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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338584/effect-of-acute-ingestion-of-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-salts-on-the-response-to-graded-exercise-in-trained-cyclists
#1
Mark Evans, Ella Patchett, Rickard Nally, Rachel Kearns, Matthew Larney, Brendan Egan
Acute ingestion of ketone salts induces nutritional ketosis by elevating β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), but few studies have examined the metabolic effects of ingestion prior to exercise. Nineteen trained cyclists (12 male, 7 female) undertook graded exercise (8 min each at ∼30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% VO2peak) on a cycle ergometer on two occasions separated by either 7 or 14 days. Trials included ingestion of boluses of either (i) plain water (3.8 mL kg body mass-1) (CON) or (ii) βHB salts (0.38 g kg body mass-1) in plain water (3...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285135/omeprazole-preserves-the-rer-in-chief-cells-and-enhances-re-epithelialization-of-parietal-cells-with-sod-and-aqp-4-up-regulation-in-ethanol-induced-gastritis-rats
#2
Kanchana Kengkoom, Napatara Tirawanchai, Wannee Angkhasirisap, Sumate Ampawong
Gastric mucosal cells, particularly parietal and chief cells, are usually affected by exogenous, and endogenous stimuli-induced gastritis. The integrity of these cells and their alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous gastric disorders. Omeprazole, a gastric acid secretion blocker, is commonly used for gastrointestinal diseases due to its antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory properties. Little is known regarding how omeprazole modulates the re-epithelialized effect on gastric mucosal cells associated with gastrointestinal disorders...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282259/exercise-response-in-parkinson-s-disease-insights-from-a-cross-sectional-comparison-with-sedentary-controls-and-a-per-protocol-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Foteini Mavrommati, Johnny Collett, Marloes Franssen, Andy Meaney, Claire Sexton, Andrea Dennis-West, Jill F Betts, Hooshang Izadi, Marko Bogdanovic, Martin Tims, Andrew Farmer, Helen Dawes
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the acute and adaptation cardiovascular and metabolic training responses in people with Parkinson's disease (pwP). DESIGN: (1) A cross-sectional study of exercise response of pwP compared with sedentary controls and (2) an interventional study of exercise training in pwP. SETTING: Community leisure facilities. PARTICIPANTS: pwP (n=83) and sedentary controls (n=55). INTERVENTIONS: Study 1 included participants from a two-arm-parallel single-blind phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT), that undertook a baseline maximal incremental exercise test and study 2 included those randomised to the exercise group in the RCT, who completed a 6-month weekly exercise programme (n=37)...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261744/energy-homeostasis-in-leptin-deficient-lepob-ob-mice
#4
Alicja A Skowronski, Yann Ravussin, Rudolph L Leibel, Charles A LeDuc
Maintenance of reduced body weight is associated both with reduced energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass and increased hunger in mice and humans. Lowered circulating leptin concentration, due to decreased fat mass, provides a primary signal for this response. However, leptin deficient (Lepob/ob) mice (and leptin receptor deficient Zucker rats) reduce energy expenditure following weight reduction by a necessarily non-leptin dependent mechanisms. To identify these mechanisms, Lepob/ob mice were fed ad libitum (AL group; n = 21) or restricted to 3 kilocalories of chow per day (CR group, n = 21)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248234/technical-note-near-infrared-reflectance-spectroscopy-to-predict-fecal-indigestible-neutral-detergent-fiber-for-dairy-cows
#5
N Brogna, A Palmonari, G Canestrari, L Mammi, A Dal Prà, A Formigoni
In vitro and in situ procedures performed to estimate indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) in forage or fecal samples are time consuming, costly, and limited by intrinsic factors. In contrast, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has become widely recognized as a valuable tool for accurately determining chemical composition and digestibility parameters of forages. The aim of this study was to build NIRS calibrations and equations for fecal iNDF. In total, 1,281 fecal samples were collected to build a calibration data set, but only 301 were used to develop equations...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246653/myostatin-and-adipokines-the-role-of-the-metabolically-unhealthy-obese-phenotype-in-muscle-function-and-aerobic-capacity-in-young-adults
#6
Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho, Renata Pedrolongo Basso-Vanelli, Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Rodolfo de Paula Vieira, José Carlos Bonjorno-Junior, Cláudio Ricardo Oliveira, Rafael Luporini, Audrey Borghi-Silva
Obesity is often associated with metabolic disorders. However, some obese people can present a metabolically healthy phenotype, despite having excessive body fat. Obesity-related cytokines, such as myostatin (MSTN), leptin (LP) and adiponectin (ADP) appear to be key factors for the regulation of muscle and energy metabolism. Our aim was to compare lipid, glucose-insulin and inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNF-α) profiles, muscle function, energy expenditure and aerobic capacity between healthy normal-weight (NW) adults, metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) adults; to study the associations between these outcomes and the cytokines MSTN, ADP, LP; and to establish cutoffs for MSTN and LP/ADP to identify the MUHO phenotype...
