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Nursel Gül, Nuri Yiğit, Fulya Saygılı, Ebru Demirel, Ceren Geniş
We used transmission electron microscopy to examine the cytotoxic effects of the second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides difenacoum and brodifacoum on rat liver. A single dose of difenacoum or brodifacoum was administered to rats by gastric gavage and liver samples were taken after 24 h, four days or seven days. In the livers of rats treated with difenacoum for 24 h, hepatocytes typically showed increased numbers of lysosomes, as well as enlargement of both the perinuclear space and the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), while sinusoids were irregularly shaped and contained Kupffer cells...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Hailee L Wingfield, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N Melvin, Erica J Roelofs, Eric T Trexler, Anthony C Hackney, Mark A Weaver, Eric D Ryan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. METHODS: Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Katie R Hirsch, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N M Blue, Meredith G Mock, Eric T Trexler, Kristin S Ondrak
OBJECTIVES: Traditional evaluations of metabolic health may overlook underlying dysfunction in individuals who show no signs of insulin resistance or dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic health in overweight and obese adults using traditional and non-traditional cardiometabolic variables. A secondary purpose was to evaluate differences between overweight/obese and male/female cohorts, respectively. METHODS: Forty-nine overweight and obese adults (Mean ± SD; Age=35...
October 13, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
James P Gavin, Stephen D Myers, Mark E Willems
BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of early-onset of muscle damage and low muscle glycogen on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to low-intensity exercise. METHODS: Twelve men cycled for 10 min at 50% maximal oxygen uptake before, and 12 h after a morning downhill run (five, 8 min bouts at -12% gradient, with 2 min rests) under normal (NORM) and lowered glycogen (LOW) conditions, following a cross-over design with conditions separated by six weeks. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded, with oxidation measures derived from stoichiometry equations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Yoshihiro Ishikawa, Shinya Ito, Kazuhiro Nagata, Lynn Y Sakai, Hans Peter Bächinger
Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are biosynthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and transported via the Golgi apparatus to the extracellular space. The coat protein complex II (COPII) transport vesicles are approximately 60-90 nm in diameter. However, several ECM molecules are much larger, up to several hundreds of nanometers. Therefore, special COPII vesicles are required to coat and transport these molecules. Transmembrane Protein Transport and Golgi Organization 1 (TANGO1) facilitates loading of collagens into special vesicles...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christian Lind Malte, Hans Malte, Tobias Wang
Animals with intermittent lung ventilation and those exposed to hypoxia and hypercapnia will experience fluctuations in the bodily O2 and CO2 stores, but the magnitude and temporal duration of these changes are not well understood amongst ectotherms. Using the changes in the respiratory exchange ratio (RER, CO2 excretion divided by O2 uptake) as a proxy for changes in bodily gas stores, we quantified time constants in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia in Cuvier's dwarf caiman. We confirm distinct and prolonged changes in RER during and after exposure to hypoxia or hypercapnia...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yvonne Kilian, Florian Engel, Patrick Wahl, Silvia Achtzehn, Billy Sperlich, Joachim Mester
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes. METHODS: Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min(-1) kg(-1) peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90-95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output)...
September 10, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Marjolein Kleppe, Maaike A van der Aa, Toon Van Gorp, Brigitte F M Slangen, Roy F P M Kruitwagen
INTRODUCTION: To establish the impact of lymph node dissection and chemotherapy on survival in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: All Dutch patients with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-IIA and IIIA1 EOC between 2000 and 2012 were included. Data concerning age, stage, tumour grade, histological subtype, hospital type, lymph node dissection, adjuvant chemotherapy and survival were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry...
October 2016: European Journal of Cancer
A V Kalinovich, C L Mattsson, M R Youssef, N Petrovic, M Ost, V P Skulachev, I G Shabalina
BACKGROUND: A membrane-penetrating cation, dodecyltriphenylphosphonium (C12TPP), facilitates the recycling of fatty acids in the artificial lipid membrane and mitochondria. C12TPP can dissipate mitochondrial membrane potential and may affect total energy expenditure and body weight in animals and humans. METHODS: We investigated the metabolic effects of C12TPP in isolated brown-fat mitochondria, brown adipocyte cultures and mice in vivo. Experimental approaches included the measurement of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, Western blotting, magnetic resonance imaging and bomb calorimetry...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Zhi Zhang, Ewout Foppen, Yan Su, Peter H Bisschop, Andries Kalsbeek, Eric Fliers, Anita Boelen
Thyroid hormone is a key regulator of energy metabolism. Apart from its direct effects on peripheral metabolism, thyroid hormone exerts acute metabolic effects via distinct nuclei within the hypothalamus. Recently we developed a method for chronic and local intrahypothalamic T3 administration in rats. The present study evaluated the metabolic effects of T3 delivered during either 7 or 28 days to the paraventricular or ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN or VMH). T3 administration for 7 days in the PVN decreased only plasma T3...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Daniel Z Louis, Sarah E Hegarty, Maurizio Leoni, Rossana De Palma, Stefan Varga, Rita Melotti
INTRODUCTION: Despite the preference of many patients to die at home, high proportions of patients with advanced cancer undergo major procedures, receive intensive care, and die in the hospital. The goal of this study is to examine variation in hospital utilization and site of death for patients dying with poor-prognosis cancer in the Regione Emilia-Romagna (RER), Italy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-level study using administrative data. Patients were included if they died in 2012 and had at least one hospital admission for metastatic or poor-prognosis cancer within 180 days of death...
