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Oxygen deficit in performance

Matilde M Vaghi, Petra E Vértes, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Febe E van der Flier, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Rashid Zaman, Valerie Voon, Prantik Kundu, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: A recent hypothesis has suggested that core deficits in goal-directed behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are caused by impaired frontostriatal function. We tested this hypothesis in OCD patients and control subjects by relating measures of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility to underlying resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: Multiecho resting-state acquisition, combined with micromovement correction by blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive independent component analysis, was used to obtain in vivo measures of functional connectivity in 44 OCD patients and 43 healthy comparison subjects...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Marc Jubeau, Thomas Rupp, John Temesi, Stéphane Perrey, Bernard Wuyam, Guillaume Y Millet, Samuel Verges
PURPOSE: Prolonged cycling exercise performance in normoxia is limited due to both peripheral and central neuromuscular impairments. It has been reported that cerebral perturbations are greater during short-duration exercise in hypoxia compared to normoxia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that central deficits are accentuated in hypoxia compared to normoxia during prolonged (3 bouts of 80 min separated by 25 min) whole-body exercise at the same relative intensity...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Michael W Beck, Jeffrey S Derrick, Richard A Kerr, Shin Bi Oh, Woo Jong Cho, Shin Jung C Lee, Yonghwan Ji, Jiyeon Han, Zahra Aliakbar Tehrani, Nayoung Suh, Sujeong Kim, Scott D Larsen, Kwang S Kim, Joo-Yong Lee, Brandon T Ruotolo, Mi Hee Lim
The absence of effective therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a result of the limited understanding of its multifaceted aetiology. Because of the lack of chemical tools to identify pathological factors, investigations into AD pathogenesis have also been insubstantial. Here we report chemical regulators that demonstrate distinct specificity towards targets linked to AD pathology, including metals, amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-Aβ, reactive oxygen species, and free organic radicals. We obtained these chemical regulators through a rational structure-mechanism-based design strategy...
October 13, 2016: Nature Communications
Bhawna Gupta, Ali Dodge-Khatami, Juan Tucker, Mary B Taylor, Douglas Maposa, Miguel Urencio, Jorge D Salazar
BACKGROUND: Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) typically is used with deep hypothermia for cerebral protection during aortic arch reconstructions. The impact of ACP on cerebral oxygenation and serum creatinine at a more tepid 25 °C was studied in newborns and children. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2014, 61 newborns and children (<5 years old) underwent aortic arch reconstruction using moderate hypothermia (25.0±0.9 °C) with ACP and a pH-stat blood gas management strategy...
July 2016: Translational pediatrics
Celestino Rodríguez, Paloma González-Castro, Marisol Cueli, Debora Areces, Julio A González-Pienda
Attention deficit with, or without, hyperactivity and impulsivity (ADHD) is categorized as neuro-developmental disorder. ADHD is a common disorder in childhood and one of the most frequent conditions affecting school ages. This disorder is characterized by a persistent behavioral pattern associated with inattention, over-activity (or hyperactivity), and difficulty in controlling impulses. Current research suggests the existence of certain patterns of cortical activation and executive control, which could more objectively identify ADHD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Rebecca M Henderson, X Iris Leng, Elizabeth A Chmelo, Tina E Brinkley, Mary F Lyles, Anthony P Marsh, Barbara J Nicklas
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the comparative effect of aerobic training (AT) versus resistance training (RT) on gait speed, a strong predictor of disability. AIMS: To compare the effect of AT versus RT on gait speed and other functional measures. METHODS: Overweight and obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥27.0 kg/m(2)] sedentary men and women aged 65-79 years engaged in 5 months of either 4 days/weeks moderate-intensity treadmill walking, AT, (n = 44) or 3 days/weeks moderate-intensity RT (n = 56)...
