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Respiratory exchange ratio in performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914522/low-fat-diet-and-medium-fat-diets-containing-coconut-oil-and-soybean-oil-exert-different-metabolic-effects-in-untrained-and-treadmill-trained-mice
#1
Mark Christian Manio, Shigenobu Matsumura, Kazuo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Diets containing fats of different proportions and types have been demonstrated to influence metabolism. These fats differ in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) or medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) content. In our laboratory using swimming as the training modality, MCFAs increased endurance attributed to increased activities of oxidative enzymes. How it affects whole-body metabolism remains unexplored. The present study investigated the metabolic, biochemical and genetic adaptations with treadmill running as the training modality...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870922/effects-of-a-capacitive-resistive-electric-transfer-therapy-on-physiological-and-biomechanical-parameters-in-recreational-runners-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#2
Iratxe Duñabeitia, Haritz Arrieta, Jon Torres-Unda, Javier Gil, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Susana M Gil, Jon Irazusta, Iraia Bidaurrazaga-Letona
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the effects of a capacitive-resistive electric transfer therapy (Tecar) and passive rest on physiological and biomechanical parameters in recreational runners when performed shortly after an exhausting training session. DESIGN: Randomized controlled crossover trial. SETTING: University biomechanical research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen trained male runners MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physiological (running economy, oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio, ventilation, heart rate, blood lactate concentration) and biomechanical (step length; stride angle, height, frequency, and contact time; swing time; contact phase; support phase; push-off phase) parameters were measured during two incremental treadmill running tests performed two days apart after an exhaustive training session...
May 26, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867519/a-4-week-intervention-involving-mobile-based-daily-6-minute-micro-sessions-of-functional-high-intensity-circuit-training-improves-strength-and-quality-of-life-but-not-cardio-respiratory-fitness-of-young-untrained-adults
#3
Billy Sperlich, Lea-Sofie Hahn, Antonia Edel, Tino Behr, Julian Helmprobst, Robert Leppich, Birgit Wallmann-Sperlich, Hans-Christer Holmberg
The present study was designed to assess the psycho-physiological responses of physically untrained individuals to mobile-based multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiple-joint conditioning (CircuitHIIT ) performed either once (1xCircuitHIIT ) or twice (2xCircuitHIIT ) daily for 4 weeks. In this single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled study, 24 men and women (age: 25 ± 5 years) first received no training instructions for 4 weeks and then performed 4 weeks of either 1xCircuitHIIT or 2xCircuitHIIT (5 men and 7 women in each group) daily...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866643/assessing-statewide-all-cause-future-one-year-mortality-prospective-study-with-implications-for-quality-of-life-resource-utilization-and-medical-futility
#4
Yanting Guo, Gang Zheng, Tianyun Fu, Shiying Hao, Chengyin Ye, Le Zheng, Modi Liu, Minjie Xia, Bo Jin, Chunqing Zhu, Oliver Wang, Qian Wu, Devore S Culver, Shaun T Alfreds, Frank Stearns, Laura Kanov, Ajay Bhatia, Karl G Sylvester, Eric Widen, Doff B McElhinney, Xuefeng Bruce Ling
BACKGROUND: For many elderly patients, a disproportionate amount of health care resources and expenditures is spent during the last year of life, despite the discomfort and reduced quality of life associated with many aggressive medical approaches. However, few prognostic tools have focused on predicting all-cause 1-year mortality among elderly patients at a statewide level, an issue that has implications for improving quality of life while distributing scarce resources fairly. OBJECTIVE: Using data from a statewide elderly population (aged ≥65 years), we sought to prospectively validate an algorithm to identify patients at risk for dying in the next year for the purpose of minimizing decision uncertainty, improving quality of life, and reducing futile treatment...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795741/simulated-altitude-via-re-breathing-creates-arterial-hypoxemia-but-fails-to-improve-elements-of-running-performance
#5
Matthew J Garver, Cory M Scheadler, Logan M Smith, Sarah J Taylor, Chase M Harbach
