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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415097/p544the-importance-of-contractile-reserve-when-assessing-asymptomatic-patients-with-aortic-stenosis
#1
J J Van Zalen, S Badiani, L Hart, A Marshall, N Patel, G Lloyd
Asymptomatic patients may exhibit symptoms during objective exercise testing, but whether symptoms are due to the obstructively of the valve (typified by the mean gradient) or underlying ventricular function remains unknown. While the mean gradient is an easy parameter to measure no consensus about the measurement of contractile reserve exists. Longitudinal abnormalities may occur in the presence of a normal ejection fraction and the augmentation of these parameters is poorly described. To obtain an objective regarding patients exercise ability is best determined using cardiopulmonary exercise testing...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401733/effects-of-metals-cadmium-and-chromium-alone-and-in-combination-on-the-liver-and-kidney-tissue-of-male-spraque-dawley-rats-an-ultrastructural-and-electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy-investigation
#2
Chantelle Venter, Hester Magdalena Oberholzer, Franscious Riccardo Cummings, Megan Jean Bester
Heavy metal pollution has increased in the last decades. Water sources are contaminated and human exposure is often long term exposure to variable amounts of different metals. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed via oral gavage for 28 days to cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr), alone and in combination at concentrations 1000 times the human World Health Organization's acceptable water limits. Rat equivalent dosages were used. Blood markers of liver and kidney function were measured, changes to cellular morphology was determined with transmission electron microscopy and the intracellular metal localisation was determined with the electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy analysis...
April 12, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401359/ultrastructure-of-fat-body-cells-and-malpighian-tubule-cells-in-overwintering-scoliopteryx-libatrix-noctuoidea
#3
Saška Lipovšek, Franc Janžekovič, Tone Novak
The herald moths, Scoliopteryx libatrix, overwinter in hypogean habitats. The ultrastructure of their fat body (FB) cells and Malpighian tubule (MT) epithelial cells was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and essential biometric and biochemical measurements were performed. The FB was composed of adipocytes and sparse urocytes. The ultrastructure of both cells did not change considerably during this natural starvation period, except for rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) which became more abundant in March females...
April 11, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400503/pgc-1%C3%AE-and-fasting-induced-pdh-regulation-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#4
Anders Gudiksen, Henriette Pilegaard
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether lack of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) affects the switch in substrate utilization from a fed to fasted state and the fasting-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1α knockout (MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls were fed or fasted for 24 h. Fasting reduced PDHa activity, increased phosphorylation of all four known sites on PDH-E1α and increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) protein levels, but did not alter total acetylation of PDH-E1α Lack of muscle PGC-1α did not affect the switch from glucose to fat oxidation in the transition from the fed to fasted state, but was associated with lower and higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in the fed and fasted state, respectively...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396263/stable-isotope-analysis-of-co2-in-breath-indicates-metabolic-fuel-shifts-in-torpid-arctic-ground-squirrels
#5
Trixie N Lee, Melanie M Richter, Cory T Williams, Øivind Tøien, Brian M Barnes, Diane M O'Brien, C Loren Buck
Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) in breath show promise as an indicator of immediate metabolic fuel utilization in animals because tissue lipids have a lower δ(13)C value than carbohydrates and proteins. Metabolic fuel consumption is often estimated using the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), which has lipid and carbohydrate boundaries, but does not differentiate between protein and mixed fuel catabolism at intermediate values. Because lipids have relatively low δ(13)C values, measurements of stable carbon isotopes in breath may help distinguish between catabolism of protein and mixed fuel that includes lipid...
April 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386795/-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-response-to-exercise-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#6
I Turinese, P Marinelli, M Bonini, M Rossetti, G Statuto, T Filardi, A Paris, A Lenzi, S Morano, P Palange
PURPOSE: Physical activity is an effective therapeutic tool for cardiovascular risk prevention. However, exercise aerobic capacity of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) has not been thoroughly investigated. Aim of the present study is to evaluate exercise aerobic capacity in patients with T1DM compared to a normal control population. METHODS: This observational study included 17 T1DM patients and 17 matched healthy volunteers. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was conducted on an electronically-braked cycle ergometer...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385890/ziploc-ing-the-structure-2-0-endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-peptidyl-prolyl-isomerases-show-different-activities-toward-hydroxyproline
#7
Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Kazunori Mizuno, Hans Peter Bächinger
Extracellular matrix proteins are biosynthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and the triple-helical protein collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix component in the human body. Many enzymes, molecular chaperones, and post-translational modifiers facilitate collagen biosynthesis. Collagen contains a large number of proline residues, so the cis/trans isomerization of proline peptide bonds is the rate-limiting step during triple-helix formation. Accordingly, the rER-resident peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) play an important role in the zipper-like triple-helix formation in collagen...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377168/a-reference-equation-for-normal-standards-for-vo2-max-analysis-from-the-fitness-registry-and-the-importance-of-exercise-national-database-friend-registry
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Myers, Leonard A Kaminsky, Ricardo Lima, Jeffrey Chistle, Euan Ashley, Ross Arena
Existing normal standards for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) are problematic because they tend to be population specific, lack normal distribution and portability, and are poorly represented by women. The objective of the current study was to apply the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base (FRIEND) Registry to improve upon previous regression formulas for normal standards for VO2 max using treadmill testing. Maximal treadmill tests were performed in 7783 healthy men and women (20-79years; maximal RER >1...