September 28, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Tom Robinson, Jose S Evangelista, Emi Latham, Samir T Mukherjee, Andrew Pilmanis
INTRODUCTION: Supersonic, high altitude aviation places its pilots and aircrew in complex environments, which may lead to injury that is not easily diagnosed or simply treated. Decompression illness (either venous or arterial) and environmental conditions (e.g., abnormal gases and pressure) are the most likely adverse effects aircrew often face. Though symptomatic aircrew personnel may occasionally require hyperbaric oxygen treatment, it is rare to require more than one treatment before returning to baseline function...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Armin Yazdani, Zehra Khoja, Aaron Johnstone, Laura Dale, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Pia Wintermark
Term asphyxiated newborns remain at risk of developing brain injury despite available neuropreventive therapies such as hypothermia. Neurorestorative treatments may be an alternative. This study investigated the effect of sildenafil on brain injury induced by neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at term-equivalent age. Neonatal HI was induced in male Long-Evans rat pups at postnatal day 10 (P10) by left common carotid ligation followed by a 2-hour exposure to 8% oxygen; sham-operated rat pups served as the control...
September 10, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
Tim van Timmeren, Jochem M Jansen, Matthan W A Caan, Anna E Goudriaan, Ruth J van Holst
Pathological gambling (PG) is a behavioral addiction characterized by an inability to stop gambling despite the negative consequences, which may be mediated by cognitive flexibility deficits. Indeed, impaired cognitive flexibility has previously been linked to PG and also to reduced integrity of white matter connections between the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex. It remains unclear, however, how white matter integrity problems relate to cognitive inflexibility seen in PG. We used a cognitive switch paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging in pathological gamblers (PGs; n = 26) and healthy controls (HCs; n = 26)...
September 9, 2016: Addiction Biology
Luca Cioccari, Nora Luethi, Ulrike Weber, Andrew Hilton, Jukka Takala, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: The cardiac output (CO) response to sepsis is typically measured in the intensive care unit after modification by fluid and/or vasoactive drug resuscitation and found to be hyperdynamic. In contrast, the native (preresuscitation) CO in human sepsis is poorly defined. DESIGN AND DATA SOURCES: Systematic literature review of studies reporting the cardiac index (CI) of patients with sepsis before resuscitation, using searches of PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase...
September 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
Sangeeta Sule, Kevin Fontaine
BACKGROUND: Children with SLE are known to have higher fat mass compared to their peers but there are no published data regarding exercise capacity as measured by cardiovascular endurance and muscle strength. In our pilot study of ten children with SLE, we sought to examine body composition, cardiovascular endurance, and isometric muscle strength. FINDINGS: Ten pediatric SLE patients were studied with a mean age of 15.5 years and 90 % female. Percent body fat above 30 %, the recommended normal level in adolescent females, were found in 89 % of female subjects and 40 % of all participants had lower than the recommended norms of muscle mass for their age/gender...
2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Pan Xu, Kezhu Wang, Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Li Gao, Ming Yan, Silafu Aibai, Xinmin Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lavender essential oil (LO), an aromatic liquid extracted from Lavandula angustifolia Mill., has been traditionally used in the treatments of many nervous system diseases, and recently LO also reported to be effective for the Alzheimer's disease (AD). AIM OF THE STUDY: The improvement effect of lavender oil (LO) on the scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice and H2O2 induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells have been evaluated. The relevant mechanism was also researched from the perspective of antioxidant effect and cholinergic system modulation...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
T Turnes, R A de Aguiar, R S de Oliveira Cruz, K Pereira, A F Salvador, F Caputo
In order to compare the effects of two 4-week interval training programs performed at the lower (Critical Power, CP) or at the higher (The highest intensity at which V˙O2max is attained, IHIGH) intensities of the severe exercise domain on sprint and endurance cycling performance, 21 recreationally trained cyclists performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and a 250-kJ time trial. Accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), surface electromyography (RMS), and blood lactate kinetics were measured during the WAnT. Subjects were assigned to 105% CP or IHIGH groups...
