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Respiratory exchange ratio

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211258/effects-of-a-wide-range-of-dietary-nicotinamide-riboside-nr-concentrations-on-metabolic-flexibility-and-white-adipose-tissue-wat-of-mice-fed-a-mildly-obesogenic-diet
#1
Wenbiao Shi, Maria A Hegeman, Dorien A M van Dartel, Jing Tang, Manuel Suarez, Hans Swarts, Bart van der Hee, Lluis Arola, Jaap Keijer
SCOPE: Metabolic flexibility is the ability to switch metabolism between carbohydrate oxidation (CHO) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and is a biomarker for metabolic health. The effect on metabolic health of nicotinamide riboside (NR) as an exclusive source of vitamin B3 is unknown and is examined here for a wide range of NR. DESIGN AND METHODS: Nine-week-old male C57BL/6JRcc mice received a semi-purified mildly obesogenic (40 en% fat) diet containing 0.14% L-tryptophan and either 5, 15, 30, 180 or 900 mg NR per kg diet for 15 weeks...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211029/influence-of-segmental-body-composition-and-adiposity-hormones-on-resting-metabolic-rate-and-substrate-utilization-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#2
K R Hirsch, A E Smith-Ryan, M N M Blue, M G Mock, E T Trexler
PURPOSE: Low resting metabolic rate (RMR) and high carbohydrate reliance at rest are associated with weight gain, but are highly variable in obese individuals. This study determined the relationship of total and segmental body composition and adiposity hormones with RMR and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: In 49 men (n = 23) and premenopausal women (n = 26) [mean ± SD; age = 35.0 ± 8.9 years; body mass index (BMI) = 33...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203337/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-three-natural-surfactants-curosurf-survanta-and-alveofact-in-the-treatment-of-respiratory-distress-syndrome-among-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Mirhadi Mussavi, Keyvan Mirnia, Khairollah Asadollahi
BACKGROUND: Although several different types of natural surfactants are available, including Alveofact, Curosurf, and Survanta, the preferred type and the magnitude of their effects are unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to compare the effects of these three surfactants on the gas exchange and clinical outcomes of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: This triple-blind randomized clinical trial studied all preterm neonates ≤ 37 weeks with RDS who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Taleghani hospital (Tabriz, Iran) between 2012 and 2013...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195073/effects-of-budesonide-on-the-lung-functions-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-a-saline-lavage-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#4
D Mokra, P Kosutova, S Balentova, M Adamkov, P Mikolka, J Mokry, M Antosova, A Calkovska
Diffuse alveolar injury, edema, and inflammation are fundamental signs of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Whereas the systemic administration of corticosteroids previously led to controversial results, this study evaluated if corticosteroids given intratracheally may improve lung functions and reduce edema formation, migration of cells into the lung and their activation in experimentally-induced ALI. In oxygen-ventilated rabbits, ALI was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage, until PaO2 decreased to < 26...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178996/hemodynamic-effects-of-lung-recruitment-maneuvers-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#5
Anup Das, Mainul Haque, Marc Chikhani, Oana Cole, Wenfei Wang, Jonathan G Hardman, Declan G Bates
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have, so far, failed to establish clear beneficial outcomes of recruitment maneuvers (RMs) on patient mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the effects of RMs on the cardiovascular system remain poorly understood. METHODS: A computational model with highly integrated pulmonary and cardiovascular systems was configured to replicate static and dynamic cardio-pulmonary data from clinical trials. Recruitment maneuvers (RMs) were executed in 23 individual in-silico patients with varying levels of ARDS severity and initial cardiac output...
February 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177663/hypothermia-induced-by-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-anesthetized-rats-contributions-of-the-forebrain-and-vagal-afferents
#6
T Osaka
2-Mercaptoacetate (MA) is an antimetabolic drug that inhibits the utilization of fatty acids as an energy source. The intravenous injection of MA (1.2 mmol kg-1) elicited an increase in tail skin temperature and a decrease in body core temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats, though administration of the same amount of NaCl did not. The respiratory exchange ratio was significantly higher after administration of MA than that after the saline treatment...
January 29, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165859/exercise-induced-hypoxemia-in-juvenile-thyroid-carcinoma-with-lung-metastases
#7
Florian J Segerer, Johannes Biko, Christoph Reiners, Clemens Wirth, Helge Hebestreit
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) has been reported in patients with juvenile thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine for lung metastases. This retrospective study tested the hypothesis that EIAH is due to ventilation-perfusion-mismatch in this rare pulmonary condition. METHOD: 50 patients (age 13 -23 years) treated for juvenile thyroid carcinoma and lung metastasis with 131I and 24 controls with thyroid cancer but without lung metastases and prior 131I-treatment were assessed in a state of acute hypothyroidism by computed tomography of the lungs, pulmonary function testing, cardiopulmonary exercise test with measurements of gas exchange, oxygen saturation, alveolar-arterial difference in pO2 (p(A-a)O2) and pCO2 (p(ET-a)CO2)...
