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Respiratory exchange ratio

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811219/trinucleotide-repeat-containing-6c-tnrc6c-is-essential-for-microvascular-maturation-during-distal-airspace-sacculation-in-the-developing-lung
#1
Hua Guo, Yana Kazadaeva, Fabian E Ortega, Narasimaswamy Manjunath, Tushar J Desai
GW182 (also known asTNRC6) family members are critically involved in the final effector phase of miRNA-mediated mRNA repression. The three mammalian paralogs, TNRC6a, b and c, are thought to be redundant based on Argonaute (Ago) binding, tethering assays, and RNAi silencing of individual members in cell lines. To test this idea, we generated TNRC6a, b and c knockout mice. TNRC6a mutants die at mid-gestation, while b- and c- deleted mice are born at a Mendelian ratio. However, the majority of TNRC6b and all TNRC6c mutants die within 24h after birth, the latter with respiratory failure...
August 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804223/the-effect-of-transcutaneous-electrical-acupoint-stimulation-on-inflammatory-response-in-patients-undergoing-limb-ischemia-reperfusion
#2
Yunchang Mo, Sijia Chen, Lili Yang, Ledan Huang, Dan Jin, Zhi Yu, Leilei Wang, Liangrong Wang, Shan Luo, Junlu Wang
Reperfusion after tourniquet use can induce inflammation and cause remote organ injury. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on inflammatory mediators and lung function in patients receiving lower limb tourniquets. Forty patients undergoing unilateral lower extremity surgery with tourniquet were randomly assigned to two groups: the TEAS group and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group. The C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and arterial blood gas analysis were measured preoperatively and 6 h after tourniquet removal...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774754/altitudinal-variation-in-metabolic-parameters-of-a-small-afrotropical-bird
#3
Lindy J Thompson, Colleen T Downs
Of the numerous factors affecting avian metabolic rate, altitude is one of the least studied. We used mass-flow respirometry to measure resting metabolic rate (RMR), evaporative water loss (EWL) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in two populations of a small (10-12g) Afrotropical bird, the Cape White-eye (Zosterops virens), in summer and in winter. In total, 51 freshly wild-caught adult Cape White-eyes were measured overnight. Altitude was included as a source of variation in the best approximating models for body mass, whole-animal RMR, RER, whole-animal standard EWL and whole-animal basal EWL...
July 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763620/acute-effects-of-exercise-intensity-on-subsequent-substrate-utilisation-appetite-and-energy-balance-in-men-and-women
#4
Ghalia Shamlan, Paul Bech, M Denise Robertson, Adam L Collins
Exercise is capable of influencing the regulation of energy balance by acutely modulating appetite and energy intake coupled to effects on substrate utilization. Yet, few studies have examined acute effects of exercise intensity on aspects of both energy intake and energy metabolism, independently of energy cost of exercise. Furthermore, little is known as to the gender differences of these effect. One hour after a standardised breakfast, 40 (19 female), healthy participants (BMI 23.6±3.6 kg.m-2, VO2peak 34...
August 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761700/a-novel-treadmill-protocol-for-exercise-testing-in-children-the-british-columbia-children-s-hospital-protocol
#5
D Kathryn Duff, Astrid M De Souza, Derek G Human, James E Potts, Kevin C Harris
BACKGROUND: Exercise testing in children is widely recommended for a number of clinical and prescriptive reasons. Many institutions continue to use the Bruce protocol for treadmill testing; however, with its incremental changes in speed and grade, it has challenges for practical application in children. We have developed a novel institutional protocol (British Columbia Children's Hospital (BCCH)), which may have better utility in paediatric populations. AIM: To determine if our institutional protocol yields similar peak responses in minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), metabolic equivalents (METS) and heart rate (HR) when compared with the traditional Bruce protocol...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758084/cardiopulmonary-exercise-test-in-leukemia-patients-after-chemotherapy-a-feasibility-study
#6
Soojae Kim, Ik-Chan Song, Sungju Jee
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in leukemia patients after chemotherapy. METHODS: Leukemia patients with histologically confirmed hematologic malignancies were reviewed. We evaluated for CPET, between receiving chemotherapy and undergoing stem cell transplantation after 2 weeks. We recorded exercise testing and physiologic parameters during CPET between January 2013 to May 2015. All patients were subjected to symptoms limited to exercise testing, according to the Modified Bruce Protocol...