August 23, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Allen F Ryan, Sharon G Kujawa, Tanisha Hammill, Colleen Le Prell, Jonathan Kil
OBJECTIVE: To review basic and clinical findings relevant to defining temporary (TTS) and permanent (PTS) threshold shifts and their sequelae. DATA SOURCES: Relevant scientific literature and government definitions were broadly reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: The definitions and characteristics of TTS and PTS were assessed and recent advances that expand our knowledge of the extent, nature, and consequences of noise-induced hearing loss were reviewed...
September 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Vivek R Yadav, Geeta Rao, Hailey Houson, Andria Hedrick, Shanjana Awasthi, Pamela R Roberts, Vibhudutta Awasthi
The goals of resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock are to correct oxygen deficit and to maintain perfusion pressure to the vital organs. We created liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) as a nanoparticulate oxygen carrier (216±2nm) containing 7.2g/dl hemoglobin, and examined its ability to prevent the systemic manifestations of hemorrhagic shock (45% blood loss) in a rat model. We collected plasma after 6h of shock and LEH resuscitation, and determined the circulating biomarkers of systemic inflammation and functions of liver, gut, heart, and kidney...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yu-Ching Chang, Hao-Yuan Lee, Jing-Long Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Chyi-Liang Chen, Chang-Teng Wu
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is one of the common causes of poisoning in patients and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have focused on the pediatric group. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed children (age < 18 years) with CO poisoning from nonfire accidents at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010. We analyzed the patients' characteristics, management, and outcome; compared the data of patients who received hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) to those who received normobaric oxygen (NBO) therapy; and identified the ri0sk factors for patients who developed delayed neurological sequelae (DNS) or permanent neurological sequelae (PNS)...
July 17, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Goncalo V Mendonca, Pedro Pezarat-Correia, João R Vaz, Luís Silva, Kevin S Heffernan
The portion of society aged ≥60 years is the fastest growing population in the Western hemisphere. Aging is associated with numerous changes to systemic physiology that affect physical function and performance. We present a narrative review of the literature aimed at discussing the age-related changes in various metrics of physical performance (exercise economy, anaerobic threshold, peak oxygen uptake, muscle strength, and power). It also explores aging exercise physiology as it relates to global physical performance...
July 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
S Lohani, A J Poplawsky, S-G Kim, B Moghaddam
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are strongly implicated in cognitive and affective processing as well as in psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse disorders. In human studies, dopamine-related functions are routinely assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures of blood oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals during the performance of dopamine-dependent tasks. There is, however, a critical void in our knowledge about whether and how activation of VTA dopamine neurons specifically influences regional or global fMRI signals...
July 26, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
R Derungs, G G Camici, R D Spescha, T Welt, C Tackenberg, C Späni, F Wirth, A Grimm, A Eckert, R M Nitsch, L Kulic
The mammalian ShcA adaptor protein p66(Shc) is a key regulator of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and has previously been shown to mediate amyloid β (Aβ)-peptide-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, p66(Shc) is involved in mammalian longevity and lifespan determination as revealed in the p66(Shc) knockout mice, which are characterized by a 30% prolonged lifespan, lower ROS levels and protection from age-related impairment of physical and cognitive performance. In this study, we hypothesized a role for p66(Shc) in Aβ-induced toxicity in vivo and investigated the effects of genetic p66(Shc) deletion in the PSAPP transgenic mice, an established Alzheimer's disease mouse model of β-amyloidosis...
July 19, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Tiago Turnes, Amadeo Félix Salvador, Fabrizio Caputo
It has been demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) improves endurance performance. However, the potential benefits during anaerobic events and the mechanism(s) underlying these benefits remain unclear. Fifteen recreational cyclists were assessed to evaluate the effects of IPC of the upper thighs on anaerobic performance, skeletal muscle activation, and metabolic responses during a 60-s sprint performance. After an incremental test and a familiarization visit, subjects were randomly submitted in visits 3 and 4 to a performance protocol preceded by intermittent bilateral cuff inflation (4 × (5 min of blood flow restriction + 5 min reperfusion)) at either 220 mm Hg (IPC) or 20 mm Hg (control)...
August 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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