April 1, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368959/the-effects-of-a-cycling-warm-up-including-high-intensity-heavy-resistance-conditioning-contractions-on-subsequent-4-km-time-trial-performance
#9
Alan Chorley, Kevin L Lamb
Prior exercise has been shown to improve subsequent performance via different mechanisms. Sport-specific conditioning contractions can be used to exploit the 'post-activation potentiation' (PAP) phenomenon to enhance performance although this has rarely been investigated in short endurance events. The aim of this study was to compare a cycling warm-up with PAP-inducing conditioning contractions (CW) with a moderate intensity warm-up (MW) on performance and physiological outcomes of 4 km time trial. Ten well-trained male endurance cyclists (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 65...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346316/impact-of-direction-of-unloading-influence-on-template-rate-of-perceived-exertion
#10
Beau Kjerulf Greer, Patrick R Young, Brooke Thompson, Brendan J Rickert, Matthew F Moran
It is suggested that exercisers engage in a process of teleoanticipation and create an exercise template based upon previous experience with the exercise task which guides their perceptions of the amount of effort required for task completion. The present study examined how altering workload intensity during a positive-pressure treadmill task may impact ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). In a counter-balanced design, 15 collegiate cross country runners (7 males, 8 females) performed two 25-min runs at a constant velocity while bodyweight (BW) was either increased from 60% to 100% (INC) or decreased from 100% to 60% (DEC) in 5 min increments...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319140/role-of-muscle-il-6-in-gender-specific-metabolism-in-mice
#11
Amalia Molinero, Antonio Fernandez-Perez, Aina Mogas, Mercedes Giralt, Gemma Comes, Olaya Fernandez-Gayol, Mario Vallejo, Juan Hidalgo
The aim of the present work was to further explore the physiological roles of muscle-derived IL-6. Adult-floxed and conditional skeletal muscle IL-6 knock out male and female mice were used to study energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry at rest and during treadmill exercise, and body temperature cycle during the light phase) and energy intake (response to fast/refeeding). We also evaluated the responses to leptin and the activity of the insulin signalling pathway in skeletal muscle and liver by phosphorylation of Akt at Ser 473...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286541/an-evaluation-of-inexpensive-methods-for-root-image-acquisition-when-using-rhizotrons
#12
Awaz Mohamed, Yogan Monnier, Zhun Mao, Guillaume Lobet, Jean-Luc Maeght, Merlin Ramel, Alexia Stokes
BACKGROUND: Belowground processes play an essential role in ecosystem nutrient cycling and the global carbon budget cycle. Quantifying fine root growth is crucial to the understanding of ecosystem structure and function and in predicting how ecosystems respond to climate variability. A better understanding of root system growth is necessary, but choosing the best method of observation is complex, especially in the natural soil environment. Here, we compare five methods of root image acquisition using inexpensive technology that is currently available on the market: flatbed scanner, handheld scanner, manual tracing, a smartphone application scanner and a time-lapse camera...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268090/both-r-loop-removal-and-ribonucleotide-excision-repair-activities-of-rnase-h2-contribute-substantially-to-chromosome-stability
#13
Deborah A Cornelio, Hailey N C Sedam, Jessica A Ferrarezi, Nadia M V Sampaio, Juan Lucas Argueso
Cells carrying deletions of genes encoding H-class ribonucleases display elevated rates of chromosome instability. The role of these enzymes is to remove RNA-DNA associations including persistent mRNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) formed during transcription, and ribonucleotides incorporated into DNA during replication. RNases H1 and H2 can degrade the RNA component of R-loops, but only RNase H2 can initiate accurate ribonucleotide excision repair (RER). In order to examine the specific contributions of these activities to chromosome stability, we measured rates of loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains carrying the rnh201-RED separation-of-function allele, encoding a version of RNase H2 that is RER-defective, but partly retains its other activity...
