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Respiratory exchange ratio

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664675/knockout-of-glucose-transporter-glut6-has-minimal-effects-on-whole-body-metabolic-physiology-in-mice
#1
Frances L Byrne, Ellen M Olzomer, Robert Brink, Kyle L Hoehn
Glucose transporter 6 (GLUT6) is a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family. GLUT6 is up-regulated in several cancers, but is not widely expressed in normal tissues. Previous studies have shown that GLUT6 knockdown kills endometrial cancer cells that express elevated levels of the protein. However, whether GLUT6 represents a viable anti-cancer drug target is unclear because the role of GLUT6 in normal metabolic physiology is unknown. Herein we generated GLUT6 knockout mice to determine how loss of GLUT6 affected whole body glucose homeostasis and metabolic physiology...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659529/high-intensity-intermittent-exercise-increases-fat-oxidation-rate-and-reduces-postprandial-triglyceride-concentrations
#2
Tsung-Jen Yang, Ching-Lin Wu, Chih-Hui Chiu
(1) Background: This study investigated the effect of acute barehanded whole body high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) and moderate intensity and continuous exercise (MICE) at the same quantity of energy expenditure on postprandial triglyceride (TG) concentrations. (2) Methods: Nine healthy males completed three trials (HIIE, MICE and control (CON)) in a random order separated by at least 14 days. After each intervention, the participants rested for 12 h and consumed a high-fat test meal on the next day...
April 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658183/determining-the-accuracy-and-reliability-of-indirect-calorimeters-utilizing-the-methanol-combustion-technique
#3
Sepideh Kaviani, Dale A Schoeller, Eric Ravussin, Edward L Melanson, Sarah T Henes, Lara R Dugas, Ronald E Dechert, George Mitri, Paul F M Schoffelen, Pim Gubbels, Asa Tornberg, Stephen Garland, Marco Akkermans, Jamie A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Several indirect calorimetry (IC) instruments are commercially available, but comparative validity and reliability data are lacking. Existing data are limited by inconsistencies in protocols, subject characteristics, or single-instrument validation comparisons. The aim of this study was to compare accuracy and reliability of metabolic carts using methanol combustion as the cross-laboratory criterion. METHODS: Eight 20-minute methanol burn trials were completed on 12 metabolic carts...
April 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627561/river-recharge-versus-o-2-supply-from-the-unsaturated-zone-in-shallow-riparian-groundwater-a-case-study-from-the-selke-river-germany
#4
Michael Mader, André M Roberts, David Porst, Christian Schmidt, Nico Trauth, Robert van Geldern, Johannes A C Barth
Besides gas-water-exchange in surface waters, respiratory consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO) in adjacent riparian groundwater may trigger the addition of so far hardly explored sources from the unsaturated zone. These processes also systematically influence stable isotope ratios of DO and were investigated together with Cl- as a conservative tracer for water mixing in a near-river riparian groundwater system. The study focused on a losing stream section of the Selke River at the foot of the Harz Mountains (Germany)...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626611/preliminary-observations-in-systemic-oxygen-consumption-during-targeted-temperature-management-after-cardiac-arrest
#5
Amy Uber, Anne V Grossestreuer, Catherine E Ross, Parth V Patel Rn, Ambica Trehan, Michael W Donnino, Katherine M Berg
AIM: Limited data suggests low oxygen consumption (VO2 ), driven by mitochondrial injury, is associated with mortality after cardiac arrest. Due to the challenges of measurement in the critically ill, post-arrest metabolism remains poorly characterized. We monitored VO2 , carbon dioxide production (VCO2 ) and the respiratory quotient (RQ) in post-arrest patients and explored associations with outcome. METHODS: Using a gas exchange monitor, we measured continuous VO2 and VCO2 in post- arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management...
April 4, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626373/sex-dimorphism-of-substrate-utilization-differences-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-volume-density-and-function
#6
David Montero, Klavs Madsen, Anne-Kristine Meinild-Lundby, Fredrik Edin, Carsten Lundby
Fat oxidation during exercise is higher in females than males. We sought to determine whether sex differences in substrate metabolism are paralleled by distinct skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume density and oxidative capacity. Whole-body substrate (fat, carbohydrate (CHO)) utilization during submaximal treadmill running was assessed and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine mitochondrial volume density (MitoVD ) and function in healthy young females (n = 12) and males (n = 12) matched by aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max ) and exercise performance...
April 6, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566460/inherently-lean-rats-have-enhanced-activity-and-skeletal-muscle-response-to-central-melanocortin-receptors
#7
Chaitanya K Gavini, Steven L Britton, Lauren G Koch, Colleen M Novak
OBJECTIVE: Activity thermogenesis and energy expenditure (EE) are elevated in intrinsically lean rats (high-capacity runners [HCR]) and are also stimulated by melanocortin receptor activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). This study determined whether HCR are more responsive to central modulation of activity EE compared with low-capacity runners (LCR). METHODS: HCR and LCR rats received intra-VMH microinjections of melanotan II (MTII), a mixed melanocortin receptor agonist...
