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Oxygen deficit in performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903275/cell-cycle-inhibition-reduces-inflammatory-responses-neuronal-loss-and-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-hypobaria-exposure-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Jacob W Skovira, Junfang Wu, Jessica J Matyas, Alok Kumar, Marie Hanscom, Shruti V Kabadi, Raymond Fang, Alan I Faden
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in military settings can be exposed to prolonged periods of hypobaria (HB) during aeromedical evacuation. Hypobaric exposure, even with supplemental oxygen to prevent hypoxia, worsens outcome after experimental TBI, in part by increasing neuroinflammation. Cell cycle activation (CCA) after TBI has been implicated as a mechanism contributing to both post-traumatic cell death and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined whether hypobaric exposure in rats subjected to TBI increases CCA and microglial activation in the brain, as compared to TBI alone, and to evaluate the ability of a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CR8) to reduce such changes and improve behavioral outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894892/longitudinal-functional-brain-imaging-study-in-early-course-schizophrenia-before-and-after-cognitive-enhancement-therapy
#2
Matcheri S Keshavan, Shaun M Eack, Konasale M Prasad, Chiara S Haller, Raymond Y Cho
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired -social and non social cognition both of which lead to functional deficits. These deficits may benefit from cognitive remediation, but the neural underpinnings of such improvements have not been clearly delineated. METHODS: We conducted a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study in early course schizophrenia patients randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or enriched supportive therapy (EST) and treated for two years...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825902/neuroprotective-effects-of-clarithromycin-against-neuronal-damage-in-cerebral-ischemia-and-in-cultured-neuronal-cells-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#3
Yasuo Katayama, Toshiki Inaba, Chikako Nito, Satoshi Suda, Masayuki Ueda
AIMS: Rats subjected to transient focal ischemia and cultured neuronal cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were treated with clarithromycin (CAM) to evaluate the effects of CAM in protecting against neuronal damage. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90min and then reperfused. Each animal was given an oral dose clarithromycin (CAM, 100mg/kg) or vehicle alone just after the ischemia was commenced...
November 5, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786515/posttraumatic-stress-and-alcohol-use-among-veterans-amygdala-and-anterior-cingulate-activation-to-emotional-cues
#4
Raluca M Simons, Jeffrey S Simons, Dawne Olson, Lee Baugh, Vincent Magnotta, Gina Forster
This fMRI study tested a model of combat trauma, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), alcohol use, and behavioral and neural responses to emotional cues in 100 OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Multilevel structural equation models were tested for left and right dorsal ACC (dACC), rostral ACC (rACC), and amygdala blood-oxygen- level dependent responses during the emotional counting Stroop test and masked faces task. In the Stroop task, combat exposure moderated the effect of combat stimuli resulting in hyperactivation in the rACC and dACC...
November 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777059/metabolic-mechanisms-of-vocal-fatigue
#5
Chayadevie Nanjundeswaran, Jessie VanSwearingen, Katherine Verdolini Abbott
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify potential metabolic mechanisms including (1) neuromuscular inefficiency, (2) cardiovascular recovery deficits, or (3) both, in individuals with complaints of vocal fatigue. STUDY DESIGN: Within- and between-subjects group design was used in this study. METHODS: Three groups of women participated in the study, including (1) individuals with complaints of vocal fatigue; (2) vocally healthy sedentary individuals; and (3) vocally healthy, cardiovascularly conditioned individuals...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769568/specific-frontostriatal-circuits-for-impaired-cognitive-flexibility-and-goal-directed-planning-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-evidence-from-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#6
Matilde M Vaghi, Petra E Vértes, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Febe E van der Flier, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Rashid Zaman, Valerie Voon, Prantik Kundu, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: A recent hypothesis has suggested that core deficits in goal-directed behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are caused by impaired frontostriatal function. We tested this hypothesis in OCD patients and control subjects by relating measures of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility to underlying resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: Multiecho resting-state acquisition, combined with micromovement correction by blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive independent component analysis, was used to obtain in vivo measures of functional connectivity in 44 OCD patients and 43 healthy comparison subjects...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753741/neuromuscular-fatigue-during-prolonged-exercise-in-hypoxia
#7
Marc Jubeau, Thomas Rupp, John Temesi, Stéphane Perrey, Bernard Wuyam, Guillaume Y Millet, Samuel Verges
PURPOSE: Prolonged cycling exercise performance in normoxia is limited due to both peripheral and central neuromuscular impairments. It has been reported that cerebral perturbations are greater during short-duration exercise in hypoxia compared to normoxia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that central deficits are accentuated in hypoxia compared to normoxia during prolonged (3 bouts of 80 min separated by 25 min) whole-body exercise at the same relative intensity...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734843/structure-mechanism-based-engineering-of-chemical-regulators-targeting-distinct-pathological-factors-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Michael W Beck, Jeffrey S Derrick, Richard A Kerr, Shin Bi Oh, Woo Jong Cho, Shin Jung C Lee, Yonghwan Ji, Jiyeon Han, Zahra Aliakbar Tehrani, Nayoung Suh, Sujeong Kim, Scott D Larsen, Kwang S Kim, Joo-Yong Lee, Brandon T Ruotolo, Mi Hee Lim
The absence of effective therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a result of the limited understanding of its multifaceted aetiology. Because of the lack of chemical tools to identify pathological factors, investigations into AD pathogenesis have also been insubstantial. Here we report chemical regulators that demonstrate distinct specificity towards targets linked to AD pathology, including metals, amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-Aβ, reactive oxygen species, and free organic radicals. We obtained these chemical regulators through a rational structure-mechanism-based design strategy...
