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Respiratory exchange ratio in performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758084/cardiopulmonary-exercise-test-in-leukemia-patients-after-chemotherapy-a-feasibility-study
#1
Soojae Kim, Ik-Chan Song, Sungju Jee
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in leukemia patients after chemotherapy. METHODS: Leukemia patients with histologically confirmed hematologic malignancies were reviewed. We evaluated for CPET, between receiving chemotherapy and undergoing stem cell transplantation after 2 weeks. We recorded exercise testing and physiologic parameters during CPET between January 2013 to May 2015. All patients were subjected to symptoms limited to exercise testing, according to the Modified Bruce Protocol...
June 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750585/nutritional-ketone-salts-increase-fat-oxidation-but-impair-high-intensity-exercise-performance-in-healthy-adult-males
#2
Trevor O'Malley, Etienne Myette-Cote, Cody Durrer, Jonathan P Little
This study investigated the impact of raising plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) through ingestion of ketone salts on substrate oxidation and performance during cycling exercise. Ten healthy adult males (age, 23 ± 3 years; body mass index, 25 ± 3 kg/m(2), peak oxygen uptake, 45 ± 10 mL/(kg·min)(-1)) were recruited to complete 2 experimental trials. Before enrollment in the experimental conditions, baseline anthropometrics and cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake) were assessed and familiarization to the study protocol was provided...
July 27, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736330/impaired-microglia-fractalkine-signaling-affects-stress-reaction-and-coping-style-in-mice
#3
Zsuzsanna Winkler, Dániel Kuti, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina Gulyás, Ágnes Polyák, Krisztina J Kovács
Microglia, resident immune cells of the CNS are sensitive to various perturbations of the environment, such as stress exposure, and may be involved in translating these changes to behavior. Among the pathways mediating stress-related neuronal cues to microglia, the fractalkine-fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) signaling plays a crucial role. Using mice, in which the CX3CR1 gene was deleted, we explored hormonal and behavioral responses to acute and chronic stress along with changes in hypothalamic microglia. CX3CR1(-/-) animals display active escape in forced swim- and tail suspension tests, exaggerated neuronal activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and increased corticosterone release in response to restraint...
July 20, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730728/beneficial-long-term-antidiabetic-actions-of-n-and-c-terminally-modified-analogues-of-apelin-13-in-diet-induced-obese-diabetic-mice
#4
V Parthsarathy, C Hogg, P R Flatt, F P M O'Harte
AIMS: This study investigated the chronic effects of twice daily administration of stable apelin analogues, apelin-13 amide and (pGlu)apelin-13 amide, on metabolic parameters in glucose intolerant and insulin resistant diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high-fat diet for 150 days. STUDY DESIGN & METHODS: Groups of mice received twice daily (09:00 and 17:00 h) injections of saline vehicle, apelin-13 amide, (pGlu)apelin-13 amide or exendin-4(1-39) for 28 days (all at 25 nmol/kg)...
July 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727673/exercise-training-improves-ventilatory-efficiency-in-patients-with-a-small-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-randomized-controlled-study
#5
Ricardo M Lima, Baruch Vainshelboim, Rucha Ganatra, Ronald Dalman, Khin Chan, Jonathan Myers
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exercise training on ventilatory efficiency and physiological responses to submaximal exercise in subjects with small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: Sixty-five male patients (72.3 ± 7.0 years) were randomized to exercise training (n = 33) or usual care group (n = 32). Exercise subjects participated in a training groups for 3 mo. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed before and after the study period and peak VO2, the ventilatory threshold (VT), the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and the VE2/VCO2 slope were identified...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704881/cardiovascular-and-autonomic-responses-to-a-maximal-exercise-test-in-elite-youngsters
#6
Cristina Blasco-Lafarga, Borja Camarena, Manuel Mateo-March
To analyze cardiovascular and autonomic responses in elite youngsters, 13 male cyclists (15.43±0.51 years) performed a graded-test until voluntary exhaustion. Oxygen consumption (VO2), blood lactate (BLa), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected, while heart rate (HR) was registered for heart rate variability (HRV) analyses, looking for linear and nonlinear comparisons. Cyclists reached maximal exertion [RPE: 19.14±0.94; BLa: 8...