December 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242309/physiological-differences-between-a-noncontinuous-and-a-continuous-endurance-training-protocol-in-recreational-runners-and-metabolic-demand-prediction
#7
Muhammad J Ali, Balasekaran Govindasamay, Hoon Kay Hiang, Gerald Seet Gim Lee
This study investigated the physiological difference in recreational runners between a noncontinuous and a continuous endurance training protocol. It also aimed to determine physiological surrogate that could monitor metabolic demand of prolonged running in real-time. For data collection, a total of 18 active male recreational runners were recruited. Physiological (HR, RR, RER, ṼO2, BLa), and overall perceptual (RPEO) responses were recorded against three designed test sessions. Session 1 included ṼO2submax test to determine critical speed (CS) at anaerobic threshold (AT)...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241148/obesity-exacerbates-the-acute-metabolic-side-effects-of-olanzapine
#8
Logan K Townsend, Willem T Peppler, Natasha D Bush, David C Wright
Olanzapine is a second-generation antipsychotic used in the management of schizophrenia and various off-label conditions. The acute metabolic responses of olanzapine recapitulate many of the side effects associated with obesity. Obesity rates are high in the schizophrenic population, but it is unknown whether pre-existing obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction augments the acute side effects of olanzapine. To address this question, we compared the responses to olanzapine in lean and high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice...
December 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218137/low-temperature-limits-for-root-growth-in-alpine-species-are-set-by-cell-differentiation
#9
Sebastian Nagelmüller, Erika Hiltbrunner, Christian Körner
Plant growth in cold climates is not limited by carbon assimilation (source activity) but rather by reduced carbon investment into new tissues (sink limitation). It has been hypothesized that all cold-adapted plants face similar growth constraints at low temperature mainly associated with the formation of new tissues. To explore the thermal limitation of plant tissue formation, we studied root growth and anatomical root tissue characteristics in four cold-adapted alpine species (Ranunculus glacialis, Rumex alpinus, Tussilago farfara, Poa alpina), grown in thermostated soils with a vertical temperature gradient approaching 1 °C...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199635/melatonin-elicits-stimulatory-action-on-the-adrenal-gland-of-soay-ram-morphometrical-immunohistochemical-and-ultrastructural-study
#10
Doaa M Mokhtar, Manal T Hussein, Ahmed H S Hassan
Endogenous melatonin is a hormone secreted by pineal gland; it has several roles in metabolism, reproduction, and remarkable antioxidant properties. Studies on the melatonin effect on the adrenal glands which are important endocrine organs, controlling essential physiological functions, are still deficient. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on the adrenal cortex and medulla using several approaches. Adrenal glands of 15 Soay ram were examined to detect the effect of melatonin treatment...
December 4, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189667/repeatability-and-meaningful-change-of-cpet-parameters-in-normal-subjects
#11
Thomas W DeCato, Sean M Bradley, Emily L Wilson, Matthew J Hegewald
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) plays an important role in clinical medicine and research. Repeatability of CPET parameters has not been well characterized, but is important to assess variability and determine if there have been meaningful changes in a given CPET parameter. METHODS: We recruited 45 healthy subjects and performed two symptom-limited CPETs within 30 days using a cycle ergometer. Differences in relevant CPET parameters between CPET-1 and CPET-2 were assessed using a paired t-test...
November 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170704/a-pre-exercise-dose-of-melatonin-can-alter-substrate-use-during-exercise
#12
Cardyl P Trionfante, Greggory R Davis, Tyler M Farney, Ryan W Miskowiec, Arnold G Nelson
Notwithstanding the lack of exercise research, several reviews have championed the use of melatonin to combat metabolic syndrome. Therefore, this study compared substrate utilization during a 30-minute (min) graded exercise protocol following the ingestion of either 6 mg melatonin (M) or a placebo (P). Participants (12 women, 12 men) performed stages 1-5 of the Naughton graded exercise protocol (6 min per stage). The protocol was repeated 4 times (2x M, 2x P) at the same time of day with one week separating each session...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159744/treatment-and-outcome-of-synchronous-colorectal-carcinomas-a-nationwide-study
#13
A C R K Bos, R A Matthijsen, F N van Erning, M G H van Oijen, H J T Rutten, V E P P Lemmens
BACKGROUND: Synchronous colorectal carcinomas (CRC) occur in 1-8% of patients diagnosed with CRC. This study evaluated treatment patterns and patient outcomes in synchronous CRCs compared with solitary CRC patients. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with primary CRC between 2008 and 2013, who underwent elective surgery, were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Using multivariable regressions, the effects of synchronous CRC were assessed for both short-term outcomes (prolonged postoperative hospital admission, anastomotic leakage, postoperative 30-day mortality, administration of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment), and 5-year relative survival (RS)...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148627/assessment-of-endpoint-criteria-and-perceived-barriers-during-maximal-cardiorespiratory-fitness-testing-among-pregnant-women
#14
Caitlin M Hesse, Rachel A Tinius, Bailey J Cooley, Alyssa A Olenick, Maire M Blankenship, Donald L Hoover, Jill M Maples