October 13, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709092/antegrade-cerebral-perfusion-at-25-%C3%A2-c-for-arch-reconstruction-in-newborns-and-children-preserves-perioperative-cerebral-oxygenation-and-serum-creatinine
#9
Bhawna Gupta, Ali Dodge-Khatami, Juan Tucker, Mary B Taylor, Douglas Maposa, Miguel Urencio, Jorge D Salazar
BACKGROUND: Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) typically is used with deep hypothermia for cerebral protection during aortic arch reconstructions. The impact of ACP on cerebral oxygenation and serum creatinine at a more tepid 25 °C was studied in newborns and children. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2014, 61 newborns and children (<5 years old) underwent aortic arch reconstruction using moderate hypothermia (25.0±0.9 °C) with ACP and a pH-stat blood gas management strategy...
July 2016: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708600/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-diagnosis-an-activation-executive-model
#10
Celestino Rodríguez, Paloma González-Castro, Marisol Cueli, Debora Areces, Julio A González-Pienda
Attention deficit with, or without, hyperactivity and impulsivity (ADHD) is categorized as neuro-developmental disorder. ADHD is a common disorder in childhood and one of the most frequent conditions affecting school ages. This disorder is characterized by a persistent behavioral pattern associated with inattention, over-activity (or hyperactivity), and difficulty in controlling impulses. Current research suggests the existence of certain patterns of cortical activation and executive control, which could more objectively identify ADHD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682435/gait-speed-response-to-aerobic-versus-resistance-exercise-training-in-older-adults
#11
Rebecca M Henderson, X Iris Leng, Elizabeth A Chmelo, Tina E Brinkley, Mary F Lyles, Anthony P Marsh, Barbara J Nicklas
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the comparative effect of aerobic training (AT) versus resistance training (RT) on gait speed, a strong predictor of disability. AIMS: To compare the effect of AT versus RT on gait speed and other functional measures. METHODS: Overweight and obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥27.0 kg/m(2)] sedentary men and women aged 65-79 years engaged in 5 months of either 4 days/weeks moderate-intensity treadmill walking, AT, (n = 44) or 3 days/weeks moderate-intensity RT (n = 56)...
September 28, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634610/recurrence-of-neurological-deficits-in-an-f-a-18d-pilot-following-loss-of-cabin-pressure-at-altitude
#12
Tom Robinson, Jose S Evangelista, Emi Latham, Samir T Mukherjee, Andrew Pilmanis
INTRODUCTION: Supersonic, high altitude aviation places its pilots and aircrew in complex environments, which may lead to injury that is not easily diagnosed or simply treated. Decompression illness (either venous or arterial) and environmental conditions (e.g., abnormal gases and pressure) are the most likely adverse effects aircrew often face. Though symptomatic aircrew personnel may occasionally require hyperbaric oxygen treatment, it is rare to require more than one treatment before returning to baseline function...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614933/sildenafil-improves-brain-injury-recovery-following-term-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-male-rat-pups
#13
Armin Yazdani, Zehra Khoja, Aaron Johnstone, Laura Dale, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Pia Wintermark
Term asphyxiated newborns remain at risk of developing brain injury despite available neuropreventive therapies such as hypothermia. Neurorestorative treatments may be an alternative. This study investigated the effect of sildenafil on brain injury induced by neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at term-equivalent age. Neonatal HI was induced in male Long-Evans rat pups at postnatal day 10 (P10) by left common carotid ligation followed by a 2-hour exposure to 8% oxygen; sham-operated rat pups served as the control...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612435/white-matter-integrity-between-left-basal-ganglia-and-left-prefrontal-cortex-is-compromised-in-gambling-disorder
#14
Tim van Timmeren, Jochem M Jansen, Matthan W A Caan, Anna E Goudriaan, Ruth J van Holst
Pathological gambling (PG) is a behavioral addiction characterized by an inability to stop gambling despite the negative consequences, which may be mediated by cognitive flexibility deficits. Indeed, impaired cognitive flexibility has previously been linked to PG and also to reduced integrity of white matter connections between the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex. It remains unclear, however, how white matter integrity problems relate to cognitive inflexibility seen in PG. We used a cognitive switch paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging in pathological gamblers (PGs; n = 26) and healthy controls (HCs; n = 26)...