Acclimatization to altitude has been shown to improve elements of performance. Use of simulated altitude is popular among athletes across the sports spectrum. This work was on a handheld, re-breathing device touted to enhance performance. Seven recreationally-trained athletes used the device for 18 hours over the course of the 37-day intervention trial. The elevations simulated were progressively increased from 1,524m to 6,096m. To ascertain potential efficacy, four performance trials were included (familiarization, baseline, and 2 follow-ups)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769828/the-effect-of-half-time-re-warm-up-duration-on-intermittent-sprint-performance
#6
Takuma Yanaoka, Kyoko Kashiwabara, Yuta Masuda, Jumpei Yamagami, Kuran Kurata, Shun Takagi, Masashi Miyashita, Norikazu Hirose
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different durations of half-time re-warm up (RW) on intermittent sprint performance. Using a randomized crossover design, 13 healthy men performed three trials, which consisted of two, 40-min intermittent exercises separated by a 15-min half-time. Half-time interventions were 15 min of seated rest (Control), 7 min of cycling at 70% of maximal heart rate (HRmax ) (7 min RW), and 3 min of cycling at 70% of HRmax (3 min RW). The second 40-min intermittent exercise as an exercise performance test was the Cycling Intermittent-Sprint Protocol (CISP), which consisted of 10 s of rest, 5 s of maximal sprint, and 105 s of low-intensity exercise at 50% of VO2max , with the cycles repeated over the 40-min duration...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769827/effects-of-a-4-week-very-low-carbohydrate-diet-on-high-intensity-interval-training-responses
#7
Lukas Cipryan, Daniel J Plews, Alessandro Ferretti, Phil B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of altering from habitual mixed Western-based (HD) to a very low-carbohydrate high-fat (VLCHF) diet over a 4-week timecourse on performance and physiological responses during high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Eighteen moderately trained males (age 23.8 ± 2.1 years) consuming their HD (48 ± 13% carbohydrate, 17 ± 3% protein, 35 ± 9% fat) were assigned to 2 groups. One group was asked to remain on their HD, while the other was asked to switch to a non-standardized VLCHF diet (8 ± 3% carbohydrate, 29 ± 15% protein, 63 ± 13% fat) for 4 weeks...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762253/glucose-tolerance-is-linked-to-postprandial-fuel-use-independent-of-exercise-dose
#8
Nicole M Gilbertson, Natalie Z M Eichner, Monique Francois, Julian M Gaitán, Emily M Heiston, Arthur Weltman, Steven K Malin
PURPOSE: The optimal short-term exercise dose to improve glucose tolerance in relation to metabolic flexibility and/or insulin resistance is unknown. Therefore, we tested if short-term, work-matched continuous (CONT) versus interval (INT) exercise training improves glucose tolerance in part by reducing insulin resistance and increasing metabolic flexibility independent of clinically meaningful fat loss in adults with prediabetes. METHODS: Subjects (age 60.9±1.4y; BMI 33...
May 14, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722255/physiological-demands-of-standing-and-wheelchair-fencing-in-able-bodied-fencers
#9
Xavier Iglesias, Ferran A Rodríguez, Rafael Tarragó, Lindsay Bottoms, Lisímaco Vallejo, Lara Rodríguez-Zamora, Michael Price
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiorespiratory demands of standing and wheelchair (seated) fencing in a group of able-bodied fencers during simulated competitive bouts. METHODS: Participants were ten male able-bodied fencers of regional level with previous training experience in wheelchair fencing. After a standardised warm-up participants performed two series of simulated competitive épée bouts (5 and 15 touches) in a random order, either while standing or while sitting in a wheelchair...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694272/effect-of-mouthguard-use-on-metabolic-and-cardiorespiratory-responses-to-aerobic-exercise-in-males
#10
Michael S Green, Amanda K Benson, Tyler D Martin
PURPOSE: This study investigated the physiological effects of wearing a mouthguard during submaximal treadmill exercise. METHOD: Twenty-four recreationally active males (Mage = 21.3 ± 2.4 years, Mheight = 1.78 ± 0.06 m, Mweight = 81.9 ± 10.6 kg, Mbody mass index = 25.8 ± 3.4 kg·m-2 ) performed incremental, continuous exercise at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mph (3.2, 6.4, 9.7, 12.9 kph) for 5 min at each speed on a motor-driven treadmill on 2 separate occasions in a randomized, crossover, counterbalanced design while wearing or not wearing a self-adaptable "boil and bite" mouthguard...