BACKGROUND: A plateau in volume of oxygen consumption (VO2) is the primary indicator for determining if an individual has reached their maximal aerobic capacity. However, secondary criteria can also be used to identify maximal effort (i.e. lactate level, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), percent of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER)). Age and gender-specific secondary criteria have been developed for the general population, but no secondary criteria have been established for pregnant women...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078353/mutagenic-cost-of-ribonucleotides-in-bacterial-dna
#15
Jeremy W Schroeder, Justin R Randall, William G Hirst, Michael E O'Donnell, Lyle A Simmons
Replicative DNA polymerases misincorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates (rNTPs) into DNA approximately once every 2,000 base pairs synthesized. Ribonucleotide excision repair (RER) removes ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) from genomic DNA, replacing the error with the appropriate deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). Ribonucleotides represent a major threat to genome integrity with the potential to cause strand breaks. Furthermore, it has been shown in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis that loss of RER increases spontaneous mutagenesis...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071088/stair-ascending-descending-exercise-accelerates-the-decrease-in-postprandial-hyperglycemia-more-efficiently-than-bicycle-exercise
#16
Tetsuo Takaishi, Tatsuya Hayashi
OBJECTIVE: Stair climbing-descending exercise (ST-EX) is a convenient method to increase exercise intensity. We compared the acute effect of ST-EX on lowering postprandial hyperglycemia with that of constant bicycle exercise (BI-EX) performed at the same heart rate (HR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven people with type 2 diabetes and seven with impaired glucose tolerance volunteered for this study. The step rate for ST-EX and work rate for BI-EX were individually determined to correspond to high-moderate to low-vigorous intensity (HR ~130 beats per minute)...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050339/aberrant-expression-of-oatp1b3-in-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases-and-its-clinical-implication-on-gadoxetic-acid-enhanced-mri
#17
Seung Hyun Park, Honsoul Kim, Eun Kyung Kim, Hogeun Kim, Dong Kyu Choi, Yong Eun Chung, Myeong-Jin Kim, Jin-Young Choi
PURPOSE: To investigate the factors associated with hepatobiliary phase (HBP) enhancement at gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine whether HBP images could be used to predict prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM). RESULTS: Of the 96 total nodules, 65 and 31 nodules were in the mixed and clearly hypointense groups, respectively. In the 55 nodules without preoperative chemotherapy, organic anionic transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) expression was a significant factor regarding the HBP enhancement (P=0...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038746/influence-of-exercise-duration-on-cardiorespiratory-responses-energy-cost-and-tissue-oxygenation-within-a-6-hour-treadmill-run
#18
Hugo A Kerhervé, Scott McLean, Karen Birkenhead, David Parr, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: The physiological mechanisms for alterations in oxygen utilization ([Formula: see text]) and the energy cost of running (Cr ) during prolonged running are not completely understood, and could be linked with alterations in muscle and cerebral tissue oxygenation. METHODS: Eight trained ultramarathon runners (three women; mean ± SD; age 37 ± 7 yr; maximum [Formula: see text] 60 ± 15 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) completed a 6 hr treadmill run (6TR), which consisted of four modules, including periods of moderate (3 min at 10 km h(-1), 10-CR) and heavy exercise intensities (6 min at 70% of maximum [Formula: see text], HILL), separated by three, 100 min periods of self-paced running (SP)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035870/oxidative-stress-and-cytotoxicity-elicited-lipid-peroxidation-in-hemocytes-of-bombyx-mori-larva-infested-with-dipteran-parasitoid-exorista-bombycis
#19
Makwana Pooja, Appukuttan Nair R Pradeep, Shambhavi P Hungund, Chandrashekhar Sagar, Kangayam M Ponnuvel, Arvind K Awasthi, Kanika Trivedy
Parasitization of silkworm, Bombyx mori by invasive larva of dipteran parasitoid Exorista bombycis caused upto 20% revenue loss in sericulture. The parasitism was successful by suppressing host immune system however mechanism of immune suppression induced by E. bombycis is unknown which is unravelled here. The infestation induced cytotoxic symptoms in host hemocytes, such as vacuolated cytoplasm, porous plasma membrane, indented nuclei with condensed chromatin and dilated RER. One of the markers of necrosis is cell permeabilization, which can be measured as released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018608/development-and-validation-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-the-prediction-of-forage-quality-parameters-in-lolium-multiflorum
#20
Zhongfu Yang, Gang Nie, Ling Pan, Yan Zhang, Linkai Huang, Xiao Ma, Xinquan Zhang
Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is an important cool-season, annual forage crop for the grassland rotation system in Southern China. The primary aim of breeding programs is always to seek to improve forage quality in the animal productivity system; however, it is time- and labor-consuming when analyzed excessive large number of samples. The main objectives of this study were to construct near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) models to predict the forage chemistry quality of Italian ryegrass including the concentrations of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC)...
2017: PeerJ
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