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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227996/generation-and-phenotypic-characterisation-of-a-cytochrome-p450-4x1-knockout-mouse
#1
Himanshu Kharkwal, Farhat Batool, Frank Koentgen, David R Bell, David A Kendall, Francis J P Ebling, Ian R Duce
Cytochrome P450 4x1 (Cyp4x1) is expressed at very high levels in the brain but the function of this protein is unknown. It has been hypothesised to regulate metabolism of fatty acids and to affect the activity of endocannabinoid signalling systems, which are known to influence appetite and energy metabolism. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the impact of Cyp4x1 on body weight and energy metabolism by developing a line of transgenic Cyp4x1-knock out mice. Mice were developed with a global knock-out of the gene; the full-length RNA was undetectable, and mice were viable and fertile...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204652/effect-of-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-on-infants-with-meconium-aspiration-syndrome-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Aakash Pandita, Srinivas Murki, Tejo Pratap Oleti, Baswaraj Tandur, Sai Kiran, Sachin Narkhede, Amrut Prajapati
Importance: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) as a primary respiratory therapy in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) has not been studied extensively. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure, when applied in newborns with MAS, may resolve atelectasis by sufficiently expanding partially obstructed small airways and stabilizing the collapsing terminal airways to enhance oxygen exchange. Objective: To compare NCPAP vs standard care in neonates with moderate to severe respiratory failure due to MAS in reducing the need for invasive ventilation...
December 4, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191982/case-studies-in-physiology-exercise-induced-diaphragm-fatigue-in-a-paralympic-champion-rower-with-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Nicholas B Tiller, Thomas R Aggar, Christopher R West, Lee M Romer
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this case report was to determine whether maximal upper-body exercise was sufficient to induce diaphragm fatigue in a Paralympic champion adaptive rower with low-lesion spinal cord injury (SCI). CASE PRESENTATION: An elite arms-only oarsman (age 28 y, stature 1.89 m, mass 90.4 kg) with motor-complete SCI (T12) performed a 1000 m time-trial on an adapted rowing ergometer. Exercise measurements comprised pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, diaphragm EMG-derived indices of neural respiratory drive and intrathoracic pressure-derived indices of respiratory mechanics...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170704/a-pre-exercise-dose-of-melatonin-can-alter-substrate-use-during-exercise
#4
Cardyl P Trionfante, Greggory R Davis, Tyler M Farney, Ryan W Miskowiec, Arnold G Nelson
Notwithstanding the lack of exercise research, several reviews have championed the use of melatonin to combat metabolic syndrome. Therefore, this study compared substrate utilization during a 30-minute (min) graded exercise protocol following the ingestion of either 6 mg melatonin (M) or a placebo (P). Participants (12 women, 12 men) performed stages 1-5 of the Naughton graded exercise protocol (6 min per stage). The protocol was repeated 4 times (2x M, 2x P) at the same time of day with one week separating each session...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159682/physiological-and-biomechanical-responses-of-highly-trained-distance-runners-to-lower-body-positive-pressure-treadmill-running
#5
Kyle R Barnes, Jessica N Janecke
BACKGROUND: As a way to train at faster running speeds, add training volume, prevent injury, or rehabilitate after an injury, lower-body positive pressure treadmills (LBPPT) have become increasingly commonplace among athletes. However, there are conflicting evidence and a paucity of data describing the physiological and biomechanical responses to LBPPT running in highly trained or elite caliber runners at the running speeds they habitually train at, which are considerably faster than those of recreational runners...