September 9, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604328/the-native-cardiac-output-in-human-sepsis-a-systematic-review
#15
Luca Cioccari, Nora Luethi, Ulrike Weber, Andrew Hilton, Jukka Takala, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: The cardiac output (CO) response to sepsis is typically measured in the intensive care unit after modification by fluid and/or vasoactive drug resuscitation and found to be hyperdynamic. In contrast, the native (preresuscitation) CO in human sepsis is poorly defined. DESIGN AND DATA SOURCES: Systematic literature review of studies reporting the cardiac index (CI) of patients with sepsis before resuscitation, using searches of PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase...
September 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596222/abnormal-body-composition-cardiovascular-endurance-and-muscle-strength-in-pediatric-sle
#16
Sangeeta Sule, Kevin Fontaine
BACKGROUND: Children with SLE are known to have higher fat mass compared to their peers but there are no published data regarding exercise capacity as measured by cardiovascular endurance and muscle strength. In our pilot study of ten children with SLE, we sought to examine body composition, cardiovascular endurance, and isometric muscle strength. FINDINGS: Ten pediatric SLE patients were studied with a mean age of 15.5 years and 90 % female. Percent body fat above 30 %, the recommended normal level in adolescent females, were found in 89 % of female subjects and 40 % of all participants had lower than the recommended norms of muscle mass for their age/gender...
2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558947/protectiveeffect-of-lavender-oil-on-scopolamine-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-mice-and-h2o2induced-cytotoxicity-in-pc12-cells
#17
Pan Xu, Kezhu Wang, Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Li Gao, Ming Yan, Silafu Aibai, Xinmin Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lavender essential oil (LO), an aromatic liquid extracted from Lavandula angustifolia Mill., has been traditionally used in the treatments of many nervous system diseases, and recently LO also reported to be effective for the Alzheimer's disease (AD). AIM OF THE STUDY: The improvement effect of lavender oil (LO) on the scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice and H2O2 induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells have been evaluated. The relevant mechanism was also researched from the perspective of antioxidant effect and cholinergic system modulation...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551939/high-intensity-interval-training-in-the-boundaries-of-the-severe-domain-effects-on-sprint-and-endurance-performance
#18
T Turnes, R A de Aguiar, R S de Oliveira Cruz, K Pereira, A F Salvador, F Caputo
In order to compare the effects of two 4-week interval training programs performed at the lower (Critical Power, CP) or at the higher (The highest intensity at which V˙O2max is attained, IHIGH) intensities of the severe exercise domain on sprint and endurance cycling performance, 21 recreationally trained cyclists performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and a 250-kJ time trial. Accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), surface electromyography (RMS), and blood lactate kinetics were measured during the WAnT. Subjects were assigned to 105% CP or IHIGH groups...
August 23, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518135/temporary-and-permanent-noise-induced-threshold-shifts-a-review-of-basic-and-clinical-observations
#19
Allen F Ryan, Sharon G Kujawa, Tanisha Hammill, Colleen Le Prell, Jonathan Kil
OBJECTIVE: To review basic and clinical findings relevant to defining temporary (TTS) and permanent (PTS) threshold shifts and their sequelae. DATA SOURCES: Relevant scientific literature and government definitions were broadly reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: The definitions and characteristics of TTS and PTS were assessed and recent advances that expand our knowledge of the extent, nature, and consequences of noise-induced hearing loss were reviewed...
September 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503458/nanovesicular-liposome-encapsulated-hemoglobin-leh-prevents-multi-organ-injuries-in-a-rat-model-of-hemorrhagic-shock
#20
Vivek R Yadav, Geeta Rao, Hailey Houson, Andria Hedrick, Shanjana Awasthi, Pamela R Roberts, Vibhudutta Awasthi
The goals of resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock are to correct oxygen deficit and to maintain perfusion pressure to the vital organs. We created liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) as a nanoparticulate oxygen carrier (216±2nm) containing 7.2g/dl hemoglobin, and examined its ability to prevent the systemic manifestations of hemorrhagic shock (45% blood loss) in a rat model. We collected plasma after 6h of shock and LEH resuscitation, and determined the circulating biomarkers of systemic inflammation and functions of liver, gut, heart, and kidney...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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