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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542568/nesfatin-1-like-peptide-is-a-novel-metabolic-factor-that-suppresses-feeding-and-regulates-whole-body-energy-homeostasis-in-male-wistar-rats
#1
Kavishankar Gawli, Naresh Ramesh, Suraj Unniappan
Nucleobindin-1 has high sequence similarity to nucleobindin-2, which encodes the anorectic and metabolic peptide, nesfatin-1. We previously reported a nesfatin-1-like peptide (NLP), anorectic in fish and insulinotropic in mice islet beta-like cells. The main objective of this research was to determine whether NLP is a metabolic regulator in male Wistar rats. A single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of NLP (100 μg/kg BW) decreased food intake and increased ambulatory movement, without causing any change in total activity or energy expenditure when compared to saline-treated rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542090/5-km-time-trial-reliability-of-a-non-motorized-treadmill-and-comparison-of-physiological-and-perceptual-responses-versus-a-motorized-treadmill
#2
Hunter S Waldman, Alex J Heatherly, Ashton F Waddell, Ben M Krings, Eric K O'Neal
This study examined the reproducibility of performance across 3 non-motorized treadmill (NMT) 5-km time trials (TT) and physiological, gait, and perceptual differences of running at 5-km pace for both NMT and motorized treadmills (MT). Ten male runners experienced in road racing that had never run on a NMT completed 3 TT to establish personal best 5-km pace. In a later session, participants ran at this pace for 5 min on the NMT while metabolic, gait, and perceptual measures were recorded and then ran at outdoor 5-km personal best pace on a MT at 1% grade (counter-balanced crossover design)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534253/evaluating-the-involvement-and-interaction-of-abscisic-acid-and-mirna156-in-the-induction-of-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-drought-stressed-plants
#3
REVIEW
Jorge González-Villagra, Leonid V Kurepin, Marjorie M Reyes-Díaz
ABA is involved in anthocyanin synthesis through the regulation of microRNA156, augmenting the level of expression of anthocyanin synthesis-related genes and, therefore, increasing anthocyanin level. Drought stress is the main cause of agricultural crop loss in the world. However, plants have developed mechanisms that allow them to tolerate drought stress conditions. At cellular level, drought stress induces changes in metabolite accumulation, including increases in anthocyanin levels due to upregulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway...
May 22, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531129/rapid-and-cost-effective-quantification-of-glucosinolates-and-total-phenolic-content-in-rocket-leaves-by-visible-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#4
Eva María Toledo-Martín, Rafael Font, Sara Obregón-Cano, Antonio De Haro-Bailón, Myriam Villatoro-Pulido, Mercedes Del Río-Celestino
The potential of visible-near infrared spectroscopy to predict glucosinolates and total phenolic content in rocket (Eruca vesicaria) leaves has been evaluated. Accessions of the E. vesicaria species were scanned by NIRS as ground leaf, and their reference values regressed against different spectral transformations by modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (R²VAL) for the different quality components analyzed in rocket ranged from 0.59 to 0...
May 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515830/how-different-respiratory-rate-patterns-affect-cardiorespiratory-variables-and-performance
#5
Minas Nalbandian, Zsolt Radak, Jun Taniguchi, Takeda Masaki
This study aims to elucidate how respiratory rate (RR) patterns may affect respiratory gas exchange variables and performance during incremental intensity- exercise. 10 healthy young men (mean ± SD, age: 20.7 ± 0.5 years, height: 174.3 ± 5.7 cm, and body mass: 72.6 ± 10.4 kg) performed three incremental tests on a cycle ergometer at three different RR (60, 45 and 30 breaths per min) in each trial. During the tests, tidal volume (TV), minute ventilation (VE), fractional content of oxygen (FeO2), fractional content of carbon dioxide (FeCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), expiratory carbon dioxide (VCO2), equivalent of oxygen (EqO2), VE/VCO2, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determinate breath-by-breath...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506826/an-x-chromosome-linked-mouse-model-ndufa1-s55a-for-systemic-partial-complex-i-deficiency-for-studying-predisposition-to-neurodegeneration-and-other-diseases
#6
Chul Kim, Prasanth Potluri, Ahmed Khalil, Daria Gaut, Meagan McManus, Shannon Compton, Douglas C Wallace, Nagendra Yadava
The respiratory chain Complex I deficiencies are the most common cause of mitochondrial diseases. Complex I biogenesis is controlled by 58 genes and at least 47 of these cause mitochondrial disease in humans. Two of these are X-chromosome linked nuclear (nDNA) genes (NDUFA1 and NDUFB11), and 7 are mitochondrial (mtDNA, MT-ND1-6, -4L) genes, which may be responsible for sex-dependent variation in the presentation of mitochondrial diseases. In this study, we describe an X-chromosome linked mouse model (Ndufa1(S55A)) for systemic partial Complex I deficiency...
