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Respiratory exchange ratio in performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050421/performance-nutrient-utilization-and-energy-partitioning-in-broiler-chickens-offered-high-canola-meal-diets-supplemented-with-multicomponent-carbohydrase-and-mono-component-protease
#1
M Toghyani, S B Wu, R A Pérez-Maldonado, P A Iji, R A Swick
Two broiler chicken experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of canola meal (CM) replacing soybean meal (SBM) in diets supplemented with carbohydrase and protease on performance and partitioning of energy. First, a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed to evaluate: protein meals (CM vs. SBM), carbohydrase (none or 300 mg/kg), protease (none or 200 mg/kg), and their interactions. Each treatment was fed to 6 replicated pens of 16 male broilers (Ross 308) from d 10 to 35. In the second experiment, 32 broiler chicks were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to investigate CM and carbohydrase effects on energy partitioning...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961282/physiologic-effects-of-alveolar-recruitment-and-inspiratory-pauses-during-moderately-high-frequency-ventilation-delivered-by-a-conventional-ventilator-in-a-severe-lung-injury-model
#2
Ricardo Luiz Cordioli, Eduardo Leite Vieira Costa, Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo, Susimeire Gomes, Marcelo Britto Passos Amato, Marcelo Park
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To investigate whether performing alveolar recruitment or adding inspiratory pauses could promote physiologic benefits (VT) during moderately-high-frequency positive pressure ventilation (MHFPPV) delivered by a conventional ventilator in a porcine model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Prospective experimental laboratory study with eight pigs. Induction of acute lung injury with sequential pulmonary lavages and injurious ventilation was initially performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932743/exercise-affects-cardiopulmonary-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Hongchang Yang, Xueping Wu, Min Wang
This study aimed to comprehensively assess the effects of exercise on cardiopulmonary function indices in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A literature review was performed by searching literatures in PubMed and Embase before June 2016. Studies were selected based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, followed by data extraction and a quality assessment of the included studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Correlations between exercise and cardiopulmonary function indices [pulse wave velocity, respiratory exchange ratio, and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak)] were then evaluated using mean differences and 95% confidence intervals...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919843/the-effects-of-phenylalanine-on-exercise-induced-fat-oxidation-a-preliminary-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial
#4
Keisuke Ueda, Chiaki Sanbongi, Makoto Yamaguchi, Shuji Ikegami, Takafumi Hamaoka, Satoshi Fujita
BACKGROUND: When combined with exercise, dietary amino acid (AA) supplementation is an effective method for accelerating fat mobilization. However, the effects of single AAs combined with exercise on fat oxidation remains unclear. We hypothesized that consumption of a specific amino acid, L- phenylalanine, may result in the secretion of glucagon, and when combined with exercise may promote fat oxidation. METHODS: Six healthy, active male volunteers were randomized in a crossover study to ingest either phenylalanine (3 g/dose) or placebo...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903627/reliability-and-minimal-detectable-change-of-a-new-treadmill-based-progressive-workload-incremental-test-to-measure-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-manual-wheelchair-users
#5
Cindy Gauthier, Jasmine Arel, Rachel Brosseau, Audrey L Hicks, Dany H Gagnon
Background Cardiorespiratory fitness training is commonly provided to manual wheelchair users (MWUs) in rehabilitation and physical activity programs, emphasizing the need for a reliable task-specific incremental wheelchair propulsion test. Objective Quantifying test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of key cardiorespiratory fitness measures following performance of a newly developed continuous treadmill-based wheelchair propulsion test (WPTTreadmill). Methods Twenty-five MWUs completed the WPTTreadmill on two separate occasions within one week...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872376/caffeine-and-physiological-responses-to-submaximal-exercise-a-meta-analysis
#6
Mark Glaister, Conor Gissane
The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of caffeine supplementation on physiological responses to submaximal exercise. 26 studies met the inclusion criteria of adopting double-blind, randomised, crossover designs that included a sustained (5 - 30 minutes) fixed-intensity bout of submaximal exercise (constrained to 60 - 85% V̇O2max) using a standard caffeine dose of 3 - 6 mg∙kg(-1) administered 30 - 90 minutes prior to exercise. Meta-analyses were completed using a random-effects model, and data are presented as raw mean difference (D) with associated 95% confidence limits (CL95)...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838335/comparative-determination-of-ventilatory-efficiency-from-constant-load-and-incremental-exercise-testing
#7
S Algul, F A Ugur, A Ayar, O Ozcelik
The analysis of the relationships between minute ventilation (VE) to CO2 output (VCO2), referred to as ventilatory efficiency, in response to incremental exercise testing, is considered a useful index for assessing the presence and severity of cardiopulmonary and metabolic diseases. The effects of constant load exercise testing performed at work intensity associated with anaerobic threshold (AT) and respiratory compensation points (RCP), on the accurate measurements of ventilatory efficiency are not well known...
