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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421645/feeding-of-tobacco-blend-or-nicotine-induced-weight-loss-associated-with-decreased-adipocyte-size-and-increased-physical-activity-in-male-mice
#1
Mingxia Liu, Chia-Chi Chuang Key, Allison Weckerle, Elena Boudyguina, Janet K Sawyer, Abraham K Gebre, Wayne Spoo, Om Makwana, John S Parks
Although epidemiological data and results from rodent studies support an inverse relationship between nicotine consumption and body weight, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. CD-1 mice were fed a basal diet or a basal diet containing low or high dose smokeless tobacco blend or high dose nicotine tartrate for 14 weeks. High dose tobacco blend and nicotine tartrate diets vs. basal diet reduced mouse body weight (16.3% and 19.7%, respectively), epididymal (67.6% and 72.5%, respectively) and brown adipose weight (42% and 38%, respectively), epididymal adipocyte size (46...
February 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415832/metabolic-characteristics-of-appalachian-children
#2
Brent L Gravelle, Ted W Hagen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation is to assess the physiological characteristics and the resting metabolic rates of a representative population of children in Buchanan County in order to identify those factors that may be contributing to the predisposition for being overweight or obese and provide nutritional and physical activity guidance for prevention. METHODS: Twenty-three volunteers from grades 5, 6 and 7 from Buchannan County, VA underwent parametric and metabolic testing over three consecutive years in order to determine their height, weight, BMI, percent body fat, resting oxygen consumption (VO2), resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and daily energy expenditure (DEE) and consumption...
December 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408602/hepatic-nad-levels-and-nampt-abundance-are-unaffected-during-prolonged-high-fat-diet-consumption-in-c57bl-6jbomtac-mice
#3
Morten Dall, Melanie Penke, Karolina Sulek, Madlen Matz-Soja, Birgitte Holst, Antje Garten, Wieland Kiess, Jonas T Treebak
Dietary supplementation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors has been suggested as a treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity. In the liver, NAD+ is primarily generated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), and hepatic levels of NAMPT and NAD+ have been reported to be dependent on age and body composition. The aim of the present study was to identify time-course-dependent changes in hepatic NAD content and NAD+ salvage capacity in mice challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD)...
February 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406401/relationship-of-spinal-cord-injury-level-and-duration-to-peak-aerobic-capacity-with-arms-only-and-hybrid-fes-rowing
#4
Rebecca F Shaffer, Glen Picard, J Andrew Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of spinal cord injury level and duration to peak aerobic capacities during arms-only (AO) rowing compared to hybrid Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) rowing. DESIGN: Comparison of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak), peak ventilation (VEpeak), peak respiratory exchange ratio (RERpeak), and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were measured during AO-rowing and FES-rowing obtained from graded exercise tests. RESULTS: Peak aerobic values were strongly related to injury level and injury duration for both AO-rowing (r=0...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401626/induced-cre-mediated-knockdown-of-brca1-in-skeletal-muscle-reduces-mitochondrial-respiration-and-prevents-glucose-intolerance-in-adult-mice-on-a-high-fat-diet
#5
Kathryn C Jackson, Michael D Tarpey, Ana P Valencia, Melissa R Iñigo, Stephen J Pratt, Daniel J Patteson, Joseph M McClung, Richard M Lovering, David M Thomson, Espen E Spangenburg
The breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (Brca1) is a regulator of DNA repair in mammary gland cells; however, recent cell culture evidence suggests that Brca1 influences other processes, including those in nonmammary cells. In this study, we sought to determine whether Brca1 is necessary for metabolic regulation of skeletal muscle using a novel in vivo mouse model. We developed an inducible skeletal muscle-specific Brca1knockout (BRCA1KOsmi) model to test whether Brca1 expression is necessary for maintenance of metabolic function of skeletal muscle when exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD)...
January 26, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371106/cardiorespiratory-demand-and-rate-of-perceived-exertion-during-overground-walking-with-a-robotic-exoskeleton-in-long-term-manual-wheelchair-users-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Manuel J Escalona, Rachel Brosseau, Martin Vermette, Alain Steve Comtois, Cyril Duclos, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Dany H Gagnon
BACKGROUND: Many wheelchair users adopt a sedentary lifestyle, which results in progressive physical deconditioning with increased risk of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and endocrine/metabolic morbidity and mortality. Engaging in a walking program with an overground robotic exoskeleton may be an effective strategy for mitigating these potential negative health consequences and optimizing fitness in this population. However, additional research is warranted to inform the development of adapted physical activity programs incorporating this technology...
January 22, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364063/impact-of-carbohydrate-mouth-rinsing-on-time-to-exhaustion-during-ramadan-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-jordanian-men
#7
Mo'ath F Bataineh, Ali M Al-Nawaiseh, Mohammad H Abu Altaieb, David M Bellar, Omar S Hindawi, Lawrence W Judge
Mouth rinsing using a carbohydrate (CHO) solution has been suggested to improve physical performance in fasting participants. This study examined the effects of CHO mouth rinsing during Ramadan fasting on running time to exhaustion and on peak treadmill speed (Vpeak). In a counterbalanced crossover design, 18 sub-elite male runners (Age: 21 ± 2 years, Weight: 68.1 ± 5.7 kg, VO2max: 55.4 ± 4.8 ml/kg/min) who observed Ramadan completed a familiarization trial and three experimental trials. The three trials included rinsing and expectorating a 25 mL bolus of either a 7...