August 5, 2016: Tumori
Gianluca Cuomo, Vanni Borghi, Pietro Andreone, Marco Massari, Erica Villa, Antonello Pietrangelo, Gabriella Verucchi, Carlo Ferrari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very little is known about the access to treatment for Chronic Hepatitis B in the real clinical practice and the characteristics of the patients who do not receive antiviral therapy. METHODS: HBV-RER is an observational multicenter network that collected data of patients with HBV infection during a 3 years observational period (2009-2012). RESULTS: Among 2527 HBsAg positive patients, 1099 were never treated (NT); only 280 were included in the analysis due to different exclusion causes A minority was HBeAg-positive...
July 21, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Elaine M Norton, James R Mickelson, Matthew M Binns, Sarah C Blott, Paul Caputo, Cajsa M Isgren, Annette M McCoy, Alison Moore, Richard J Piercy, June E Swinburne, Mark Vaudin, Molly E McCue
Recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses is characterized by episodes of muscle rigidity and cell damage that often recur upon strenuous exercise. The objective was to evaluate the importance of genetic factors in RER by obtaining an unbiased estimate of heritability in cohorts of unrelated Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses. Four hundred ninety-one Thoroughbred and 196 Standardbred racehorses were genotyped with the 54K or 74K SNP genotyping arrays. Heritability was calculated from genome-wide SNP data with a mixed linear and Bayesian model, utilizing the standard genetic relationship matrix (GRM)...
November 2016: Journal of Heredity
L S Paes, J P Borges, F A Cunha, M G C Souza, F Z G A Cyrino, D A Bottino, E Bouskela, P Farinatti
This study compared strategies to equalize the volume of aerobic exercise performed with different intensities by Wistar rats, based on the distance covered during exercise bouts and energy expenditure (EE, isocaloric sessions) obtained from oxygen uptake (V̇O2) or respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Thirty-three male rats (270.5±12.8 g) underwent maximal exercise tests to determine V̇O2 reserve (V̇O2R), being randomly assigned to three groups: moderate-intensity continuous exercise at speed corresponding to 50% V̇O2R (MIC; n=11); high-intensity continuous exercise at 80% V̇O2R (HIC; n=11); and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HII; n=11) at 60% V̇O2R (3 min) and 80% V̇O2R (4 min)...
July 28, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Tao Xiong, Qin Ping Zhao, Xing Jian Xu, Rong Liu, Ming Sen Jiang, Hui Fen Dong
A preparation of niclosamide named 50 % wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN), the only chemical molluscicide available in China, has been widely used for Oncomelania hupensis control over the past 20 years, but its molluscicidal mechanism has not been elucidated yet. Recently, a derivative of niclosamide, the salt of quinoid-2',5-dichloro-4'-nitro-salicylanilide (Liu Dai Shui Yang An, LDS), has been proven to have equivalent molluscicidal effects as WPN but with lower cost and significantly lower toxicity to fish than WPN...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
Shayan Abtahi, Hayley L VanderJagt, Paul J Currie
The present study investigated the interaction of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN) ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling on metabolic function. Using indirect calorimetry, we first showed that acylated ghrelin, administered into the ArcN, significantly increased the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in male Sprague-Dawley rats, representing a shift in fuel utilization toward enhanced carbohydrate oxidation and reduced lipid utilization. In contrast, treatment with similar doses of des-acyl ghrelin failed to induce reliable changes in RER...
September 7, 2016: Neuroreport
B J Ryan, J A Goodrich, W Schmidt, L A Kane, W C Byrnes
Carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing procedures are used to assess hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) but recent evidence suggests that CO is a signaling molecule that may alter physiological functions. We examined the effects of 10 days of intermittent, low-dose CO inhalation on Hbmass, aerobic performance predictors, and peak-power exercise tolerance. 18 recreationally-active men were randomized to either CO or placebo inhalation groups in a single-blind, pre-post parallel-groups trial. Primary outcomes were assessed before and after an intervention period during which subjects inhaled a bolus of 1...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Jonathan F Gill, Julien Delezie, Gesa Santos, Christoph Handschin
OBJECTIVE: Food intake and whole-body energy homeostasis are controlled by agouti-related protein (AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Key energy sensors, such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), are essential in AgRP and POMC cells to ensure proper energy balance. In peripheral tissues, the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α closely associates with these sensors to regulate cellular metabolism...
July 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Phillip J White, Amanda L Lapworth, Jie An, Liping Wang, Robert W McGarrah, Robert D Stevens, Olga Ilkayeva, Tabitha George, Michael J Muehlbauer, James R Bain, Jeff K Trimmer, M Julia Brosnan, Timothy P Rolph, Christopher B Newgard
OBJECTIVE: A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-related metabolic signature is strongly associated with insulin resistance and predictive of incident diabetes and intervention outcomes. To better understand the role that this metabolite cluster plays in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, we studied the impact of BCAA restriction in a rodent model of obesity in which BCAA metabolism is perturbed in ways that mirror the human condition. METHODS: Zucker-lean rats (ZLR) and Zucker-fatty rats (ZFR) were fed either a custom control, low fat (LF) diet, or an isonitrogenous, isocaloric LF diet in which all three BCAA (Leu, Ile, Val) were reduced by 45% (LF-RES)...
July 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Joel A Walsh, James P Dawber, Romuald Lepers, Marc Brown, Paul J Stapley
This study sought to determine whether prior moderate intensity cycling is sufficient to influence the cardiorespiratory and biomechanical responses during subsequent running. Cardiorespiratory and biomechanical variables measured after moderate intensity cycling were compared with control running at the same intensity. Eight highly trained, competitive triathletes completed two separate exercise tests; 1) a 10-min control run (no prior cycling) and, 2) a 30-min transition run (preceded by 20-min of variable cadence cycling; i...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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