May 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500893/glucagon-receptor-knockout-mice-are-protected-against-acute-olanzapine-induced-hyperglycemia
#7
Laura N Castellani, Willem T Peppler, Charles D Sutton, Jamie Whitfield, Maureen J Charron, David C Wright
OBJECTIVES: To determine if glucagon is involved in mediating the increase in blood glucose levels caused by the second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole body glucagon receptor deficient mice (Gcgr(-/-)) or WT littermate controls were injected with olanzapine (5mg/kg BW IP) and changes in blood glucose measured over the following 120min. Separate cohorts of mice were treated with olanzapine and changes in pyruvate tolerance, insulin tolerance and whole body substrate oxidation were determined...
May 3, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494215/potential-ultrastructure-predicting-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hcv-infected-patients
#8
Soheir S Mansy, Eman El-Ahwany, Soheir Mahmoud, Sara Hassan, Mohammed I Seleem, Amr Abdelaal, Ahmed H Helmy, Mona K Zoheiry, Ahmed S AbdelFattah, Moataz H Hassanein
Hepatitis C virus represents one of the rising causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the early diagnosis of HCC is vital for successful curative treatment, the majority of lesions are diagnosed in an irredeemable phase. This work deals with a comparative ultrastructural study of experimentally gradually induced HCC, surgically resected HCC, and potential premalignant lesions from HCV-infected patients, with the prospect to detect cellular criteria denoting premalignant transformation. Among the main detected pathological changes which are postulated to precede frank HCC: failure of normal hepatocyte regeneration with star shape clonal fragmentation, frequent elucidation of hepatic progenitor cells and Hering canals, hepatocytes of different electron density loaded with small sized rounded monotonous mitochondria, increase junctional complexes bordering bile canaliculi and in between hepatocyte membranes, abundant cellular proteinaceous material with hypertrophied or vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), sequestrated nucleus with proteinaceous granular material or hypertrophied RER, formation of lipolysosomes, large autophagosomes, and micro-vesicular fat deposition...
May 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462577/comparison-of-physiological-measures-obtained-using-the-lode-excalibur-sport-cycle-ergometer-and-the-tacx-i-magic-home-training-device
#9
Kevin L Merry
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare several physiological measures obtained using a criterion cycle ergometer (Lode Excalibur Sport) and a commercially available home training device (Tacx i--Magic). METHODS: In a randomised, counterbalanced order, eight male amateur club level cyclists (age 30.4 ± 3.5 years, body mass 75.8 ± 8.1 kg, stature 1.75 ± 0.06 m) completed a submaximal and maximal incremental test on both the Lode Excalibur Sport and the Tacx i-Magic...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453544/predicting-herbivore-faecal-nitrogen-using-a-multispecies-near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy-calibration
#10
Miriam Villamuelas, Emmanuel Serrano, Johan Espunyes, Néstor Fernández, Jorge R López-Olvera, Mathieu Garel, João Santos, María Ángeles Parra-Aguado, Maurizio Ramanzin, Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Andreu Colom-Cadena, Ignasi Marco, Santiago Lavín, Jordi Bartolomé, Elena Albanell
Optimal management of free-ranging herbivores requires the accurate assessment of an animal's nutritional status. For this purpose 'near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy' (NIRS) is very useful, especially when nutritional assessment is done through faecal indicators such as faecal nitrogen (FN). In order to perform an NIRS calibration, the default protocol recommends starting by generating an initial equation based on at least 50-75 samples from the given species. Although this protocol optimises prediction accuracy, it limits the use of NIRS with rare or endangered species where sample sizes are often small...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442484/low-dose-leptin-infusion-in-the-fourth-ventricle-of-rats-enhances-the-response-to-third-ventricle-leptin-injection
#11
Ruth B S Harris
We previously reported that low dose leptin infusions into the 3(rd) or 4(th) ventricle that do not effect energy balance when given independently cause rapid weight loss when given simultaneously. Therefore, we tested whether hindbrain leptin enhances the response to forebrain leptin, or whether forebrain leptin enhances the response to hindbrain leptin. Rats received 4(th) ventricle infusions of saline, 0.01, 0.1, 0.3 or 0.6 μg leptin/day for 13 days. On days 9 and 13 0.1 μg leptin was injected into the 3(rd) ventricle...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415097/p544the-importance-of-contractile-reserve-when-assessing-asymptomatic-patients-with-aortic-stenosis
#12
J J Van Zalen, S Badiani, L Hart, A Marshall, N Patel, G Lloyd
Asymptomatic patients may exhibit symptoms during objective exercise testing, but whether symptoms are due to the obstructively of the valve (typified by the mean gradient) or underlying ventricular function remains unknown. While the mean gradient is an easy parameter to measure no consensus about the measurement of contractile reserve exists. Longitudinal abnormalities may occur in the presence of a normal ejection fraction and the augmentation of these parameters is poorly described. To obtain an objective regarding patients exercise ability is best determined using cardiopulmonary exercise testing...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401733/effects-of-metals-cadmium-and-chromium-alone-and-in-combination-on-the-liver-and-kidney-tissue-of-male-spraque-dawley-rats-an-ultrastructural-and-electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy-investigation
#13
Chantelle Venter, Hester Magdalena Oberholzer, Franscious Riccardo Cummings, Megan Jean Bester
Heavy metal pollution has increased in the last decades. Water sources are contaminated and human exposure is often long term exposure to variable amounts of different metals. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed via oral gavage for 28 days to cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr), alone and in combination at concentrations 1000 times the human World Health Organization's acceptable water limits. Rat equivalent dosages were used. Blood markers of liver and kidney function were measured, changes to cellular morphology was determined with transmission electron microscopy and the intracellular metal localisation was determined with the electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy analysis...