November 21, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149469/cuffed-versus-uncuffed-endotracheal-tubes-for-general-anaesthesia-in-children-aged-eight-years-and-under
#6
REVIEW
Flavia A De Orange, Rebeca Gac Andrade, Andrea Lemos, Paulo Sgn Borges, José N Figueiroa, Pete G Kovatsis
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of endotracheal intubation in paediatrics, uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ETTs) have been the standard of care for children under eight years old, based on the presumption that complications, particularly postoperative stridor, are higher with cuffed ETTs. The major disadvantages of uncuffed ETTs cited for this shift in procedure include the difficulty in achieving tidal volumes due to leakage around an uncuffed ETT. To seal the airway adequately, uncuffed tubes may need to be exchanged for another tube with a larger diameter, which sometimes requires several attempts before the appropriate size is found...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148627/assessment-of-endpoint-criteria-and-perceived-barriers-during-maximal-cardiorespiratory-fitness-testing-among-pregnant-women
#7
Caitlin M Hesse, Rachel A Tinius, Bailey J Cooley, Alyssa A Olenick, Maire M Blankenship, Donald L Hoover, Jill M Maples
BACKGROUND: A plateau in volume of oxygen consumption (VO2) is the primary indicator for determining if an individual has reached their maximal aerobic capacity. However, secondary criteria can also be used to identify maximal effort (i.e. lactate level, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), percent of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER)). Age and gender-specific secondary criteria have been developed for the general population, but no secondary criteria have been established for pregnant women...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139146/effects-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitor-velagliflozin-a-new-drug-with-therapeutic-potential-to-treat-diabetes-in-cats
#8
M Hoenig, M Clark, D J Schaeffer, D Reiche
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are used in the treatment of human diabetics. They increase glucose excretion and correct hyperglycemia. We examined the investigational SGLT2 inhibitor velagliflozin in two groups of six neutered adult obese cats (equal gender distribution). Placebo (Pl) or drug (D; 1 mg/kg) was administered for 35 days. Routine blood examinations, fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucagon, adiponectin, and leptin were measured before and after treatment, also water intake, and urinary electrolytes, glucose, and volume...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135398/the-effect-of-obesity-on-dyspnea-exercise-capacity-walk-work-and-workload-in-patients-with-copd
#9
Hülya Şahin, İlknur Naz, Yelda Varol, Berna Kömürcüoğlu
Introduction: COPD and obesity are major public health problems that cause mortality and morbidity all over the world. The combined of COPD and obesity is predicted to increase further in the coming years. Obesity primarily affects the pulmonary system by altering respiratory functions, exercise capacity, pulmonary gas exchange, and endurance and power of respiratory muscles. In this study, we aimed to compare the dyspnea sensation, exercise capacity, walk work and workload in obese COPD patients compared to preobese and normal overweight COPD patients...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123389/alveolar-capillary-reserve-during-exercise-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Mehrdad Behnia, Courtney M Wheatley, Alberto Avolio, Bruce D Johnson
Background: Factors limiting exercise in patients with COPD are complex. With evidence for accelerated pulmonary vascular aging, destruction of alveolar-capillary bed, and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, the ability to functionally expand surface area during exercise may become a primary limitation. Purpose: To quantify measures of alveolar-capillary recruitment during exercise and the relationship to exercise capacity in a cohort of COPD patients. Methods: Thirty-two subjects gave consent (53% male, with mean ± standard deviation age 66±9 years, smoking 35±29 pack-years, and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification of 0-4: 2...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117073/metabolic-and-performance-effects-of-yerba-mate-on-well-trained-cyclists
#11
Jose L Areta, Ingvild Austarheim, Helle Wangensteen, Carlo Capelli
INTRODUCTION: Yerba Mate (YM) is a South-American plant, rich in polyphenols, saponins and xanthines, of growing scientific interest due to its metabolic effects. YM has been shown to increase fat utilization during exercise in untrained humans, but its effects on well-trained individuals during exercise are unknown. METHODS: We characterized metabolic and physical performance effects of YM in eleven well-trained male cyclists. In a double-blind crossover design, participants ingested 5 g of YM or placebo (PL; maltodextrin) daily for 5 days, and 1 h prior to experimental trials...
November 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112626/effects-of-ad-libitum-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-dieting-in-middle-age-male-runners
#12
Alexander J Heatherly, Lauren G Killen, Ashton F Smith, Hunter S Waldman, Angela Hollingsworth, Christie L Seltmann, Eric K O'Neal
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of a 3-week ad libitum high fat (~70% of calories), low carbohydrate (<50 g/day) diet (LCHF) on markers of endurance performance in middle-aged, recreationally competitive male runners. METHODS: All subjects (n = 8) following their normal HC diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed 5, 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological, metabolic variables and perceptual responses were recorded...