February 6, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153947/corp-measurement-of-the-maximum-oxygen-uptake-vo2max-vo2peak-is-no-longer-acceptable
#8
David C Poole, Andrew M Jones
The maximum rate of VO2 uptake (i.e., VO2max), as measured during large muscle mass exercise such as cycling or running, is widely considered to be the gold standard measurement of integrated cardiopulmonary-muscle oxidative function. The development of rapid-response gas analyzers, enabling measurement of breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange, has led to replacement of the discontinuous progressive maximal exercise test (that produced an unambiguous VO2-work rate plateau definitive for VO2max) with the rapidly-incremented or ramp testing protocol...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150476/nitrate-containing-beetroot-juice-reduces-oxygen-consumption-during-submaximal-exercise-in-low-but-not-high-aerobically-fit-male-runners
#9
Colin R Carriker, Roger A Vaughan, VanDusseldorp Trisha A, Johnson Kelly E, James J McCormick, Nathan H Cole, Ann L Gibson
Purpose: to examine the effect of a 4-day NO3- loading protocol on the submaximal oxygen cost of both low fit and high fit participants at five different exercise intensities. Methods: participants were initially assigned to a placebo (PL; negligible NO3-) or inorganic nitrate-rich (NR; 6.2 mmol nitrate/day) group; double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover. Participants completed three trials (T1, T2 and T3). T1 included a maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) treadmill test...
31, 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149371/physiological-responses-and-match-characteristics-in-professional-tennis-players-during-a-one-hour-simulated-tennis-match
#10
Bülent Kilit, Ömer Şenel, Erşan Arslan, Sema Can
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of serve and return game situations on physiological responses and match characteristics in professional male tennis players during one hour-long simulated singles tennis matches. Ten internationally ranked tennis players (age 22.2 ± 2.8 years; body height 180.7 ± 4.4 cm; body mass 75.9 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this study. Their physiological responses were measured using two portable analyzers during indoor hard court matches. Ratings of perceived exertion were also determined at the end of the game...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143453/pulmonary-oxygen-uptake-and-muscle-deoxygenation-kinetics-during-heavy-intensity-cycling-exercise-in-patients-with-emphysema-and-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#11
Melitta A McNarry, Nicholas K Harrison, Tom Withers, Narendra Chinnappa, Michael J Lewis
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the mechanistic basis for the exercise intolerance characteristic of patients with respiratory disease; a lack of clearly defined, distinct patient groups limits interpretation of many studies. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] O2) response, and its potential determinants, in patients with emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: Following a ramp incremental test for the determination of peak [Formula: see text] O2 and the gas exchange threshold, six emphysema (66 ± 7 years; FEV1, 36 ± 16%), five IPF (65 ± 12 years; FEV1, 82 ± 11%) and ten healthy control participants (63 ± 6 years) completed three repeat, heavy-intensity exercise transitions on a cycle ergometer...
January 31, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128928/a-direct-in-vivo-comparison-of-the-melanocortin-monovalent-agonist-ac-his-dphe-arg-trp-nh2-versus-the-bivalent-agonist-ac-his-dphe-arg-trp-pedg20-his-dphe-arg-trp-nh2-a-bivalent-advantage
#12
Cody J Lensing, Danielle N Adank, Stacey L Wilber, Katie T Freeman, Sathya M Schnell, Robert Charles Speth, Adam T Zarth, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
Bivalent ligands targeting putative melanocortin receptor dimers have been developed and characterized in vitro, however studies of their functional in vivo effects have been limited. The current report compares the effects of homobivalent ligand CJL-1-87, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-PEDG20-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2, to monovalent ligand CJL-1-14, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 on energy homeostasis in mice after central intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration into the lateral ventricle of the brain. Bivalent ligand CJL-1-87 had noteworthy advantages as an anti-obesity probe over CJL-1-14 in a fasting-refeeding in vivo paradigm...
January 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119843/influence-of-low-peak-respiratory-exchange-ratio-on-cardiac-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#13
Chul Kim, Hee Eun Choi, Ki Hoon Lee, Young Joo Kim, Sang Jae Lee
OBJECTIVE: To compare and analyze the effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in two groups based on the peak respiratory exchange ratio (RERpeak) 1.1 values using the exercise tolerance test (ETT) results, and to investigate the reasons for early termination of ETT. METHODS: Patients with acute coronary syndrome who participated in CR exercise training were selected and all subjects underwent 6 weeks of CR exercise training. ETT was performed on a treadmill using a Modified Bruce Protocol before and after CR exercise training...