September 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704507/regular-moist-snuff-dipping-does-not-affect-endurance-exercise-performance
#7
Frida Björkman, Fredrik Edin, C Mikael Mattsson, Filip Larsen, Björn Ekblom
Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG). A control group (CO) of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674605/changes-in-running-economy-respiratory-exchange-ratio-and-vo2max-in-runners-following-a-10-day-altitude-training-camp
#8
Sebastian R Diebel, Ian Newhouse, David S Thompson, Vineet B K Johnson
Running economy (RE) and VO2max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), and VO2max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO2max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO2max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674596/effects-of-nasal-or-oral-breathing-on-anaerobic-power-output-and-metabolic-responses
#9
Christine Recinto, Theodore Efthemeou, P Tony Boffelli, James W Navalta
Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0-5 sec, 5-10 sec, 10-15 sec, 15-20 sec, 20-25 sec, 25-30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the p<0...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624095/fontan-circulation-over-time
#10
Djoeke Wolff, Joost P van Melle, Beatrijs Bartelds, Floris-Jan S Ridderbos, Graziella Eshuis, Elisabeth B H J van Stratum, Salvador J Recinos, Brigitte W M Willemse, Hans Hillege, Tineke P Willems, Tjark Ebels, Rolf M F Berger
The unique, unphysiological Fontan circulation is associated with an impaired functional status of the patients that is suggested to deteriorate over time. Unfortunately, previous studies did not integrate both pulmonary and cardiac determinants of functional status. In addition, a comparison with the natural decrease in exercise capacity in healthy subjects (in both children and adults) is lacking. This single-center study aims to investigate the functional status in a cohort of Fontan patients in relation to time since Fontan completion and to identify its determinants, including cardiac characteristics and pulmonary characteristics...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578113/safety-of-percutaneous-dilatational-tracheostomy-in-patients-with-acute-brain-injury-and-a-reduced-pao2-fio2-ratio-a-retrospective-analysis-of-54-patients
#11
Claudia Ditz, Jann F Wojak, Emma Smith, Abdulkareem Abusamha, Volker M Tronnier, Jan Gliemroth, Jan N Kuechler
OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy (PDT) is a commonly performed method in neurocritical care, whose safety has been proven in numerous studies. Nevertheless, there are poor data regarding the application in patients with acute brain injury and poor respiratory function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of hypoxemia and hypercapnia during PDT in those patients. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, we acquired data from 54 patients with an acute brain injury (ABI) and a reduced PaO2/FiO2 ratio (PaO2/FiO2<300mmHg)...
May 31, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515830/how-different-respiratory-rate-patterns-affect-cardiorespiratory-variables-and-performance
#12
Minas Nalbandian, Zsolt Radak, Jun Taniguchi, Takeda Masaki
This study aims to elucidate how respiratory rate (RR) patterns may affect respiratory gas exchange variables and performance during incremental intensity- exercise. 10 healthy young men (mean ± SD, age: 20.7 ± 0.5 years, height: 174.3 ± 5.7 cm, and body mass: 72.6 ± 10.4 kg) performed three incremental tests on a cycle ergometer at three different RR (60, 45 and 30 breaths per min) in each trial. During the tests, tidal volume (TV), minute ventilation (VE), fractional content of oxygen (FeO2), fractional content of carbon dioxide (FeCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), expiratory carbon dioxide (VCO2), equivalent of oxygen (EqO2), VE/VCO2, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determinate breath-by-breath...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510504/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-basics-of-methodology-and-measurements
#13
Alessandro Mezzani
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing adds measurement of ventilation and volume of oxygen uptake and exhaled carbon dioxide to routine physiological and performance parameters obtainable from conventional exercise testing, furnishing an all-around vision of the systems involved in both oxygen transport from air to mitochondria and its use during exercise. Peculiarities of cardiopulmonary exercise testing methodology are the use of ramp protocols and calibration procedures for flow meters and gas analyzers. Among the several parameters provided by this technique, peak oxygen uptake, first and second ventilatory thresholds, respiratory exchange ratio, oxygen pulse, slope of ventilation divided by exhaled carbon dioxide relationship, exercise oscillatory ventilation, circulatory power, and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide are among the most relevant in the clinical setting...