November 6, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107291/absence-of-the-kinase-s6k1-mimics-the-effect-of-chronic-endurance-exercise-on-glucose-tolerance-and-muscle-oxidative-stress
#13
C Binsch, T Jelenik, A Pfitzer, M Dille, S Müller-Lühlhoff, S Hartwig, S Karpinski, S Lehr, D G Kabra, A Chadt, M Roden, H Al-Hasani, T R Castañeda
OBJECTIVE: Ribosomal protein S6 Kinase-1 (S6K1) has been linked to resistance exercise-mediated improvements in glycemia. We hypothesized that S6K1 may also play a role in regulating glycemic control in response to endurance exercise training. METHODS: S6k1-knockout (S6K1KO) and WT mice on a 60 cal% high-fat diet were trained for 4 weeks on treadmills, metabolically phenotyped, and compared to sedentary controls. RESULTS: WT mice showed improved glucose tolerance after training...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100250/gait-retraining-from-rearfoot-strike-to-forefoot-strike-does-not-change-running-economy
#14
Jenevieve Lynn Roper, Deborah Doerfler, Len Kravitz, Janet S Dufek, Christine Mermier
Gait retraining is a method for management of patellofemoral pain, which is a common ailment among recreational runners. The present study investigated the effects of gait retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike on running economy, heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio immediately post-retraining and one-month post-retraining in recreational runners with patellofemoral pain. Knee pain was also measured. Sixteen participants (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071088/stair-ascending-descending-exercise-accelerates-the-decrease-in-postprandial-hyperglycemia-more-efficiently-than-bicycle-exercise
#15
Tetsuo Takaishi, Tatsuya Hayashi
OBJECTIVE: Stair climbing-descending exercise (ST-EX) is a convenient method to increase exercise intensity. We compared the acute effect of ST-EX on lowering postprandial hyperglycemia with that of constant bicycle exercise (BI-EX) performed at the same heart rate (HR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven people with type 2 diabetes and seven with impaired glucose tolerance volunteered for this study. The step rate for ST-EX and work rate for BI-EX were individually determined to correspond to high-moderate to low-vigorous intensity (HR ~130 beats per minute)...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066466/dgk%C3%AE-deficiency-protects-against-peripheral-insulin-resistance-and-improves-energy-metabolism
#16
Boubacar Benziane, Melissa L Borg, Robby Z Tom, Isabelle Riedl, Julie Massart, Marie Björnholm, Marc Gilbert, Alexander V Chibalin, Juleen R Zierath
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGK) regulate the balance between diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid. DGKζ is highly abundant in skeletal muscle and induces fiber hypertrophy. We hypothesized DGKζ influences functional and metabolic adaptions in skeletal muscle and whole body fuel utilization. DAG content was increased in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, but unaltered in liver of DGKζ knockout (KO) mice. Linear growth, body weight, fat mass, and lean mass was reduced in DGKζ KO versus wild-type mice...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065164/oxygen-uptake-during-functional-activities-after-stroke-reliability-and-validity-of-a-portable-ergospirometry-system
#17
Tor Ivar Gjellesvik, Berit Brurok, Arnt Erik Tjønna, Tom Tørhaug, Torunn Askim
BACKGROUND: People with stroke have a low peak aerobic capacity and experience increased effort during performance of daily activities. The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability of a portable ergospirometry system in people with stroke during performance of functional activities in a field-test. Secondary aims were to examine the proportion of oxygen consumed during the field-test in relation to the peak-test and to analyse the correlation between the oxygen uptake during the field-test and peak-test in order to support the validity of the field-test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050421/performance-nutrient-utilization-and-energy-partitioning-in-broiler-chickens-offered-high-canola-meal-diets-supplemented-with-multicomponent-carbohydrase-and-mono-component-protease
#18
M Toghyani, S B Wu, R A Pérez-Maldonado, P A Iji, R A Swick
Two broiler chicken experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of canola meal (CM) replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets supplemented with carbohydrase and protease on performance and partitioning of energy. First, a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed to evaluate: protein meals (CM vs. SBM), carbohydrase (none or 300 mg/kg), protease (none or 200 mg/kg), and their interactions. Each treatment was fed to 6 replicated pens of 16 male broilers (Ross 308) from d 10 to 35. In the second experiment, 32 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to investigate CM and carbohydrase effects on energy partitioning...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043499/open-circuit-respirometry-a-historical-review-of-portable-gas-analysis-systems
#19
REVIEW
Duncan J Macfarlane
Scientists such as physiologists, engineers, and nutritionists have often sought to estimate human metabolic strain during daily activities and physical pursuits. The measurement of human metabolism can involve direct calorimetry as well as indirect calorimetry using both closed-circuit respirometry and open-circuit methods that can include diluted flow chambers and laboratory-based gas analysis systems. For field studies, methods involving questionnaires, pedometry, accelerometery, heart rate telemetry, and doubly labelled water exist, yet portable metabolic gas analysis remains the gold standard for most field studies on energy expenditure...
December 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038746/influence-of-exercise-duration-on-cardiorespiratory-responses-energy-cost-and-tissue-oxygenation-within-a-6-hour-treadmill-run
#20
Hugo A Kerhervé, Scott McLean, Karen Birkenhead, David Parr, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: The physiological mechanisms for alterations in oxygen utilization ([Formula: see text]) and the energy cost of running (Cr ) during prolonged running are not completely understood, and could be linked with alterations in muscle and cerebral tissue oxygenation. METHODS: Eight trained ultramarathon runners (three women; mean ± SD; age 37 ± 7 yr; maximum [Formula: see text] 60 ± 15 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) completed a 6 hr treadmill run (6TR), which consisted of four modules, including periods of moderate (3 min at 10 km h(-1), 10-CR) and heavy exercise intensities (6 min at 70% of maximum [Formula: see text], HILL), separated by three, 100 min periods of self-paced running (SP)...
2017: PeerJ
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