January 24, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356733/cardiopulmonary-aerobic-fitness-assessment-during-maximal-and-submaximal-exercise-testing-in-pediatric-oncology-patients-after-chemotherapy
#8
Adam W Powell, Rajaram Nagarajan, Wayne A Mays, Clifford Chin, Timothy K Knilans, Sandra K Knecht, Michelle A Amos, Yvette M Gerdes, Thomas D Ryan
PURPOSE: The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is a valuable tool to assess cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in pediatric oncology patients after chemotherapy. In addition, few studies on the utility of submaximal testing have been performed, which could be important as some patients are unable to complete a maximal effort test secondary to deconditioning by both disease and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric cancer patients exposed to chemotherapy from 1992 to 2013 who underwent CPET with cycle ergometry (n=27)...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354872/self-administered-nicotine-increases-fat-metabolism-and-suppresses-weight-gain-in-male-rats
#9
Laura E Rupprecht, Alison D Kreisler, Samantha R Spierling, Giordano de Guglielmo, Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George, Eric C Donny, Eric P Zorrilla, Alan F Sved
RATIONALE: The ability of nicotine to suppress body weight is cited as a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit. Self-administered nicotine in male rats suppresses weight independent of food intake, suggesting that nicotine increases energy expenditure. OBJECTIVE: The current experiment evaluated the impact of self-administered nicotine on metabolism in rats using indirect calorimetry and body composition analysis. METHODS: Adult male rats with ad libitum access to powdered standard rodent chow self-administered intravenous infusions of nicotine (60 μg/kg/infusion or saline control) in daily 1-h sessions in the last hour of the light cycle...
January 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351160/acute-cardiorespiratory-and-metabolic-effects-of-a-sandbag-resistance-exercise-protocol
#10
Nicholas A Ratamess, Jie Kang, Jeremy D Kuper, Elizabeth A O'Grady, Nicole L Ellis, Ira T Vought, Emma Culleton, Jill A Bush, Avery D Faigenbaum
The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic effects of a sandbag (SB) resistance exercise protocol and compare the responses to time-matched treadmill running protocols. Eight healthy, resistance-trained men (21.1 ± 1.0 years; 86.1 ± 7.8 kg) completed four protocols of equal duration in random sequence: 1) SB, 2) treadmill running at 60% of VO2 reserve (60VO2R), 3) treadmill running at 80% of VO2 reserve (80VO2R), and 4) a control protocol. The SB protocol was 16 min in duration and consisted of 3 circuits of 8 multiple-joint exercises (with 11-, 20-, or -48 kg sandbags) performed for as many repetitions as possible for 20 sec followed by a 10-sec rest interval prior to beginning the next exercise...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345213/matcha-green-tea-drinks-enhance-fat-oxidation-during-brisk-walking-in-females
#11
Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin, Matthew David Cook
Intake of the catechin epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine has been shown to enhance exercise-induced fat oxidation. Matcha green tea powder contains catechins and caffeine and is consumed as a drink. We examined the effect of Matcha green tea drinks on metabolic, physiological and perceived intensity responses during brisk walking. Thirteen females (age: 27±8 yr, body mass: 65±7 kg, height: 166±6 cm) volunteered. Resting metabolic equivalent (1-MET) was measured using Douglas bags (1-MET: 3.4±0.3 ml·kg-1·min-1)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338584/effect-of-acute-ingestion-of-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-salts-on-the-response-to-graded-exercise-in-trained-cyclists
#12
Mark Evans, Ella Patchett, Rickard Nally, Rachel Kearns, Matthew Larney, Brendan Egan
Acute ingestion of ketone salts induces nutritional ketosis by elevating β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), but few studies have examined the metabolic effects of ingestion prior to exercise. Nineteen trained cyclists (12 male, 7 female) undertook graded exercise (8 min each at ∼30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% VO2peak) on a cycle ergometer on two occasions separated by either 7 or 14 days. Trials included ingestion of boluses of either (i) plain water (3.8 mL kg body mass-1) (CON) or (ii) βHB salts (0.38 g kg body mass-1) in plain water (3...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337267/acute-lung-injury-induced-by-intestinal-ischemia-and-reperfusion-is-altered-in-obese-female-mice
#13
Evelyn Thais Fantozzi, Sara Garbin, Fernanda Yamamoto-Ricardo-da-Silva, Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho, Domenico Spina, Wothan Tavares-de-Lima, Yanira Riffo-Vasquez
RATIONAL: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury that can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We have previously demonstrated that females are protected against lung damage induced by intestinal I/R through an estrogen mediated mechanism. OBJECTIVES: to investigate the effect of obesity on ALI induced by intestinal I/R in female mice. METHODS: C57Bl/6 female mice were fed with a standard low-fat diet (SD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks...
