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Respiratory exchange ratio in performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090142/the-midpoint-between-ventilatory-thresholds-approaches-maximal-lactate-steady-state-intensity-in-amateur-cyclists
#1
A B Peinado, Dm Pessôa Filho, V Díaz, P J Benito, M Álvarez-Sánchez, A G Zapico, F J Calderón
The aim was to determine whether the midpoint between ventilatory thresholds (MPVT) corresponds to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Twelve amateur cyclists (21.0 ± 2.6 years old; 72.2 ± 9.0 kg; 179.8 ± 7.5 cm) performed an incremental test (25 W·min(-1)) until exhaustion and several constant load tests of 30 minutes to determine MLSS, on different occasions. Using MLSS determination as the reference method, the agreement with five other parameters (MPVT; first and second ventilatory thresholds: VT1 and VT2; respiratory exchange ratio equal to 1: RER = 1...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075500/very-short-short-term-benefit-of-inpatient-outpatient-cardiac-rehabilitation-programs-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-surgery
#2
Dejan Spiroski, Mojsije Andjić, Olivera Ilić Stojanović, Milica Lazović, Ana Djordjević Dikić, Miodrag Ostojić, Branko Beleslin, Snežana Kostić, Marija Zdravković, Dragan Lović
BACKGROUND: Exercise-based rehabilitation is an important part of treatment patients following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate effect of very short/short-term exercise training on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) parameters. METHODS: We studied 54 consecutive patients with myocardial infarction (MI) treated with CABG surgery referred for rehabilitation. The study population consisted of 50 men and 4 women (age 57...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035015/case-studies-in-physiology-maximal-oxygen-consumption-and-performance-in-a-centenarian-cyclist
#3
Veronique Louise Billat, Gilles Dhonneur, Laurence Mille-Hamard, Laurence Le Moyec, Iman Momken, Thierry Launay, Jean-Pierre Koralsztein, Sophie Besse
: The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological characteristics of an elite centenarian cyclist who, at 101 years old, established the one-hour cycling record for individuals ≥ 100 years old (24.25 km) and to determine the physiological factors associated with his performance improvement two years later at 103 years old (26.92 km; +11%). Before each record, he performed an incremental test on a cycling ergometer. For two years, he trained 5,000 km a year with a polarized training that involved cycling 80% of mileage at "light" RPE ≤ 12 and 20% at "hard" RPE ≥ 15 at a cadence between 50 and 70 rpm...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025868/metabolic-responses-to-exercise-on-land-and-in-water-following-glucose-ingestion
#4
Kazumichi Kurobe, Ayaka Kousaka, Futoshi Ogita, Naoyuki Matsumoto
Although aerobic exercise after a meal decreases postprandial blood glucose, the differences in glucose response between land and aquatic exercise are unclear. Thus, we examined the effect of different modes of exercise with same energy expenditure following glucose ingestion on carbohydrate metabolism. Ten healthy sedentary men (age, 22 ± 1 years) participated in this study. All subjects performed each of three exercise modes (cycling, walking and aquatic exercise) for 30 min after ingestion of a 75-g glucose solution with 1-2 weeks between trials...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012036/no-influence-of-ischemic-preconditioning-on-running-economy
#5
Gungeet Kaur, Megan Binger, Claire Evans, Tiffany Trachte, Gary P Van Guilder
PURPOSE: Many of the potential performance-enhancing properties of ischemic preconditioning suggest that the oxygen cost for a given endurance exercise workload will be reduced, thereby improving the economy of locomotion. The aim of this study was to identify whether ischemic preconditioning improves exercise economy in recreational runners. METHODS: A randomized sham-controlled crossover study was employed in which 18 adults (age 27 ± 7 years; BMI 24.6 ± 3 kg/m(2)) completed two, incremental submaximal (65-85% VO2max) treadmill running protocols (3 × 5 min stages from 7...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003557/comparing-the-effects-of-two-different-levels-of-hyperoxygenation-on-gas-exchange-during-open-endotracheal-suctioning-a-randomized-crossover-study
#6
Jacqueline Rodrigues de Freitas Vianna, Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo, Miléa Mara Lourenço da Silva Simões, Maurício Jamami
BACKGROUND: Endotracheal suctioning is required for mechanically ventilated patients to maintain a patent airway. Studies show that open endotracheal suctioning affects respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of hyperoxygenation with FIO2 + 0.20 above baseline and hyperoxygenation with FIO2 1.0 in preventing hypoxemia, and to determine the impact of open endotracheal suctioning on the pulmonary ventilation of critical subjects receiving mechanical ventilatory support...