June 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750585/nutritional-ketone-salts-increase-fat-oxidation-but-impair-high-intensity-exercise-performance-in-healthy-adult-males
#7
Trevor O'Malley, Etienne Myette-Cote, Cody Durrer, Jonathan P Little
This study investigated the impact of raising plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) through ingestion of ketone salts on substrate oxidation and performance during cycling exercise. Ten healthy adult males (age, 23 ± 3 years; body mass index, 25 ± 3 kg/m(2), peak oxygen uptake, 45 ± 10 mL/(kg·min)(-1)) were recruited to complete 2 experimental trials. Before enrollment in the experimental conditions, baseline anthropometrics and cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake) were assessed and familiarization to the study protocol was provided...
July 27, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742723/supraglottic-atomization-of-surfactant-in-spontaneously-breathing-lambs-receiving-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#8
Ilaria Milesi, David G Tingay, Anna Lavizzari, Federico Bianco, Emanuela Zannin, Paolo Tagliabue, Fabio Mosca, Maria Luisa Ventura, Anushi Rajapaksa, Elizabeth J Perkins, Don Black, Marco Di Castri, Magdy Sourial, Gerhard Pohlmann, Raffaele L Dellaca'
OBJECTIVES: To determine the short-term tolerance, efficacy, and lung deposition of supraglottic atomized surfactant in spontaneously breathing lambs receiving continuous positive airway pressure. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized animal study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two preterm lambs on continuous positive airway pressure (132 ± 1 d gestational age). INTERVENTIONS: Animals receiving continuous positive airway pressure via binasal prongs at 8 cm H2O were randomized to receive atomized surfactant at approximately 60-minute of life (atom; n = 15) or not (control; n = 7)...
July 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740132/absence-of-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-4-timp4-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-due-to-defective-lipid-absorption
#9
Siva S V P Sakamuri, Russell Watts, Abhijit Takawale, Xiuhua Wang, Samuel Hernandez-Anzaldo, Wesam Bahitham, Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Richard Lehner, Zamaneh Kassiri
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMPs) are inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that regulate tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. TIMP4 is highly expressed in adipose tissue, its levels are further elevated following high-fat diet, but its role in obesity is unknown. Eight-week old wild-type (WT) and Timp4-knockout (Timp4 (-/-)) mice received chow or high fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Timp4 (-/-) mice exhibited a higher food intake but lower body fat gain. Adipose tissue of Timp4 (-/-) -HFD mice showed reduced hypertrophy and fibrosis compared to WT-HFD mice...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736330/impaired-microglia-fractalkine-signaling-affects-stress-reaction-and-coping-style-in-mice
#10
Zsuzsanna Winkler, Dániel Kuti, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina Gulyás, Ágnes Polyák, Krisztina J Kovács
Microglia, resident immune cells of the CNS are sensitive to various perturbations of the environment, such as stress exposure, and may be involved in translating these changes to behavior. Among the pathways mediating stress-related neuronal cues to microglia, the fractalkine-fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) signaling plays a crucial role. Using mice, in which the CX3CR1 gene was deleted, we explored hormonal and behavioral responses to acute and chronic stress along with changes in hypothalamic microglia. CX3CR1(-/-) animals display active escape in forced swim- and tail suspension tests, exaggerated neuronal activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and increased corticosterone release in response to restraint...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730728/beneficial-long-term-antidiabetic-actions-of-n-and-c-terminally-modified-analogues-of-apelin-13-in-diet-induced-obese-diabetic-mice
#11
V Parthsarathy, C Hogg, P R Flatt, F P M O'Harte
AIMS: This study investigated the chronic effects of twice daily administration of stable apelin analogues, apelin-13 amide and (pGlu)apelin-13 amide, on metabolic parameters in glucose intolerant and insulin resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high-fat diet for 150 days. STUDY DESIGN & METHODS: Groups of mice received twice daily (09:00 and 17:00 h) injections of saline vehicle, apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4(1-39) for 28 days (all at 25 nmol/kg)...
