Read by QxMD icon Read


Ghazaul Dezfuli, Richard A Gillis, Jaclyn E Tatge, Kimbell R Duncan, Kenneth L Dretchen, Patrick G Jackson, Joseph G Verbalis, Niaz Sahibzada
Background/Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that abolishing vagal nerve activity will reverse the obesity phenotype of melanocortin 4 receptor knockout mice ( Mc4r -/- ). Subjects/Methods: In two separate studies, we examined the efficacy of bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV) with pyloroplasty in the prevention and treatment of obesity in Mc4r -/- mice. Results: In the first study, SDV prevented >20% increase in body weight (BW) associated with this genotype. This was correlated with a transient reduction in overall food intake (FI) in the preventative arm of the study...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Babu Nageswararao Kanuri, Sanjay C Rebello, Priya Pathak, Hobby Agarwal, Jitendra S Kanshana, Deepika Awasthi, Anand P Gupta, Jiaur R Gayen, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Madhu Dikshit
Oxidative stress due to enhanced production or reduced scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been associated with diet (dyslipidemia) induced obesity and insulin resistance (IR). The present study was undertaken to assess the role of p47phox in IR using wild type (WT) and p47phox-/- mice, fed with different diets (HFD, LFD or Chow). Augmented body weight, glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity were observed in p47phox-/- mice fed with 45% HFD and 10% LFD. Further, body fat and circulating lipids was increased significantly with 5 weeks LFD feeding in p47phox-/- mice, while parameters of energy homeostasis were reduced as compared to WT mice...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Marian L Miller, Aleksey Porollo, Susan Wert
Alveolar type II cells from seven mammalian species were examined for a protein in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), which showed a multi-layered, repeating motif. Each motif, 100nm in width, comprised two parallel outer dense layers, a less dense central layer, and often 1-3 faint layers on either side of the latter. Outer layers showed periodicities at 3-4 densities/100nm of width, while layers on either side of the central layer showed 5-7 densities/100nm of width. RER membranes were ribosome-free when parallel to these layers, but showed 4 ribosomes per motif at the growing ends: one ribosome at each outer dense layer, and one on either side of the less dense central layer...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Boe M Burrus, Brian M Moscicki, Tracey D Matthews, Vincent J Paolone
Chronic supplementation of L-carnitine and carbohydrate has been reported to increase L-carnitine content in skeletal muscle and have positive influences on exercise variables and performance. This study investigated the acute intake of L-carnitine and carbohydrate on the exercise parameters of cycling. A total of 10 males (27.0 ± 4 years) completed two exercise sessions consisting of 40 min of cycling at 65% of VO2peak , followed by cycling to exhaustion at 85% of VO2peak . L-carnitine or a placebo was consumed 3 hours prior to exercise, and beverages consisting of 94 g of carbohydrate were consumed at both 2 hours, and 30 minutes prior to exercise...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Jordan Perry, Wayne Johnson, Gilbert W Fellingham, Pat R Vehrs
Background/Objective: The heart rate (HR) and metabolic (VO2 ) responses to treadmill running using the GlideTrak™ body weight support system have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the submaximal and maximal HR and VO2 responses to normal-weight treadmill running (TMR) to treadmill running with body weight support provided by the GlideTrak™ (GTR). Methods: Twenty participants (11 males; 9 females) 18 to 26 years of age voluntarily participated in this study...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Nahla Reda Sarhan, Nesreen Moustafa Omar
Tadalafil (Cialis) is one of the most commonly used phosphodiesterase type5 (PDE5) inhibitors. This work aimed to analyze the histological and ultrastructural changes provoked by chronic tadalafil administration in the rat retina, correlate between such changes and PDE5 immunoexpression and to evaluate the possible reversibility of these changes. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly distributed into 3 groups. Control group; given 1 ml distilled water daily for 6 weeks. Tadalafil group; given tadalafil in a daily dose of 2...