January 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913834/key-role-of-pacing-site-as-determinant-factor-of-exercise-testing-performance-in-pediatric-patients-with-chronic-ventricular-pacing
#7
Michel Cabrera Ortega, Hiram Tápanes Duamy, Dunia B Benítez Ramos
Chronic right ventricular (RV) apical pacing has been associated with deterioration of functional capacity and chronotropic incompetence during exercise testing in children. The effects of alternative pacing site on exercise performance in pediatric population remain unknown. We evaluated the influence of ventricular pacing site on exercise capacity in pediatric patients with complete congenital atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacemaker therapy. Sixty-four children paced from RV apex (n = 26), RV midseptum (n = 15) and left ventricular (LV) apex (n = 23) were studied cross-sectionally...
December 2, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879383/high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-critically-ill-subjects-with-or-at-risk-for-respiratory-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Wagner Luis Nedel, Caroline Deutschendorf, Edison Moraes Rodrigues Filho
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen delivery has been gaining attention as an alternative means of respiratory support for critically ill patients, with recent studies suggesting equivalent outcomes when compared with other forms of oxygen therapy delivery. The main objective of this review was to extract current data about the efficacy of HFNC in critically ill subjects with or at risk for respiratory failure. We performed a systematic review of publications (from database inception to October 2015) that evaluated HFNC in critically ill subjects with or at risk for acute respiratory failure and performed a meta-analysis comparing HFNC with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and with standard oxygen therapy regarding major outcomes: incidence of invasive mechanical ventilation and ICU mortality...
January 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824689/eccentric-cycling-a-promising-modality-for-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#9
Lauren C Chasland, Daniel J Green, Andrew J Maiorana, Kazunori Nosaka, Andrew Haynes, Lawrence Dembo, Louise H Naylor
INTRODUCTION: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by dyspnea and poor exercise tolerance, which decreases aerobic capacity (V˙O2peak), a measure strongly correlated with quality of life and mortality. In healthy populations, eccentric (ECC) cycling can be performed at a lower oxygen demand for matched workload, compared to concentric (CON) cycling, but few studies have previously investigated ECC cycling in CHF. We hypothesized that, when matched for external workload (Watts), an ECC cycling bout would be performed at a lower cardiorespiratory load (V˙O2) than CON in patients with CHF...
November 7, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803623/psycho-physiological-responses-of-obese-adolescents-to-an-intermittent-run-test-compared-with-a-20-m-shuttle-run
#10
Olivier Rey, Christophe Maïano, Caroline Nicol, Charles-Symphorien Mercier, Jean-Marc Vallier
Among the running field tests that measure aerobic fitness indirectly, the 20-m shuttle run test is the one most commonly used among obese youth. However, this back and forth running test induces premature cessation of exercise in this population. The present study aimed to examine the psycho-physiological responses of obese adolescents to an intermittent (15-15) progressive and maximal run test as compared with a continuous shuttle run test. Eleven obese adolescents (age: 14-15 years; BMI = 34.01 ± 5.30 kg·m(-2)) performed both tests...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766133/the-effect-of-a-moderately-low-and-high-carbohydrate-intake-on-crossfit-performance
#11
Kurt A Escobar, Jacobo Morales, Trisha A Vandusseldorp
CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of <6 g/kg/day were randomly assigned into a CHO (n = 9) or control (C) group (n =9) and underwent a 9-day training protocol. During days 1, 5, and 9, performance was measured as repetitions completed during a 12 minute CrossFit workout...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763874/effects-of-body-position-on-exercise-capacity-and-pulmonary-vascular-pressure-flow-relationships
#12
Kevin Forton, Yoshiki Motoji, Gael Deboeck, Vitalie Faoro, Robert Naeije
There has been revival of in interest in exercise testing of the pulmonary circulation for the diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, but there still is uncertainty about body position and the most relevant measurements. Doppler echocardiography pulmonary hemodynamic measurements were performed at progressively increased workload in 26 healthy adult volunteers in supine, semi-recumbent and upright positions which were randomly assigned at 24 hours intervals. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was estimated from the maximum tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763583/altered-gas-exchange-at-peak-exercise-in-obese-adolescents-implications-for-verification-of-effort-during-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#13
Nastasia Marinus, Liene Bervoets, Guy Massa, Kenneth Verboven, An Stevens, Tim Takken, Dominique Hansen
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is advised ahead of exercise intervention in obese adolescents to assess medical safety of exercise and physical fitness. Optimal validity and reliability of test results are required to identify maximal exercise effort. As fat oxidation during exercise is disturbed in obese individuals, it remains an unresolved methodological issue whether the respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) is a valid marker for maximal effort during exercise testing in this population...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761168/autonomic-and-cardio-respiratory-responses-to-exercise-in-brugada-syndrome-patients
#14
Raoyrin Chanavirut, Pattarapong Makarawate, Ian A Macdonald, Naruemon Leelayuwat
BACKGROUND: Imbalances of the autonomic nervous (ANS), the cardiovascular system, and ionics might contribute to the manifestation of The Brugada Syndrome (BrS). Thus, this study has aimed to investigate the cardio-respiratory fitness and the responses of the ANS both at rest and during a sub-maximal exercise stress test, in BrS patients and in gender-matched and age-matched healthy sedentary controls. METHODS: Eleven BrS patients and 23 healthy controls were recruited in Khon Kaen, Thailand...