August 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832892/bronchial-wheezing-predicts-inflammation-and-respiratory-failure-in-fire-smoke-victims
#8
E R Nakstad, H C D Aass, H Opdahl, A Witsø, F Borchsenius, F Heyerdahl, O H Skjønsberg
BACKGROUND: Acute fire smoke inhalation injury involves inflammatory mediators whose roles are poorly understood. We carried out a prospective observational study of fire smoke victims to identify clinical and biochemical markers that may predict pulmonary dysfunction and investigated possible correlations between dysfunction and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and blood. METHODS: Forty patients with respiratory and/or neurological symptoms following acute fire smoke inhalation had pulmonary function tests and blood gas analyses performed on admission, at discharge, and after 3 months...
August 17, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758084/cardiopulmonary-exercise-test-in-leukemia-patients-after-chemotherapy-a-feasibility-study
#9
Soojae Kim, Ik-Chan Song, Sungju Jee
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in leukemia patients after chemotherapy. METHODS: Leukemia patients with histologically confirmed hematologic malignancies were reviewed. We evaluated for CPET, between receiving chemotherapy and undergoing stem cell transplantation after 2 weeks. We recorded exercise testing and physiologic parameters during CPET between January 2013 to May 2015. All patients were subjected to symptoms limited to exercise testing, according to the Modified Bruce Protocol...
June 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750585/nutritional-ketone-salts-increase-fat-oxidation-but-impair-high-intensity-exercise-performance-in-healthy-adult-males
#10
Trevor O'Malley, Etienne Myette-Cote, Cody Durrer, Jonathan P Little
This study investigated the impact of raising plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) through ingestion of ketone salts on substrate oxidation and performance during cycling exercise. Ten healthy adult males (age, 23 ± 3 years; body mass index, 25 ± 3 kg/m(2), peak oxygen uptake, 45 ± 10 mL/(kg·min)(-1)) were recruited to complete 2 experimental trials. Before enrollment in the experimental conditions, baseline anthropometrics and cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake) were assessed and familiarization to the study protocol was provided...
July 27, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736330/impaired-microglia-fractalkine-signaling-affects-stress-reaction-and-coping-style-in-mice
#11
Zsuzsanna Winkler, Dániel Kuti, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina Gulyás, Ágnes Polyák, Krisztina J Kovács
Microglia, resident immune cells of the CNS are sensitive to various perturbations of the environment, such as stress exposure, and may be involved in translating these changes to behavior. Among the pathways mediating stress-related neuronal cues to microglia, the fractalkine-fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) signaling plays a crucial role. Using mice, in which the CX3CR1 gene was deleted, we explored hormonal and behavioral responses to acute and chronic stress along with changes in hypothalamic microglia. CX3CR1(-/-) animals display active escape in forced swim- and tail suspension tests, exaggerated neuronal activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and increased corticosterone release in response to restraint...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730728/beneficial-long-term-antidiabetic-actions-of-n-and-c-terminally-modified-analogues-of-apelin-13-in-diet-induced-obese-diabetic-mice
#12
Vadivel Parthsarathy, Christopher Hogg, Peter R Flatt, Finbarr P M O'Harte
AIMS: To investigate the chronic effects of twice-daily administration of stable apelin analogues, apelin-13 amide and pyroglutamyl (pGlu) apelin-13 amide, on metabolic variables in glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant diet-induced obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 150 days. METHODS: Groups of mice received twice-daily (9 am and 5 pm) injections of saline vehicle, apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4(1-39) for 28 days (all at 25 nmol/kg)...