January 11, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324580/the-relationship-between-skating-economy-and-performance-during-a-repeated-shift-test-in-elite-and-sub-elite-ice-hockey-players
#14
Nicholas R Lamoureux, Grant R Tomkinson, Benjamin J Peterson, John S Fitzgerald
The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of skating economy to fatigue during repeated high-intensity efforts of a simulated ice hockey shift. Forty-five collegiate and Junior A male ice hockey players (aged 18-24 years) performed a continuous graded exercise test using a skate treadmill. Breath-by-breath data for oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and respiratory exchange ratio were collected and used to derive energy expenditure (EE) averaged over the final 10 seconds of each stage...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282259/exercise-response-in-parkinson-s-disease-insights-from-a-cross-sectional-comparison-with-sedentary-controls-and-a-per-protocol-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Foteini Mavrommati, Johnny Collett, Marloes Franssen, Andy Meaney, Claire Sexton, Andrea Dennis-West, Jill F Betts, Hooshang Izadi, Marko Bogdanovic, Martin Tims, Andrew Farmer, Helen Dawes
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the acute and adaptation cardiovascular and metabolic training responses in people with Parkinson's disease (pwP). DESIGN: (1) A cross-sectional study of exercise response of pwP compared with sedentary controls and (2) an interventional study of exercise training in pwP. SETTING: Community leisure facilities. PARTICIPANTS: pwP (n=83) and sedentary controls (n=55). INTERVENTIONS: Study 1 included participants from a two-arm-parallel single-blind phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT), that undertook a baseline maximal incremental exercise test and study 2 included those randomised to the exercise group in the RCT, who completed a 6-month weekly exercise programme (n=37)...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261744/energy-homeostasis-in-leptin-deficient-lepob-ob-mice
#16
Alicja A Skowronski, Yann Ravussin, Rudolph L Leibel, Charles A LeDuc
Maintenance of reduced body weight is associated both with reduced energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass and increased hunger in mice and humans. Lowered circulating leptin concentration, due to decreased fat mass, provides a primary signal for this response. However, leptin deficient (Lepob/ob) mice (and leptin receptor deficient Zucker rats) reduce energy expenditure following weight reduction by a necessarily non-leptin dependent mechanisms. To identify these mechanisms, Lepob/ob mice were fed ad libitum (AL group; n = 21) or restricted to 3 kilocalories of chow per day (CR group, n = 21)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239992/comparison-of-resistance-based-walking-cardiorespiratory-test-to-the-bruce-protocol
#17
Christopher P Hurt, Marcas Bamman, Avantika Naidu, David A Brown
Cardiorespiratory fitness is assessed through graded exercise tests that determine the maximum amount of sustained mechanical work that an individual can perform while also providing health and fitness related information. This manuscript describes a novel method to perform graded exercise tests that uses posteriorly directed resistive forces. The purpose of this investigation is to validate a novel resistance based test in comparison to a traditional speed and incline based test in a cohort of non-impaired individuals...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238001/the-inverse-relationship-between-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-intima-media-thickness-with-prehypertensive-middle-aged-women
#18
Dokyung Kim, Wonhah Park
Individuals with prehypertension have a greater risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease than those with normal blood pressure. Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular diseases, but whether it is related to slower progression of early atherosclerosis is unclear. We evaluated 442 women, aged 40-60 years, with resting systolic blood pressure 120-139 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 80-89 mmHg, defined as prehypertension in cross-sectional study...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227996/generation-and-phenotypic-characterisation-of-a-cytochrome-p450-4x1-knockout-mouse
#19
Himanshu Kharkwal, Farhat Batool, Frank Koentgen, David R Bell, David A Kendall, Francis J P Ebling, Ian R Duce
Cytochrome P450 4x1 (Cyp4x1) is expressed at very high levels in the brain but the function of this protein is unknown. It has been hypothesised to regulate metabolism of fatty acids and to affect the activity of endocannabinoid signalling systems, which are known to influence appetite and energy metabolism. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the impact of Cyp4x1 on body weight and energy metabolism by developing a line of transgenic Cyp4x1-knock out mice. Mice were developed with a global knock-out of the gene; the full-length RNA was undetectable, and mice were viable and fertile...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204652/effect-of-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-on-infants-with-meconium-aspiration-syndrome-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Aakash Pandita, Srinivas Murki, Tejo Pratap Oleti, Baswaraj Tandur, Sai Kiran, Sachin Narkhede, Amrut Prajapati
Importance: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) as a primary respiratory therapy in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) has not been studied extensively. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure, when applied in newborns with MAS, may resolve atelectasis by sufficiently expanding partially obstructed small airways and stabilizing the collapsing terminal airways to enhance oxygen exchange. Objective: To compare NCPAP vs standard care in neonates with moderate to severe respiratory failure due to MAS in reducing the need for invasive ventilation...
February 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
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