October 2016: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677888/a-new-method-for-self-paced-peak-performance-testing-on-a-treadmill
#15
Kenneth J Hunt, Prasanna Anandakumaran, Jonas A Loretz, Jittima Saengsuwan
PURPOSE: Self-paced maximal testing methods may be able to exploit central mediation of function-limiting fatigue and therefore have potential to generate more valid estimates of peak oxygen uptake. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a new method for self-paced peak performance testing on treadmills and to compare peak and submaximal performance outcomes with those obtained using a non-self-paced ('computer-paced') method employing predetermined speed and slope profiles...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621709/validation-of-a-ramp-running-protocol-for-determination-of-the-true-vo2max-in-mice
#16
Mohamed Ayachi, Romain Niel, Iman Momken, Véronique L Billat, Laurence Mille-Hamard
In the field of comparative physiology, it remains to be established whether the concept of VO2max is valid in the mouse and, if so, how this value can be accurately determined. In humans, VO2max is generally considered to correspond to the plateau observed when VO2 no longer rises with an increase in workload. In contrast, the concept of VO2peak tends to be used in murine studies. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether (i) a continuous ramp protocol yielded a higher VO2peak than a stepwise, incremental protocol, and (ii) the VO2peak measured in the ramp protocol corresponded to VO2max...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614882/markers-of-biological-stress-in-response-to-a-single-session-of-high-intensity-interval-training-and-high-volume-training-in-young-athletes
#17
Yvonne Kilian, Florian Engel, Patrick Wahl, Silvia Achtzehn, Billy Sperlich, Joachim Mester
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs high-volume training (HVT) on salivary stress markers [cortisol (sC), testosterone (sT), alpha-amylase (sAA)], metabolic and cardiorespiratory response in young athletes. METHODS: Twelve young male cyclists (14 ± 1 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 mL min(-1) kg(-1) peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of HIIT (4 × 4 min intervals at 90-95 % peak power output separated by 3 min of active rest) and one session of HVT (90 min constant load at 60 % peak power output)...
December 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575290/assessment-of-maximum-aerobic-capacity-and-anaerobic-threshold-of-elite-ballet-dancers
#18
Matthew A Wyon, Nick Allen, Ross Cloak, Sarah Beck, Paul Davies, Frances Clarke
An athlete's cardiorespiratory profile, maximal aerobic capacity, and anaerobic threshold is affected by training regimen and competition demands. The present study aimed to ascertain whether there are company rank differences in maximal aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold in elite classical ballet dancers. Seventy-four volunteers (M 34, F 40) were recruited from two full-time professional classical ballet companies. All participants completed a continuous incremental treadmill protocol with a 1-km/hr speed increase at the end of each 1-min stage until termination criteria had been achieved (e...
September 2016: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549178/noninvasive-ventilation-with-helmet-versus-control-strategy-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-studies
#19
Qi Liu, Yonghua Gao, Rongchang Chen, Zhe Cheng
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has proved to be a useful technique for breathing support. However, complications, discomfort, and failure of NIV were commonly caused by the mask. Therefore, the helmet was developed to improve performance and reduce complications; however, there has been no conclusive results on its effect until now. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of NIV with a helmet versus the control strategy in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF)...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487418/oxygen-uptake-respiratory-exchange-ratio-or-total-distance-a-comparison-of-methods-to-equalize-exercise-volume-in-wistar-rats
#20
L S Paes, J P Borges, F A Cunha, M G C Souza, F Z G A Cyrino, D A Bottino, E Bouskela, P Farinatti
This study compared strategies to equalize the volume of aerobic exercise performed with different intensities by Wistar rats, based on the distance covered during exercise bouts and energy expenditure (EE, isocaloric sessions) obtained from oxygen uptake (V̇O2) or respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Thirty-three male rats (270.5±12.8 g) underwent maximal exercise tests to determine V̇O2 reserve (V̇O2R), being randomly assigned to three groups: moderate-intensity continuous exercise at speed corresponding to 50% V̇O2R (MIC; n=11); high-intensity continuous exercise at 80% V̇O2R (HIC; n=11); and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HII; n=11) at 60% V̇O2R (3 min) and 80% V̇O2R (4 min)...
July 28, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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