July 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727673/exercise-training-improves-ventilatory-efficiency-in-patients-with-a-small-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Ricardo M Lima, Baruch Vainshelboim, Rucha Ganatra, Ronald Dalman, Khin Chan, Jonathan Myers
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency and physiological responses to submaximal exercise in subjects with small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: Sixty-five male patients (72.3 ± 7.0 years) were randomized to exercise training (n = 33) or usual care group (n = 32). Exercise subjects participated in a training groups for 3 mo. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed before and after the study period and peak VO2, the ventilatory threshold (VT), the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and the VE2/VCO2 slope were identified...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704881/cardiovascular-and-autonomic-responses-to-a-maximal-exercise-test-in-elite-youngsters
#14
Cristina Blasco-Lafarga, Borja Camarena, Manuel Mateo-March
To analyze cardiovascular and autonomic responses in elite youngsters, 13 male cyclists (15.43±0.51 years) performed a graded-test until voluntary exhaustion. Oxygen consumption (VO2), blood lactate (BLa), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected, while heart rate (HR) was registered for heart rate variability (HRV) analyses, looking for linear and nonlinear comparisons. Cyclists reached maximal exertion [RPE: 19.14±0.94; BLa: 8...
September 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704507/regular-moist-snuff-dipping-does-not-affect-endurance-exercise-performance
#15
Frida Björkman, Fredrik Edin, C Mikael Mattsson, Filip Larsen, Björn Ekblom
Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG). A control group (CO) of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674605/changes-in-running-economy-respiratory-exchange-ratio-and-vo2max-in-runners-following-a-10-day-altitude-training-camp
#16
Sebastian R Diebel, Ian Newhouse, David S Thompson, Vineet B K Johnson
Running economy (RE) and VO2max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), and VO2max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO2max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO2max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674596/effects-of-nasal-or-oral-breathing-on-anaerobic-power-output-and-metabolic-responses
#17
Christine Recinto, Theodore Efthemeou, P Tony Boffelli, James W Navalta
Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0-5 sec, 5-10 sec, 10-15 sec, 15-20 sec, 20-25 sec, 25-30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the p<0...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624095/fontan-circulation-over-time
#18
Djoeke Wolff, Joost P van Melle, Beatrijs Bartelds, Floris-Jan S Ridderbos, Graziella Eshuis, Elisabeth B H J van Stratum, Salvador J Recinos, Brigitte W M Willemse, Hans Hillege, Tineke P Willems, Tjark Ebels, Rolf M F Berger
The unique, unphysiological Fontan circulation is associated with an impaired functional status of the patients that is suggested to deteriorate over time. Unfortunately, previous studies did not integrate both pulmonary and cardiac determinants of functional status. In addition, a comparison with the natural decrease in exercise capacity in healthy subjects (in both children and adults) is lacking. This single-center study aims to investigate the functional status in a cohort of Fontan patients in relation to time since Fontan completion and to identify its determinants, including cardiac characteristics and pulmonary characteristics...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578113/safety-of-percutaneous-dilatational-tracheostomy-in-patients-with-acute-brain-injury-and-reduced-pao2-fio2-ratio-retrospective-analysis-of-54-patients
#19
Claudia Ditz, Jann F Wojak, Emma Smith, Abdulkareem Abusamha, Volker M Tronnier, Jan Gliemroth, Jan N Küchler
OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is a commonly performed method in neurocritical care, and its safety has been proven in numerous studies. Nevertheless, data regarding the application in patients with acute brain injury and poor respiratory function are poor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of hypoxemia and hypercapnia during PDT in those patients. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, we acquired data from 54 patients with an acute brain injury (ABI) and a reduced PaO2/FiO2 ratio (PaO2/FiO2 < 300 mm Hg)...
September 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515830/how-different-respiratory-rate-patterns-affect-cardiorespiratory-variables-and-performance
#20
Minas Nalbandian, Zsolt Radak, Jun Taniguchi, Takeda Masaki
This study aims to elucidate how respiratory rate (RR) patterns may affect respiratory gas exchange variables and performance during incremental intensity- exercise. 10 healthy young men (mean ± SD, age: 20.7 ± 0.5 years, height: 174.3 ± 5.7 cm, and body mass: 72.6 ± 10.4 kg) performed three incremental tests on a cycle ergometer at three different RR (60, 45 and 30 breaths per min) in each trial. During the tests, tidal volume (TV), minute ventilation (VE), fractional content of oxygen (FeO2), fractional content of carbon dioxide (FeCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), expiratory carbon dioxide (VCO2), equivalent of oxygen (EqO2), VE/VCO2, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determinate breath-by-breath...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
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