June 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673243/the-effect-of-additional-carbohydrate-supplements-for-7-days-after-prolonged-interval-exercise-on-exercise-performance-and-energy-metabolism-during-submaximal-exercise-in-team-sports-athletes
#11
Hun-Young Park, Jisu Kim, Miyoung Park, Nana Chung, Kiwon Lim
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of carbohydrate loading by additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes. METHODS: Twenty male team-sports athletes (14 soccer and 6 rugby players) volunteered to participate in the study and were equally divided into the experimental group (EXP, n=10) performing additional carbohydrate supplementation for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise until blood glucose level reaches 50 mg/dL or less and the control group (CON, n=10)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626373/sexual-dimorphism-of-substrate-utilization-differences-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-volume-density-and-function
#12
David Montero, Klavs Madsen, Anne-Kristine Meinild-Lundby, Fredrik Edin, Carsten Lundby
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Females rely to a greater extent than males on fat oxidation during exercise. Whether any difference in skeletal muscle mitochondrial phenotype and oxidative capacity contributes to this sexual dimorphism remains incompletely explored. What is the main finding and its importance? Female prioritization of fat during exercise occurs in parallel to augmented mitochondrial volume density and intrinsic fatty acid and lactate oxidation in skeletal muscle fibres compared with males, independently of aerobic exercise capacity...
June 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564844/effects-of-high-intensity-warm-ups-on-running-performance
#13
Fernando González-Mohíno, Raúl Martín, Daniel Juárez Santos-García, Pedro Angel Fidel, Francisco de Asis Fernandez, Inmaculada Yustres, José María González Ravé
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity warm-ups (WUs) on performance, physiological, neuromuscular and biomechanical parameters. Three randomized cross-over 105%vVO2 max time limit trials (TLimT) were performed by 11 well-trained runners following three different WU protocols. These included two experimental high-intensity variants and one control WU variant: (i) 9x20-sec level strides (105%vVO2 max; 1% gradient) with 60 s of recovery (level); (ii) 6x6-sec uphill strides (105%vVO2 max; 5% gradient), with the same recovery (uphill) and (iii) 7 min at 60%vVO2 max as control condition (control)...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541331/the-effect-of-acute-l-carnitine-and-carbohydrate-intake-on-cycling-performance
#14
Boe M Burrus, Brian M Moscicki, Tracey D Matthews, Vincent J Paolone
Chronic supplementation of L-carnitine and carbohydrate has been reported to increase L-carnitine content in skeletal muscle and have positive influences on exercise variables and performance. This study investigated the acute intake of L-carnitine and carbohydrate on the exercise parameters of cycling. A total of 10 males (27.0 ± 4 years) completed two exercise sessions consisting of 40 min of cycling at 65% of VO2peak , followed by cycling to exhaustion at 85% of VO2peak . L-carnitine or a placebo was consumed 3 hours prior to exercise, and beverages consisting of 94 g of carbohydrate were consumed at both 2 hours, and 30 minutes prior to exercise...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535588/carbohydrate-mouth-rinse-improves-cycling-time-trial-performance-without-altering-plasma-insulin-concentration
#15
Kevin O Murray, Hunter L Paris, Alyce D Fly, Robert F Chapman, Timothy D Mickleborough
Rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate solution has been shown to improve exercise performance in a manner similar to carbohydrate ingestion. However, the underlying mechanisms behind these ergogenic benefits remain unclear. This study evaluated whether rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate solution alters plasma insulin and glucose concentration during the initial stages of a 40 km cycling time-trial. Eight trained, competitive cyclists [age (mean ± SEM) = 24 ± 2 y; V̇O2 max = 64.5 ± 2.2 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 ] completed three simulated 40 km time-trials comprised of a familiarization trial, a carbohydrate condition (CHO) and a placebo mouth rinse condition (PLA)...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523922/a-novel-mechanism-for-improved-exercise-performance-in-pediatric-fontan-patients-after-cardiac-rehabilitation
#16
Samuel Wittekind, Wayne Mays, Yvette Gerdes, Sandra Knecht, John Hambrook, William Border, John Lynn Jefferies
Patients with a Fontan circulation have impaired exercise capacity. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has shown promise in enhancing peak exercise parameters in this population, but an improvement in submaximal exercise has not been consistently demonstrated. We assessed the hypothesis that participation in CR will be associated with more efficient oxygen extraction and ventilation during submaximal exercise. In this prospective study, pediatric Fontans completed two 60 min CR sessions per week for 12 weeks. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and stress echocardiography were performed at baseline and last CR session, and then compared with a paired sample t test...
