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(lung cancer) and (immunotherapy)

Jessica J Lin, Justin F Gainor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Marina Chiara Garassino, Byoung-Chul Cho, Joo-Hang Kim, Julien Mazières, Johan Vansteenkiste, Hervé Lena, Jesus Corral Jaime, Jhanelle E Gray, John Powderly, Christos Chouaid, Paolo Bidoli, Paul Wheatley-Price, Keunchil Park, Ross A Soo, Yifan Huang, Catherine Wadsworth, Phillip A Dennis, Naiyer A Rizvi
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a new standard of care for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without EGFR tyrosine kinase or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genetic aberrations (EGFR-/ALK-), but clinical benefit in patients with EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements (EGFR+/ALK+) has not been shown. We assessed the effect of durvalumab (anti-PD-L1) treatment in three cohorts of patients with NSCLC defined by EGFR/ALK status and tumour expression of PD-L1...
March 12, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Antonio Rossi, Rebecca Tay, Jaseela Chiramel, Arsela Prelaj, Raffaele Califano
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a very aggressive disease characterized by a high response rate to first-line chemotherapy, but most patients relapse within 1 year with disappointing results to second-line treatments. Chemotherapy has reached a plateau of effectiveness and new therapeutic strategies are needed to change the natural history of SCLC. Areas covered: This review will focus on the current results and the future development of the therapeutic approaches for the treatment of SCLC. Expert commentary: Immunotherapy is becoming a new frontier for the management of SCLC with preliminary interesting results...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Triparna Sen, Carl M Gay, Lauren Averett Byers
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy that accounts for 14% of all lung cancer diagnoses. Despite decades of active research, treatment options for SCLC are limited and resistance to the few Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapies develops rapidly. With no approved targeted agents to date, new therapeutic strategies are desperately needed. SCLC is characterized by high mutation burden, ubiquitous loss of TP53 and RB1, mutually exclusive amplification of MYC family members, thereby, high genomic instability...
February 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Francesco Agustoni, Fred R Hirsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Kimio Yonesaka, Koji Haratani, Shiki Takamura, Hitomi Sakai, Ryoji Kato, Naoki Takegawa, Takayuki Takahama, Kaoru Tanaka, Hidetoshi Hayashi, Masayuki Takeda, Shigeki Kato, Osamu Maenishi, Kazuko Sakai, Yasutaka Chiba, Takafumi Okabe, Keita Kudo, Yoshikazu Hasegawa, Hiroyasu Kaneda, Michiko Yamato, Kenji Hirotani, Masaaki Miyazawa, Kazuto Nishio, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
PURPOSE: Anti-programmed-death-1 (PD-1) immunotherapy improves survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but some cases are refractory to treatment, thereby requiring alternative strategies. B7-H3, an immune-checkpoint molecule, is expressed in various malignancies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate B7-H3 expression in NSCLCs treated with anti-PD-1 therapy and the therapeutic potential of a combination of anti-PD-1 therapy and B7-H3 targeting. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: B7-H3 expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in patients with NSCLC (n = 82), and its relationship with responsiveness to anti-PD-1 therapy and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was analyzed...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Fausto Petrelli, Mariangela Maltese, Gianluca Tomasello, Barbara Conti, Karen Borgonovo, Mary Cabiddu, Mara Ghilardi, Michele Ghidini, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Sandro Barni, Matteo Brighenti
Clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) associated with a strong expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1+ in > 5% of cells) have not been well elucidated. Expression of PD-L1 is a poor prognostic factor, but NSCLCs with higher levels of PD-L1 have greater benefit when treated with immunotherapy. We have performed a systematic review to synthesize the available evidence regarding clinicopathologic and molecular variables associated with PD-L1 expression in NSCLC...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
C E McCoach, G M Blumenthal, L Zhang, A Myers, S Tang, R Sridhara, P Keegan, R Pazdur, R C Doebele, D Kazandjian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Jie Zhou, Zhihua Gong, Qingzhu Jia, Yan Wu, Zhen-Zhou Yang, Bo Zhu
Immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death-1/programmed death ligand 1(PD-L1) pathway has shown promising antitumor activity in brain metastases (BMs) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with an acceptable safety profile; however, the response rates often differ between primary lesions and intracranial lesions. Studies are necessary to identify detailed characterizations of the response biomarkers. In this study, we aimed to compare the differences of PD-L1 expression and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density, two major response biomarkers of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, between paired primary and brain metastatic lesions in advanced NSCLC...
March 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
N Naqos, R Belbaraka, A El Omrani, M Khouchani
During the esmo congress that took place from 08 to 12 September 2017 in Madrid, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was the subject of various communications and posters. We selected the most innovative and most likely to change our daily practice These updates presented concerned both localized and metastatic lung cancers. For completely resected localized stages minimal monitoring by annual CT scan is recommended, in stage III after radio chemotherapy durvalumab treatment provides better progression-free survival (PFS)...