March 8, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Kerri A Morgan, Kelly L Taylor, Susan M Tucker, W Todd Cade, Joseph W Klaesner
OBJECTIVE: Determine the validity and reliability of an exercise testing protocol to evaluate cardiorespiratory measures in manual wheelchair users (MWUs) with spinal cord injury (SCI) using a roller-based (RS) wheelchair system. DESIGN: Repeated measures within-subject design. SETTING: Community-based research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Ten adults with SCI requiring the use of a manual wheelchair. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
James Steele, Andrew Butler, Zoe Comerford, Jason Dyer, Nathan Lloyd, Joshua Ward, James Fisher, Paulo Gentil, Christopher Scott, Hayao Ozaki
The present study examined the effects of exercise utilising traditional resistance training (leg press) or 'cardio' exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry) modalities upon acute physiological responses. Nine healthy males underwent a within session randomised crossover design where they completed both the leg press and recumbent cycle ergometer conditions. Conditions were approximately matched for effort and duration (leg press: 4 × 12RM using a 2 s concentric and 3 s eccentric repetition duration controlled with a metronome, thus each set lasted  60 s; recumbent cycle ergometer: 4 × 60 s bouts using a resistance level permitting 80-100 rpm but culminating with being unable to sustain the minimum cadence for the final 5-10 s)...
2018: PeerJ
Y Wang, J H Kim, Z Mao, M Ramel, F Pailler, J Perez, H Rey, S Tron, C Jourdan, A Stokes
Background and Aims: The structure of heterogeneous forests has consequences for their biophysical environment. Variations in the local climate significantly affect tree physiological processes. We hypothesize that forest structure also alters tree root elongation and longevity through temporal and spatial variations in soil temperature and water potential. Methods: We installed rhizotrons in paired vegetation communities of closed forest (tree islands) and open patches (canopy gaps), along a soil temperature gradient (elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m) in a heterogeneous mixed forest...
February 28, 2018: Annals of Botany
Meredith G Mock, Katie R Hirsch, Malia N M Blue, Eric T Trexler, Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The current study sought to evaluate the effects of post-exercise ingestion of a high molecular weight glucose polymer solution (HMW) compared to an isocaloric low molecular weight solution (LMW) or placebo (PLA) on subsequent cycling performance in female athletes. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 10 competitive female cyclists (Mean ± SD; Age = 25.7 ± 5.0 yrs; VO2peak = 49.7 ± 4.3 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed three testing sessions separated by 7-10 days...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Dawn P Andrews, Kari B Odland-Wolf, James May, Russell Baker, Alan Nasypany
Background and Purpose: Secondary impingement syndrome (SIS) is a common complaint in the sporting population particularly among athletes engaging in overhead activities. While symptoms may be present at the shoulder with patients complaining of SIS, spinal alignment or dysfunction can influence scapular positioning and overall shoulder girdle function. As an adjunct therapy to traditional interventions for SIS, thoracic high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrusts have been utilized and correlated with patient reported decreases in pain...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Ola A Hussein, Amel M M Abdel-Hafez, Ayat Abd El Kareim
Limb ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with serious local and systemic effects. Reperfusion may augment tissue injury in excess of that produced by ischemia alone. The hippocampus has been reported to be vulnerable to I/R injury. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an endogenous antioxidant with a powerful antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. We studied the probable restorative effect of ALA on limb I/R-induced structural damage of rat hippocampus. Forty adult male albino rats were divided equally into four groups: group I (sham); group II (I/R-1 day) has undergone bilateral femoral arteries occlusion (3 h), then reperfusion for 1 day; group III (I/R-7 days) has undergone reperfusion for seven days; group IV (I/R-ALA) has undergone I/R as group III and received an intraperitoneal injection of ALA (100 mg/kg) for 7 days...