April 12, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401359/ultrastructure-of-fat-body-cells-and-malpighian-tubule-cells-in-overwintering-scoliopteryx-libatrix-noctuoidea
#14
Saška Lipovšek, Franc Janžekovič, Tone Novak
The herald moths, Scoliopteryx libatrix, overwinter in hypogean habitats. The ultrastructure of their fat body (FB) cells and Malpighian tubule (MT) epithelial cells was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and essential biometric and biochemical measurements were performed. The FB was composed of adipocytes and sparse urocytes. The ultrastructure of both cells did not change considerably during this natural starvation period, except for rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) which became more abundant in March females...
April 11, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400503/pgc-1%C3%AE-and-fasting-induced-pdh-regulation-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#15
Anders Gudiksen, Henriette Pilegaard
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether lack of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) affects the switch in substrate utilization from a fed to fasted state and the fasting-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1α knockout (MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls were fed or fasted for 24 h. Fasting reduced PDHa activity, increased phosphorylation of all four known sites on PDH-E1α and increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) protein levels, but did not alter total acetylation of PDH-E1α Lack of muscle PGC-1α did not affect the switch from glucose to fat oxidation in the transition from the fed to fasted state, but was associated with lower and higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in the fed and fasted state, respectively...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396263/stable-isotope-analysis-of-co2-in-breath-indicates-metabolic-fuel-shifts-in-torpid-arctic-ground-squirrels
#16
Trixie N Lee, Melanie M Richter, Cory T Williams, Øivind Tøien, Brian M Barnes, Diane M O'Brien, C Loren Buck
Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) in breath show promise as an indicator of immediate metabolic fuel utilization in animals because tissue lipids have a lower δ(13)C value than carbohydrates and proteins. Metabolic fuel consumption is often estimated using the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), which has lipid and carbohydrate boundaries, but does not differentiate between protein and mixed fuel catabolism at intermediate values. Because lipids have relatively low δ(13)C values, measurements of stable carbon isotopes in breath may help distinguish between catabolism of protein and mixed fuel that includes lipid...
July 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386795/-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-response-to-exercise-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#17
I Turinese, P Marinelli, M Bonini, M Rossetti, G Statuto, T Filardi, A Paris, A Lenzi, S Morano, P Palange
PURPOSE: Physical activity is an effective therapeutic tool for cardiovascular risk prevention. However, exercise aerobic capacity of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) has not been thoroughly investigated. Aim of the present study is to evaluate exercise aerobic capacity in patients with T1DM compared to a normal control population. METHODS: This observational study included 17 T1DM patients and 17 matched healthy volunteers. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was conducted on an electronically-braked cycle ergometer...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385890/ziploc-ing-the-structure-2-0-endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-peptidyl-prolyl-isomerases-show-different-activities-toward-hydroxyproline
#18
Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Kazunori Mizuno, Hans Peter Bächinger
Extracellular matrix proteins are biosynthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and the triple-helical protein collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix component in the human body. Many enzymes, molecular chaperones, and post-translational modifiers facilitate collagen biosynthesis. Collagen contains a large number of proline residues, so the cis/trans isomerization of proline peptide bonds is the rate-limiting step during triple-helix formation. Accordingly, the rER-resident peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) play an important role in the zipper-like triple-helix formation in collagen...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377168/a-reference-equation-for-normal-standards-for-vo2-max-analysis-from-the-fitness-registry-and-the-importance-of-exercise-national-database-friend-registry
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan Myers, Leonard A Kaminsky, Ricardo Lima, Jeffrey Chistle, Euan Ashley, Ross Arena
Existing normal standards for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) are problematic because they tend to be population specific, lack normal distribution and portability, and are poorly represented by women. The objective of the current study was to apply the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base (FRIEND) Registry to improve upon previous regression formulas for normal standards for VO2 max using treadmill testing. Maximal treadmill tests were performed in 7783 healthy men and women (20-79years; maximal RER >1...
April 1, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368959/the-effects-of-a-cycling-warm-up-including-high-intensity-heavy-resistance-conditioning-contractions-on-subsequent-4-km-time-trial-performance
#20
Alan Chorley, Kevin L Lamb
Prior exercise has been shown to improve subsequent performance via different mechanisms. Sport-specific conditioning contractions can be used to exploit the 'post-activation potentiation' (PAP) phenomenon to enhance performance although this has rarely been investigated in short endurance events. The aim of this study was to compare a cycling warm-up with PAP-inducing conditioning contractions (CW) with a moderate intensity warm-up (MW) on performance and physiological outcomes of 4 km time trial. Ten well-trained male endurance cyclists (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 65...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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