March 22, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564844/effects-of-high-intensity-warm-ups-on-running-performance
#8
Fernando González-Mohíno, Raúl Martín, Daniel Juárez Santos-García, Pedro Angel Fidel, Francisco de Asis Fernandez, Inmaculada Yustres, José María González Ravé
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity warm-ups (WUs) on performance, physiological, neuromuscular and biomechanical parameters. Three randomized cross-over 105%vVO2 max time limit trials (TLimT) were performed by 11 well-trained runners following three different WU protocols. These included two experimental high-intensity variants and one control WU variant: (i) 9x20-sec level strides (105%vVO2 max; 1% gradient) with 60 s of recovery (level); (ii) 6x6-sec uphill strides (105%vVO2 max; 5% gradient), with the same recovery (uphill) and (iii) 7 min at 60%vVO2 max as control condition (control)...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555580/the-effects-of-morphine-on-gas-exchange-ventilation-pattern-and-ventilatory-responses-to-hypercapnia-and-hypoxia-in-dwarf-caiman-paleosuchus-palpebrosus
#9
Christian Lind Malte, Jonas Bundgaard, Michael Schou Jensen, Mads Frost Bertelsen, Tobias Wang
Morphine and other opioids cause respiratory depression in high doses and lower the ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in mammals. Recent studies indicate that turtles respond similarly, but although they are used routinely for post-surgical analgesia, little is known about the physiological effects of opioids in reptiles. We therefore investigated the effects of morphine (10 and 20 mg kg-1 ) on gas exchange and ventilation in six dwarf caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus) using pneumotachography in a crossover design...
March 16, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545738/subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-with-pyloroplasty-ameliorates-the-obesity-caused-by-genetic-deletion-of-the-melanocortin-4-receptor-in-the-mouse
#10
Ghazaul Dezfuli, Richard A Gillis, Jaclyn E Tatge, Kimbell R Duncan, Kenneth L Dretchen, Patrick G Jackson, Joseph G Verbalis, Niaz Sahibzada
Background/Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that abolishing vagal nerve activity will reverse the obesity phenotype of melanocortin 4 receptor knockout mice ( Mc4r -/- ). Subjects/Methods: In two separate studies, we examined the efficacy of bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV) with pyloroplasty in the prevention and treatment of obesity in Mc4r -/- mice. Results: In the first study, SDV prevented >20% increase in body weight (BW) associated with this genotype. This was correlated with a transient reduction in overall food intake (FI) in the preventative arm of the study...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544378/glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-alterations-in-liver-and-adipose-tissue-pre-dispose-p47-phox-knockout-mice-to-systemic-insulin-resistance
#11
Babu Nageswararao Kanuri, Sanjay C Rebello, Priya Pathak, Hobby Agarwal, Jitendra S Kanshana, Deepika Awasthi, Anand P Gupta, Jiaur R Gayen, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Madhu Dikshit
Oxidative stress due to enhanced production or reduced scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been associated with diet (dyslipidemia) induced obesity and insulin resistance (IR). The present study was undertaken to assess the role of p47phox in IR using wild type (WT) and p47phox-/- mice, fed with different diets (HFD, LFD or Chow). Augmented body weight, glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity were observed in p47phox-/- mice fed with 45% HFD and 10% LFD. Further, body fat and circulating lipids was increased significantly with 5 weeks LFD feeding in p47phox-/- mice, while parameters of energy homeostasis were reduced as compared to WT mice...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541331/the-effect-of-acute-l-carnitine-and-carbohydrate-intake-on-cycling-performance
#12
Boe M Burrus, Brian M Moscicki, Tracey D Matthews, Vincent J Paolone
Chronic supplementation of L-carnitine and carbohydrate has been reported to increase L-carnitine content in skeletal muscle and have positive influences on exercise variables and performance. This study investigated the acute intake of L-carnitine and carbohydrate on the exercise parameters of cycling. A total of 10 males (27.0 ± 4 years) completed two exercise sessions consisting of 40 min of cycling at 65% of VO2peak , followed by cycling to exhaustion at 85% of VO2peak . L-carnitine or a placebo was consumed 3 hours prior to exercise, and beverages consisting of 94 g of carbohydrate were consumed at both 2 hours, and 30 minutes prior to exercise...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535588/carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-improves-cycling-time-trial-performance-without-altering-plasma-insulin-concentration
#13
Kevin O Murray, Hunter L Paris, Alyce D Fly, Robert F Chapman, Timothy D Mickleborough
Rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate solution has been shown to improve exercise performance in a manner similar to carbohydrate ingestion. However, the underlying mechanisms behind these ergogenic benefits remain unclear. This study evaluated whether rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate solution alters plasma insulin and glucose concentration during the initial stages of a 40 km cycling time-trial. Eight trained, competitive cyclists [age (mean ± SEM) = 24 ± 2 y; V̇O2 max = 64.5 ± 2.2 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 ] completed three simulated 40 km time-trials comprised of a familiarization trial, a carbohydrate condition (CHO) and a placebo mouth rinse condition (PLA)...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523922/a-novel-mechanism-for-improved-exercise-performance-in-pediatric-fontan-patients-after-cardiac-rehabilitation
#14
Samuel Wittekind, Wayne Mays, Yvette Gerdes, Sandra Knecht, John Hambrook, William Border, John Lynn Jefferies