December 2016: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106120/altered-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-liver-and-adipose-tissue-pre-dispose-inducible-nos-knockout-mice-to-insulin-resistance
#14
Babu Nageswararao Kanuri, Jitendra S Kanshana, Sanjay C Rebello, Priya Pathak, Anand P Gupta, Jiaur R Gayen, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Madhu Dikshit
On the basis of diet induced obesity and KO mice models, nitric oxide is implied to play an important role in the initiation of dyslipidemia induced insulin resistance. However, outcomes using iNOS KO mice have so far remained inconclusive. The present study aimed to assess IR in iNOS KO mice after 5 weeks of LFD feeding by monitoring body composition, energy homeostasis, insulin sensitivity/signaling, nitrite content and gene expressions changes in the tissues. We found that body weight and fat content in KO mice were significantly higher while the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2), and heat production were lower as compared to WT mice...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104916/trpv1-activation-counters-diet-induced-obesity-through-sirtuin-1-activation-and-prdm-16-deacetylation-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#15
P Baskaran, V Krishnan, K Fettel, P Gao, Z Zhu, J Ren, B Thyagarajan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Increasing metabolism and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) can help in overcoming obesity. Here, we investigated the effect of activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) in the upregulation of thermogenic proteins in BAT to counter diet-induced obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist) on the expression of metabolically important thermogenic proteins in BAT of wild type and TRPV1(-/-) mice that received either a normal chow or high fat (±capsaicin; TRPV1 activator) diet by immunoblotting...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090142/the-midpoint-between-ventilatory-thresholds-approaches-maximal-lactate-steady-state-intensity-in-amateur-cyclists
#16
A B Peinado, Dm Pessôa Filho, V Díaz, P J Benito, M Álvarez-Sánchez, A G Zapico, F J Calderón
The aim was to determine whether the midpoint between ventilatory thresholds (MPVT) corresponds to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Twelve amateur cyclists (21.0 ± 2.6 years old; 72.2 ± 9.0 kg; 179.8 ± 7.5 cm) performed an incremental test (25 W·min(-1)) until exhaustion and several constant load tests of 30 minutes to determine MLSS, on different occasions. Using MLSS determination as the reference method, the agreement with five other parameters (MPVT; first and second ventilatory thresholds: VT1 and VT2; respiratory exchange ratio equal to 1: RER = 1...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075500/very-short-short-term-benefit-of-inpatient-outpatient-cardiac-rehabilitation-programs-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-surgery
#17
Dejan Spiroski, Mojsije Andjić, Olivera Ilić Stojanović, Milica Lazović, Ana Djordjević Dikić, Miodrag Ostojić, Branko Beleslin, Snežana Kostić, Marija Zdravković, Dragan Lović
BACKGROUND: Exercise-based rehabilitation is an important part of treatment patients following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate effect of very short/short-term exercise training on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters. METHODS: We studied 54 consecutive patients with myocardial infarction (MI) treated with CABG surgery referred for rehabilitation. The study population consisted of 50 men and 4 women (age 57...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065839/cardiovascular-function-in-long-term-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-survivors
#18
Saro H Armenian, David Horak, Jessica M Scott, George Mills, Aida Siyahian, Jennifer Berano Teh, Pamela S Douglas, Stephen J Forman, Smita Bhatia, Lee W Jones
Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), as measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), is a powerful independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a broad range of populations. We assessed the safety and feasibility of CPET in aging long-term hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors, a population at high risk for premature onset of CVD. Next, we examined how organ-specific impairments (eg, cardiac, pulmonary, hematologic) impact VO2peak after HCT. Twenty consecutive HCT survivors underwent a comprehensive assessment of cardiopulmonary health that included CPET, echocardiography with strain, pulmonary function testing, 6-minute walk test, and timed up and go...
January 5, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053881/effect-of-novel-dietary-supplement-on-metabolism-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#19
Roger A Vaughan, Ailish C White, Jason R Beam, Nicholas P Gannon, Randi Garcia-Smith, Roy M Salgado, Marco Bisoffi, Kristina A Trujillo, Carole A Conn, Christine M Mermier
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent and preventable morbidity with multiple behavioral, surgical and pharmacological interventions currently available. Commercial dietary supplements are often advertised to stimulate metabolism and cause rapid weight and/or fat loss, although few well-controlled studies have demonstrated such effects. We describe a commercially available dietary supplement (purportedly containing caffeine, catechins, and other metabolic stimulators) on resting metabolic rate in humans, and on metabolism, mitochondrial content, and related gene expression in vitro...
January 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050930/the-effects-of-crushed-ice-ingestion-prior-to-steady-state-exercise-in-the-heat
#20
Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen E Wallman, Jacinta Saldaris
This study examined the physiological effects of crushed ice ingestion prior to steady state exercise in the heat. Ten healthy males with age (23±3 y), height (176.9±8.7 cm), body-mass (73.5±8.0 kg), V̇O2peak (48.5±3.6 mL·kg·min(-1)) participated in the study. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 55% of their V̇O2peak preceded by 30 min of pre-cooling whereby 7 g·kg(-1) of thermoneutral water (CON) or crushed ice (ICE) was ingested. The reduction in Tc at the conclusion of pre-cooling was greater in ICE (-0...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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