July 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468260/6mwt-performance-and-its-correlations-with-vo%C3%A2-and-handgrip-strength-in-home-dwelling-mid-aged-and-older-chinese
#14
Qing Zhang, Hailin Lu, Shiqin Pan, Yuan Lin, Kun Zhou, Li Wang
Six-minute walk test (6MWT) performance is more commonly used in clinic patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases but not in home-dwelling individuals of similar age, and its correlations with oxygen uptake (VO₂) and muscle strength require further investigation. The current study determined the 6MWT performance of 106 home-dwelling residents (mean age of 62 years) in Suzhou, China. VO₂ at a respiratory exchange ratio (R) of 1 was measured through graded cycling exercise tests on 46 participants. Handgrip strength of all participants was tested...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466818/evaluation-of-relationship-between-aerobic-fitness-level-and-range-of-isocapnic-buffering-periods-during-incremental-exercise-test
#15
S Algul, O Ozcelik, B Yilmaz
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the amount of O2 uptake (VO2) in the range of isocapnic buffering (ICB) periods and aerobic fitness levels of subjects with different exercise tolerance levels. A total of 50 young male subjects (20.8±0.4 years) performed an incremental exercise test using a cycle ergometer to determinetheir anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal exercise capacity (Wmax). The ICB period is defined as the region between AT and RCP...
March 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442632/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-ventilatory-efficiency-and-respiratory-drive-in-obese-subjects
#16
Mehdi Chlif, Anis Chaouachi, Said Ahmaidi
BACKGROUND: Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m(2)) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (TT0...
April 25, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408022/left-ventricular-assist-device-as-a-bridge%C3%A2-to-recovery-for-patients-with-advanced-heart-failure
#17
Djordje G Jakovljevic, Magdi H Yacoub, Stephan Schueler, Guy A MacGowan, Lazar Velicki, Petar M Seferovic, Sandeep Hothi, Bing-Hsiean Tzeng, David A Brodie, Emma Birks, Lip-Bun Tan
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been used as an effective therapeutic option in patients with advanced heart failure, either as a bridge to transplantation, as destination therapy, or in some patients, as a bridge to recovery. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated whether patients undergoing an LVAD bridge-to-recovery protocol can achieve cardiac and physical functional capacities equivalent to those of healthy controls. METHODS: Fifty-eight male patients-18 implanted with a continuous-flow LVAD, 16 patients with LVAD explanted (recovered patients), and 24 heart transplant candidates (HTx)-and 97 healthy controls performed a maximal graded cardiopulmonary exercise test with continuous measurements of respiratory gas exchange and noninvasive (rebreathing) hemodynamic data...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382972/bio-inspired-murray-materials-for-mass-transfer-and-activity
#18
Xianfeng Zheng, Guofang Shen, Chao Wang, Yu Li, Darren Dunphy, Tawfique Hasan, C Jeffrey Brinker, Bao-Lian Su
Both plants and animals possess analogous tissues containing hierarchical networks of pores, with pore size ratios that have evolved to maximize mass transport and rates of reactions. The underlying physical principles of this optimized hierarchical design are embodied in Murray's law. However, we are yet to realize the benefit of mimicking nature's Murray networks in synthetic materials due to the challenges in fabricating vascularized structures. Here we emulate optimum natural systems following Murray's law using a bottom-up approach...
April 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356130/parecoxib-reduced-ventilation-induced-lung-injury-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#19
Fan-You Meng, Wei Gao, Ying-Nan Ju
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contributes to ventilation induced lung injury (VILI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The objective of present study was to observe the therapeutic effect of parecoxib on VILI in ARDS. METHODS: In this parallel controlled study performed at Harbin Medical University, China between January 2016 and March 2016, 24 rats were randomly allocated into sham group (S), volume ventilation group/ARDS (VA), parecoxib/volume ventilation group/ARDS (PVA)...
March 29, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346316/impact-of-direction-of-unloading-influence-on-template-rate-of-perceived-exertion
#20
Beau Kjerulf Greer, Patrick R Young, Brooke Thompson, Brendan J Rickert, Matthew F Moran
It is suggested that exercisers engage in a process of teleoanticipation and create an exercise template based upon previous experience with the exercise task which guides their perceptions of the amount of effort required for task completion. The present study examined how altering workload intensity during a positive-pressure treadmill task may impact ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). In a counter-balanced design, 15 collegiate cross country runners (7 males, 8 females) performed two 25-min runs at a constant velocity while bodyweight (BW) was either increased from 60% to 100% (INC) or decreased from 100% to 60% (DEC) in 5 min increments...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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