April 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246499/energy-systems-efficiency-influences-the-results-of-2-000-m-race-simulation-among-elite-rowers
#14
Stefan Adrian Martin, Valeriu Tomescu
HYPOTHESIS: Energy efficiency within an elite group of athletes will ensure metabolic adaptation during training. OBJECTIVES: To identify energy system efficiency and contribution according to exercise intensity, and performance obtained during a 2,000 m race simulation in an elite group of rowers. METHOD: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2016 in Bucharest, Romania, on a group of 16 elite rowers. Measurements were performed through Cosmed Quark CPET equipment, and Concept 2 ergometer, by conducting a VO2max test over a standard rowing distance of 2,000 m...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229643/vestpd-as-a-measure-of-ventilatory-acclimatization-to-hypobaric-hypoxia
#15
J A Loeppky, A C Sheard, R M Salgado, C M Mermier
This study compared the ventilation response to an incremental ergometer exercise at two altitudes: 633 mmHg (resident altitude = 1,600 m) and following acute decompression to 455 mmHg (≈4,350 m altitude) in eight male cyclists and runners. At 455 mmHg, the VESTPD at RER <1.0 was significantly lower and the VEBTPS was higher because of higher breathing frequency; at VO2max, both VESTPD and VEBTPS were not significantly different. As percent of VO2max, the VEBTPS was nearly identical and VESTPD was 30% lower throughout the exercise at 455 mmHg...
September 2016: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218889/scaling-human-cancer-risks-from-low-let-to-high-let-when-dose-effect-relationships-are-complex
#16
Igor Shuryak, Albert J Fornace, Kamal Datta, Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Rainer K Sachs, David J Brenner
Health risks from space radiations, particularly from densely ionizing radiations, represent an important challenge for long-ranged manned space missions. Reliable methods are needed for scaling low-LET to high-LET radiation risks for humans, based on animal or in vitro studies comparing these radiations. The current standard metric, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compares iso-effect doses of two radiations. By contrast, a proposed new metric, radiation effects ratio (RER), compares effects of two radiations at the same dose...
April 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211029/influence-of-segmental-body-composition-and-adiposity-hormones-on-resting-metabolic-rate-and-substrate-utilization-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#17
K R Hirsch, A E Smith-Ryan, M N M Blue, M G Mock, E T Trexler
PURPOSE: Low resting metabolic rate (RMR) and high carbohydrate reliance at rest are associated with weight gain, but are highly variable in obese individuals. This study determined the relationship of total and segmental body composition and adiposity hormones with RMR and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: In 49 men (n = 23) and premenopausal women (n = 26) [mean ± SD; age = 35.0 ± 8.9 years; body mass index (BMI) = 33...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169958/cardiorespiratory-function-does-not-improve-two-years-after-posterior-surgical-correction-of-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#18
Alejandro Lorente, Carlos Barrios, Jesús Burgos, Eduardo Hevia, Luis Fernández-Pineda, Rafael Lorente, Bárbara Rosa, Cristina Pérez-Encinas
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective evaluation of cardiorespiratory function following spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cardiopulmonary function during exercise in patients with severe AIS, before and two years after undergoing a posterior spinal fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: After surgical correction of scoliosis, a greater cardiorespiratory adaptation to exercise would be expected from correction of the rib cage associated with the spine deformity...
February 6, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128928/a-direct-in-vivo-comparison-of-the-melanocortin-monovalent-agonist-ac-his-dphe-arg-trp-nh2-versus-the-bivalent-agonist-ac-his-dphe-arg-trp-pedg20-his-dphe-arg-trp-nh2-a-bivalent-advantage
#19
Cody J Lensing, Danielle N Adank, Stacey L Wilber, Katie T Freeman, Sathya M Schnell, Robert Charles Speth, Adam T Zarth, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
Bivalent ligands targeting putative melanocortin receptor dimers have been developed and characterized in vitro, however studies of their functional in vivo effects have been limited. The current report compares the effects of homobivalent ligand CJL-1-87, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-PEDG20-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2, to monovalent ligand CJL-1-14, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 on energy homeostasis in mice after central intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration into the lateral ventricle of the brain. Bivalent ligand CJL-1-87 had noteworthy advantages as an anti-obesity probe over CJL-1-14 in a fasting-refeeding in vivo paradigm...
January 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124871/positive-surgical-margins-and-local-recurrence-after-simple-enucleation-and-standard-partial-nephrectomy-for-malignant-renal-tumors-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis-of-prevalence
#20
Andrea Minervini, Riccardo Campi, Francesco Sessa, Ithaar Derweesh, Jihad H Kaouk, Andrea Mari, Koon H Rha, Maurizio Sessa, Alessandro Volpe, Marco Carini, Robert G Uzzo
BACKGROUND: The definition of the safest width of healthy renal margin to achieve oncological efficacy and therefore of the safest resection technique (RT) during partial nephrectomy (PN) continues to be widely debated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of positive surgical margins (PSM), loco-regional recurrence (LRR) and renal recurrence (RER) rates after simple enucleation (SE) and standard partial nephrectomy (SPN) for malignant renal tumors in studies with a minimum follow-up of 2 years...
January 26, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
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