 repetition-maximum, 1-minute between-set intervals) in a counterbalanced design. Oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production were measured during 40 minutes of resting; resistance exercise protocols (sets and intervals); 90 minutes of post-exercise recovery...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982073/the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-modifies-exercise-induced-muscle-metabolism
#13
David Vaughan, Michael Brogioli, Thomas Maier, Andy White, Sarah Waldron, Jörn Rittweger, Marco Toigo, Jessica Wettstein, Endre Laczko, Martin Flück
OBJECTIVE: A silencer region (I-allele) within intron 16 of the gene for the regulator of vascular perfusion, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is implicated in phenotypic variation of aerobic fitness and the development of type II diabetes. We hypothesised that the reportedly lower aerobic performance in non-carriers compared to carriers of the ACE I-allele, i.e. ACE-DD vs. ACE-ID/ACE-II genotype, is associated with alterations in activity-induced glucose metabolism and capillarisation in exercise muscle...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26975547/altered-somatotroph-feedback-regulation-improves-metabolic-efficiency-and-limits-adipose-deposition-in-male-mice
#14
Christopher J Romero, Andrew Wolfe, Yi Ying Law, ChenChen Z Costelloe, Ryan Miller, Fredric Wondisford, Sally Radovick
Several transgenic mouse models with disruption in the growth hormone (GH) axis support the role of GH in augmenting metabolic homeostasis. Specifically, interest has focused on GH's lipolytic properties and ability to affect adipose deposition. Furthermore, both GH and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) may also play a direct or indirect role in adipose development. The somatotroph insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor knockout (SIGFRKO) mouse with only a modest increase in serum GH and IGF-1 demonstrates less adipose tissue than controls...
April 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26960444/day-to-day-variability-in-fat-oxidation-and-the-effect-after-only-1-day-of-change-in-diet-composition
#15
Eva Maria Støa, Lill-Katrin Nyhus, Sandra Claveau Børresen, Caroline Nygaard, Åse Marie Hovet, Solfrid Bratland-Sanda, Jan Helgerud, Øyvind Støren
Indirect calorimetry is a common and noninvasive method to estimate rate of fat oxidation (FatOx) during exercise, and test-retest reliability should be considered when interpreting results. Diet also has an impact on FatOx. The aim of the present study was to investigate day to day variations in FatOx during moderate exercise given the same diet and 2 different isoenergetic diets. Nine healthy, moderately-trained females participated in the study. They performed 1 maximal oxygen uptake test and 4 FatOx tests...
April 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26959874/dietary-macronutrient-distribution-influences-post-exercise-substrate-utilization-in-women-a-cross-sectional-evaluation-of-metabolic-flexibility
#16
Eric T Trexler, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Hailee L Wingfield, Malia N Blue, Erica J Roelofs, Katie R Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Metabolic flexibility is the ability to alter substrate utilization in response to substrate availability, which may influence health and performance. The current study evaluated the effects of habitual macronutrient distribution on energy expenditure (EE) and metabolic flexibility in physically active women. METHODS: Participants (n=20) completed a 3-day food log and a standardized bout of high- intensity interval training to determine EE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER)...
March 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26935509/nordic-walking-may-safely-increase-the-intensity-of-exercise-training-in-healthy-subjects-and-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Andrzej Lejczak, Krystian Josiak, Kinga Węgrzynowska-Teodorczyk, Eliza Rudzińska, Ewa A Jankowska, Waldemar Banasiak, Massimo F Piepoli, Marek Woźniewski, Piotr Ponikowski
BACKGROUND: Physical activity in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) improves the exercise capacity and quality of life, and may also reduce mortality and hospitalizations. The greatest benefits are achieved through high-intensity aerobic exercises resulting in a stronger cardiorespiratory response. Nordic walking (NW), a walking technique using two poles and mimicking the movements performed while cross-country skiing, is associated with the involvement of more muscle groups than in the case of classic walking, and should therefore make it possible to increase exercise intensity, resulting in more effective training for patients with HF...
January 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907839/seasonal-changes-in-whole-body-and-regional-body-composition-profiles-of-elite-collegiate-ice-hockey-players
#18
Neal W Prokop, Ryan E R Reid, Ross E Andersen
The monitoring of a collegiate hockey player's body composition can reflect fitness characteristics and may help players, coaches, or strength and conditioning specialists optimize physiologic gains during an off-season, whereas simultaneously preventing performance decrements in-season. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in whole-body and regional-body composition of fat and lean tissue. The body composition profiles of 19 elite Canadian collegiate hockey players were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
March 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26839613/the-accumulative-effect-of-concentric-biased-and-eccentric-biased-exercise-on-cardiorespiratory-and-metabolic-responses-to-subsequent-low-intensity-exercise-a-preliminary-study
#19
James Peter Gavin, Stephen Myers, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems
The study investigated the accumulative effect of concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular responses to low-intensity exercise performed hours later. Fourteen young men cycled at low-intensity (~60 rpm at 50% maximal oxygen uptake) for 10 min before, and 12 h after: concentric-biased, single-leg cycling exercise (CON) (performed ~19:30 h) and eccentric-biased, double-leg knee extension exercise (ECC) (~06:30 h the following morning). Respiratory measures were sampled breath-by-breath, with oxidation values derived from stoichiometry equations...
December 22, 2015: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26816497/reliability-and-day-to-day-variability-of-peak-fat-oxidation-during-treadmill-ergometry
#20
Raul De Souza Silveira, Anja Carlsohn, Georg Langen, Frank Mayer, Friederike Scharhag-Rosenberger
BACKGROUND: Exercising at intensities where fat oxidation rates are high has been shown to induce metabolic benefits in recreational and health-oriented sportsmen. The exercise intensity (Fatpeak) eliciting peak fat oxidation rates is therefore of particular interest when aiming to prescribe exercise for the purpose of fat oxidation and related metabolic effects. Although running and walking are feasible and popular among the target population, no reliable protocols are available to assess Fatpeak as well as its actual velocity (VPFO) during treadmill ergometry...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
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