March 8, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Kelly Flentie, Caleb Gonzalez, Brandon Kocher, Yue Wang, Hongtu Zhu, Jayne Marasa, David Piwnica-Worms
Bacterial flagellin is a potent activator of NF-κB signaling, inflammation and host innate immunity, and recent data indicate that flagellin represents a novel anti-tumor ligand acting through toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and the NF-κB pathway to induce host immunity and aid in the clearance of tumor xenografts. To identify innate signaling components of TLR5 responsible for these anti-tumor effects, a loss-of-function high-throughput screen was employed utilizing carcinoma cells expressing a dynamic NF-κB bioluminescent reporter stimulated by Salmonella typhimurium expressing flagellin...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Sandra D Algaze, Wungki Park, Thomas J Harrington, Raja Mudad
We describe a rare case of severe autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) in the setting of underlying chronic lymphocytic leukaemia receiving intravenous immunoglobulin, history of warm IgG autoantibody and treatment with nivolumab for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. In this report, we describe AIHA as a potential serious immune-related adverse event from immune checkpoint inhibitors, discuss other potential contributing factors and review previously described cases of AIHA in patients receiving programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Artur Martynov, Gennady Didenko, Boris Farber, Sophya Farber, Olena Cruts
OBJECTIVES: Many adenocarcinomas have the ability to capture from an extracellular matrix the oligonucleotides and nanoparticles by pinocytosis, when the non-cancerous cells are not capable to capture the oligonucleotides and small liposomes. This provides selective accumulation of proposed protected oligonucleotides (fRNA) in cancer cells and also provides the absence toxicity in the fRNA. METHODS: For the immunotherapy, we used immunotropic 70 kDa lectin Bacillus subtilis B-7025...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Ye Zheng, Anhui Shi, Weihu Wang, Huiming Yu, Rong Yu, Dongming Li, Bo Xu, Huimin Ma, Jing You, Dan Zhao, Leilei Jiang, Jianhao Geng, Guangying Zhu
PURPOSE: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) represents an exciting, tolerable, and highly effective form of radiotherapy. Ongoing investigations into the interactions between radiotherapy and the immune system have uncovered new mechanisms that can be exploited to improve efficacy. We determined whether baseline or posttreatment immune parameters could predict disease control and toxicity in stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with SABR. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 62 patients 24 hours before treatment and within 4 weeks after treatment for lymphocyte subset count analysis...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
David R Spigel, Craig Reynolds, David Waterhouse, Edward B Garon, Jason Chandler, Sunil Babu, Paul Thurmes, Alexander Spira, Robert Jotte, Jin Zhu, Wen Hong Lin, George Blumenschein
INTRODUCTION: Crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, is a first-line treatment for ALK translocation-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, patients eventually progress. Immunotherapies, including the programmed death-1 inhibitor nivolumab, have resulted in durable responses and long-term overall survival in patients with NSCLC. We hypothesized that combining targeted therapy with immunotherapy could result in more patients with responses and/or more durable responses...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
M Alsharedi, R Srivastava, N Elmsherghi
Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer care in the modern era of oncology. Research in immunotherapy has led to important advances in the treatment of melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and other malignancies using checkpoint inhibition. Multiple systemic immunotherapies have been approved or are currently being investigated for the management of urothelial malignancies (1). Five antibodies targeting the programmed cell death protein 1--programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-1--PD-L1) pathway have been approved by the U...
December 2017: Drugs of Today
Yi Gao, Jianjian Yang, Yixin Cai, Shengling Fu, Ni Zhang, Xiangning Fu, Lequn Li
IFN-γ plays a crucial role in anti-tumor responses but also induces expression of PD-L1, a well-established inhibitor of anti-tumor immune function. Understanding how molecular signaling regulates the function of IFN-γ might improve its anti-tumor efficacy. Here we show that the tumor expression of IFN-γ expression alone has no significant prognostic value in patients with locally advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Surprisingly, patients with tumors expressing both IFN-γ and PD-L1 have the best prognosis compared to those with tumors expressing IFN-γ or PD-L1 alone...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Hiroki Nagai, Manabu Muto
Over the last two decades, molecular-targeted agents have become mainstream treatment for many types of malignancies and have improved the overall survival of patients. However, most patients eventually develop resistance to these targeted therapies. Recently, immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment paradigm for many types of malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for treatment of melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, bladder cancer and gastric cancer...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Andrea Anichini, Elena Tassi, Giulia Grazia, Roberta Mortarini
Immunotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), by immune checkpoint inhibitors, has profoundly improved the clinical management of advanced disease. However, only a fraction of patients respond and no effective predictive factors have been defined. Here, we discuss the prospects for identification of such predictors of response to immunotherapy, by fostering an in-depth analysis of the immune landscape of NSCLC. The emerging picture, from several recent studies, is that the immune contexture of NSCLC lesions is a complex and heterogeneous feature, as documented by analysis for frequency, phenotype and spatial distribution of innate and adaptive immune cells, and by characterization of functional status of inhibitory receptor+ T cells...
March 7, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Jingjing Qu, Yongchang Zhang, Xue Chen, Haiyan Yang, Chunhua Zhou, Nong Yang
Angiogenesis and its role in the growth and development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastases has become an increasing clinical problem. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in advanced NSCLC. To some extent, anti-angiogenic therapies acquired some efficacy in combination with chemotherapy, target therapy and immunotherapy. However, the reliable clinical benefit obtained with these drugs is still questionable and often quantitatively limited. In this review, the authors highlight the data obtained from first-line, second-line, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor(EGFR-TKI) target therapy and immunotherapy in NSCLC patients who are treated with anti-angiogenic molecules in advanced NSCLC...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
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