July 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727673/exercise-training-improves-ventilatory-efficiency-in-patients-with-a-small-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-randomized-controlled-study
#12
Ricardo M Lima, Baruch Vainshelboim, Rucha Ganatra, Ronald Dalman, Khin Chan, Jonathan Myers
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency and physiological responses to submaximal exercise in subjects with small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: Sixty-five male patients (72.3 ± 7.0 years) were randomized to exercise training (n = 33) or usual care group (n = 32). Exercise subjects participated in a training groups for 3 mo. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed before and after the study period and peak VO2, the ventilatory threshold (VT), the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and the VE2/VCO2 slope were identified...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716975/metabolic-phenotype-in-the-mouse-model-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#13
Iris Boraschi-Diaz, Josephine T Tauer, Omar El Rifai, Delphine Guillemette, Geneviève Lefebvre, Frank Rauch, Mathieu Ferron, Svetlana V Komarova
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is the most common heritable bone fragility disorder, usually caused by dominant mutations in genes coding for collagen type I alpha chains, COL1A1 or COL1A2. Osteocalcin is now recognized as a bone-derived regulator of insulin secretion and sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Since OI is associated with increased rates of bone formation and resorption, we hypothesized that the levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin are increased in OI. The objective of this study was to determine changes in osteocalcin and to elucidate the metabolic phenotype in the Col1a1Jrt/+ mouse, a model of dominant OI caused by a Col1a1 mutation...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704881/cardiovascular-and-autonomic-responses-to-a-maximal-exercise-test-in-elite-youngsters
#14
Cristina Blasco-Lafarga, Borja Camarena, Manuel Mateo-March
To analyze cardiovascular and autonomic responses in elite youngsters, 13 male cyclists (15.43±0.51 years) performed a graded-test until voluntary exhaustion. Oxygen consumption (VO2), blood lactate (BLa), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected, while heart rate (HR) was registered for heart rate variability (HRV) analyses, looking for linear and nonlinear comparisons. Cyclists reached maximal exertion [RPE: 19.14±0.94; BLa: 8...
September 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704507/regular-moist-snuff-dipping-does-not-affect-endurance-exercise-performance
#15
Frida Björkman, Fredrik Edin, C Mikael Mattsson, Filip Larsen, Björn Ekblom
Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG). A control group (CO) of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683177/determination-of-ideal-target-exercise-heart-rate-for-cardiac-patients-suitable-for-rehabilitation
#16
Shih Jia Janice Tan, John Carson Allen, Swee Yaw Tan
BACKGROUND: Exercise prescription for patients with cardiovascular disease remains a challenge. The concept of exercising at an intensity equivalent to one's anaerobic threshold has been well studied and highly recommended in the fitness industry for other populations. For this concept to be applicable to patients with cardiovascular disease, the level and intensity of activity must not trigger myocardial ischemia. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that the heart rate at ventilatory anaerobic threshold (HRVAT ) will not exceed heart rate at ischemic threshold (HRIT ) (ie, HRVAT ≤ HRIT in a majority [>50%] of patients)...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674605/changes-in-running-economy-respiratory-exchange-ratio-and-vo2max-in-runners-following-a-10-day-altitude-training-camp
#17
Sebastian R Diebel, Ian Newhouse, David S Thompson, Vineet B K Johnson
Running economy (RE) and VO2max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), and VO2max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO2max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO2max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674596/effects-of-nasal-or-oral-breathing-on-anaerobic-power-output-and-metabolic-responses
#18
Christine Recinto, Theodore Efthemeou, P Tony Boffelli, James W Navalta
Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0-5 sec, 5-10 sec, 10-15 sec, 15-20 sec, 20-25 sec, 25-30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the p<0...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674441/a-high-salt-diet-inhibits-obesity-and-delays-puberty-in-the-female-rat
#19
D Pitynski-Miller, M Ross, M Schmill, R Schambow, T Fuller, F W Flynn, D C Skinner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Processed foods are considered major contributors to the worldwide obesity epidemic. In addition to high sugar and fat contents, processed foods contain large amounts of salt. Due to correlations with rising adiposity, salt has recently been proposed to be obesogenic. This study investigated three hypotheses: i) high salt contributes to weight gain and adiposity in juvenile female rats, ii) puberty onset would be altered because salt is known to affect neuronal systems involved in activating the reproductive system, and iii) enhanced adiposity will act synergistically with salt to drive early puberty onset...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661546/skeletal-muscle-metabolism-after-stroke-a-comparative-study-using-treadmill-and-overground-walking-test
#20
Ana Paula Loureiro, Birgitta Langhammer, Terje Gjøvaag, Hege Ihle-Hansen, Luiz César Guarita-Souza
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate muscle metabolism in stroke survivors through measurements of the respiratory exchange ratio and rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation in relation to total energy expenditure at preferred walking speed during treadmill and overground walking. The secondary objective was to investigate whether the energy source used during walking influences the daily physical activity pattern and fatigue of post-stroke individuals. METHODS: The sample comprised 28 stroke participants and 10 non-disabled, healthy controls...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
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