March 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Johanna Oskarsson, Kerry McGawley
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements such as caffeine and beetroot juice are used by athletes in an attempt to optimize performance and therefore gain an advantage in competition. AIM: To investigate the individual and combined effects of caffeine and beetroot-juice supplementation during submaximal and maximal treadmill running. METHODS: Seven males (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 59.0 ± 2.9 mL/kg/min) and two females (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 53...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jonathan E Creeth, Charles R Parkinson, Gary R Burnett, Susmita Sanyal, Frank Lippert, Domenick T Zero, Anderson T Hara
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of a dentifrice containing sodium fluoride (1150 ppm F) and the organic polyphosphate phytate (0.85% w/w of the hexa-sodium salt) on in situ remineralisation of early enamel erosive lesions and resistance to subsequent demineralisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects (n = 62) wore palatal appliances holding eight bovine enamel specimens with pre-formed erosive lesions. They brushed their natural teeth with the phytate test dentifrice (TD); a positive control dentifrice (PC, 1150 ppm fluoride as NaF); a reference dentifrice (RD, disodium pyrophosphate + 1100 ppm fluoride as NaF) or a negative control dentifrice (NC, fluoride-free) in a randomised, double-blind, crossover design...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Brent L Gravelle, Ted W Hagen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation is to assess the physiological characteristics and the resting metabolic rates of a representative population of children in Buchanan County in order to identify those factors that may be contributing to the predisposition for being overweight or obese and provide nutritional and physical activity guidance for prevention. METHODS: Twenty-three volunteers from grades 5, 6 and 7 from Buchannan County, VA underwent parametric and metabolic testing over three consecutive years in order to determine their height, weight, BMI, percent body fat, resting oxygen consumption (VO2), resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and daily energy expenditure (DEE) and consumption...
December 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Morten Dall, Melanie Penke, Karolina Sulek, Madlen Matz-Soja, Birgitte Holst, Antje Garten, Wieland Kiess, Jonas T Treebak
Dietary supplementation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors has been suggested as a treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity. In the liver, NAD+ is primarily generated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), and hepatic levels of NAMPT and NAD+ have been reported to be dependent on age and body composition. The aim of the present study was to identify time-course-dependent changes in hepatic NAD content and NAD+ salvage capacity in mice challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD)...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Manuel J Escalona, Rachel Brosseau, Martin Vermette, Alain Steve Comtois, Cyril Duclos, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Dany H Gagnon
BACKGROUND: Many wheelchair users adopt a sedentary lifestyle, which results in progressive physical deconditioning with increased risk of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and endocrine/metabolic morbidity and mortality. Engaging in a walking program with an overground robotic exoskeleton may be an effective strategy for mitigating these potential negative health consequences and optimizing fitness in this population. However, additional research is warranted to inform the development of adapted physical activity programs incorporating this technology...
January 22, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Don Keiller, Dan Gordon
This study investigates heart rate (HR), in 11 young adults (22.4±3.21yr), at V̇O2max, to ascertain whether measured maximal heart rate (HRmax), as determined by a plateau in HR (HRplat), can reliably confirm V̇O2max. V̇O2max and HRplat were determined, using the parameters of a V̇O2≤50 ml•min-1 and a ∆HR≤2b•min-1, respectively, over the final 60 s of sampling. V̇O2 was also independently determined using a verification phase protocol. A HRplat was achieved by 91% of participants (∆HR=1...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
David J Elmer, Marissa Toney
PURPOSE: The modified Dmax method can accurately determine the second lactate threshold (LT2), which is valuable for predicting aerobic performance and prescribing exercise. The purpose of this study is to determine if the modified Dmax method can accurately find thresholds in VE (VT2), VCO2 (VCO2T), RER (RERT), and RR (RRT) to estimate LT2. METHODS: Forty-one participants (females n=23, males n=18) completed an incremental exercise test to determine LT2, VT2, VCO2T, RERT, RRT, and blood lactate=4 mmol/L (La4)...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Zsolt Nagy, Miklós Nagy, Alexandra Kiss, Dávid Rácz, Beatrix Barna, Péter Könczöl, Csaba Bankó, Zsolt Bacsó, Sándor Kéki, Gaspar Banfalvi, Gábor Szemán-Nagy
Fluorescence time-lapse microscopy is in connection with the invasive properties of fluorochrome applied, and with the toxicity of the excitation energy and wavelength of the dye itself. Experiments with the newly synthesized fluorescent dye 1-N-methylamino-5-isocyanonaphthalene (MICAN) served to test its cytotoxicity on human HaCaT keratinocyte cell cultures. Experiments related to staining capability were performed with paraformaldehyde (PFA) fixed cells and observed with fluorescence microscope. It was assumed that the fluorophore 1-amino-5-isocyanonaphthalene (ICAN) and especially its N-methylamino derivative MICAN, containing condensed aromatic rings could serve as a nonselective fluorescent dye capable to stain cellular structures of fixed, living, damaged and dead cells...
January 18, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"