June 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506981/reference-values-for-peak-oxygen-uptake-cross-sectional-analysis-of-cycle-ergometry-based-cardiopulmonary-exercise-tests-of-10-090-adult-german-volunteers-from-the-prevention-first-registry
#17
Daniel Rapp, Jürgen Scharhag, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Johannes Scholl
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to construct quantile reference values for peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak ) measured by cycle ergometry-based incremental cardiopulmonary exercise tests. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using quantile regressions to fit sex-specific and age-specific quantile curves. Exercise tests were conducted using cycle ergometry. Maximal effort in the exercise tests wass assumed when respiratory exchange ratio  ≥1.1 or lactate ≥8 mmol/L or maximal heart rate ≥90% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489721/post-exercise-ingestion-of-low-or-high-molecular-weight-glucose-polymer-solution-does-not-improve-cycle-performance-in-female-athletes
#18
Meredith G Mock, Katie R Hirsch, Malia N M Blue, Eric T Trexler, Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan
The current study sought to evaluate the effects of post-exercise ingestion of a high molecular weight glucose polymer solution (HMW) compared to an isocaloric low molecular weight solution (LMW) or placebo (PLA) on subsequent cycling performance in female athletes. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 10 competitive female cyclists (Mean ± SD; Age = 25.7 ± 5.0 yrs; VO2peak = 49.7 ± 4.3 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed three testing sessions separated by 7-10 days...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485903/metabolic-and-molecular-framework-for-the-enhancement-of-endurance-by-intermittent-food-deprivation
#19
Krisztina Marosi, Keelin Moehl, Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Sarah J Mitchell, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Miguel A Aon, Sonia Cortassa, Kevin G Becker, Mark P Mattson
Evolutionary considerations suggest that the body has been optimized to perform at a high level in the food-deprived state when fatty acids and their ketone metabolites are a major fuel source for muscle cells. Because controlled food deprivation in laboratory animals and intermittent energy restriction in humans is a potent physiologic stimulus for ketosis, we designed a study to determine the impact of intermittent food deprivation during endurance training on performance and to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms...
February 27, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479563/imaging-lung-cancer-by-using-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-mri-with-retrospective-respiration-gating
#20
Kyle M Jones, Carol A Stuehm, Charles C Hsu, Phillip H Kuo, Mark D Pagel, Edward A Randtke
Performing chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in lung tissue is difficult because of motion artifacts. We, therefore, developed a CEST MRI acquisition and analysis method that performs retrospective respiration gating. Our method used an acquisition scheme with a short 200-millisecond saturation pulse that can accommodate the timing of the breathing cycle, and with saturation applied at frequencies in 0.03-ppm intervals. The Fourier transform of each image was used to calculate the difference in phase angle between adjacent pixels in the longitudinal direction of the respiratory motion...
December 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
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