Patients with a Fontan circulation have impaired exercise capacity. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has shown promise in enhancing peak exercise parameters in this population, but an improvement in submaximal exercise has not been consistently demonstrated. We assessed the hypothesis that participation in CR will be associated with more efficient oxygen extraction and ventilation during submaximal exercise. In this prospective study, pediatric Fontans completed two 60 min CR sessions per week for 12 weeks. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and stress echocardiography were performed at baseline and last CR session, and then compared with a paired sample t test...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521037/human-physiological-and-metabolic-responses-to-an-attempted-winter-crossing-of-antarctica-the-effects-of-prolonged-hypobaric-hypoxia
#15
Katie A O'Brien, Ross D Pollock, Mike Stroud, Rob J Lambert, Alex Kumar, Robert A Atkinson, David A Green, Ana Anton-Solanas, Lindsay M Edwards, Steve D R Harridge
An insufficient supply of oxygen to the tissues (hypoxia), as is experienced upon high-altitude exposure, elicits physiological acclimatization mechanisms alongside metabolic remodeling. Details of the integrative adaptive processes in response to chronic hypobaric hypoxic exposure remain to be sufficiently investigated. In this small applied field study, subjects (n = 5, male, age 28-54 years) undertook a 40 week Antarctica expedition in the winter months, which included 24 weeks residing above 2500 m...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517419/exercise-testing-protocol-using-a-roller-system-for-manual-wheelchair-users-with-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Kerri A Morgan, Kelly L Taylor, Susan M Tucker, W Todd Cade, Joseph W Klaesner
OBJECTIVE: Determine the validity and reliability of an exercise testing protocol to evaluate cardiorespiratory measures in manual wheelchair users (MWUs) with spinal cord injury (SCI) using a roller-based (RS) wheelchair system. DESIGN: Repeated measures within-subject design. SETTING: Community-based research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Ten adults with SCI requiring the use of a manual wheelchair. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507824/similar-acute-physiological-responses-from-effort-and-duration-matched-leg-press-and-recumbent-cycling-tasks
#17
James Steele, Andrew Butler, Zoe Comerford, Jason Dyer, Nathan Lloyd, Joshua Ward, James Fisher, Paulo Gentil, Christopher Scott, Hayao Ozaki
The present study examined the effects of exercise utilising traditional resistance training (leg press) or 'cardio' exercise (recumbent cycle ergometry) modalities upon acute physiological responses. Nine healthy males underwent a within session randomised crossover design where they completed both the leg press and recumbent cycle ergometer conditions. Conditions were approximately matched for effort and duration (leg press: 4 × 12RM using a 2 s concentric and 3 s eccentric repetition duration controlled with a metronome, thus each set lasted  60 s; recumbent cycle ergometer: 4 × 60 s bouts using a resistance level permitting 80-100 rpm but culminating with being unable to sustain the minimum cadence for the final 5-10 s)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506981/reference-values-for-peak-oxygen-uptake-cross-sectional-analysis-of-cycle-ergometry-based-cardiopulmonary-exercise-tests-of-10-090-adult-german-volunteers-from-the-prevention-first-registry
#18
Daniel Rapp, Jürgen Scharhag, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Johannes Scholl
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to construct quantile reference values for peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak ) measured by cycle ergometry-based incremental cardiopulmonary exercise tests. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using quantile regressions to fit sex-specific and age-specific quantile curves. Exercise tests were conducted using cycle ergometry. Maximal effort in the exercise tests wass assumed when respiratory exchange ratio  ≥1.1 or lactate ≥8 mmol/L or maximal heart rate ≥90% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489721/post-exercise-ingestion-of-low-or-high-molecular-weight-glucose-polymer-solution-does-not-improve-cycle-performance-in-female-athletes
#19
Meredith G Mock, Katie R Hirsch, Malia N M Blue, Eric T Trexler, Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The current study sought to evaluate the effects of post-exercise ingestion of a high molecular weight glucose polymer solution (HMW) compared to an isocaloric low molecular weight solution (LMW) or placebo (PLA) on subsequent cycling performance in female athletes. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 10 competitive female cyclists (Mean ± SD; Age = 25.7 ± 5.0 yrs; VO2peak = 49.7 ± 4.3 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed three testing sessions separated by 7-10 days...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485903/metabolic-and-molecular-framework-for-the-enhancement-of-endurance-by-intermittent-food-deprivation
#20
Krisztina Marosi, Keelin Moehl, Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Sarah J Mitchell, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Miguel A Aon, Sonia Cortassa, Kevin G Becker, Mark P Mattson
Evolutionary considerations suggest that the body has been optimized to perform at a high level in the food-deprived state when fatty acids and their ketone metabolites are a major fuel source for muscle cells. Because controlled food deprivation in laboratory animals and intermittent energy restriction in humans is a potent physiologic stimulus for ketosis, we designed a study to determine the impact of intermittent food deprivation during endurance training on performance and to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms...
February 27, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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