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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645031/understanding-the-variation-of-microbial-community-in-heavy-metals-contaminated-soil-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#1
Honghong Guo, Mubasher Nasir, Jialong Lv, Yunchao Dai, Jiakai Gao
To improve the understanding of bacterial community in heavy metals contaminated soils, we studied the effects of environmental factors on the bacterial community structure in contaminated fields located in Shaanxi Province of China. Our results showed that microbial community structure varied among sites, and it was significantly affected by soil environmental factors such as pH, soil organic matter (SOM), Cd, Pb and Zn. In addition, Spearman's rank-order correlation indicated heavy metal sensitive (Ralstonia, Gemmatimona, Rhodanobacter and Mizugakiibacter) and tolerant (unidentified-Nitrospiraceae, Blastocatella and unidentified-Acidobacteria) microbial groups...
June 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645030/uptake-and-tissue-distributions-of-cadmium-selenium-and-zinc-in-striped-marsh-frog-tadpoles-exposed-during-early-post-embryonic-development
#2
Chantal M Lanctôt, Tom Cresswell, Steven D Melvin
Metals and metalloids released through anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic organisms, resulting in adverse effects in sensitive species. We investigated the influence of feeding regime and exposure complexity (i.e., mixture) on bioaccumulation kinetics and body distribution of common metal(loid) pollutants in Limnodynastes peronii during early post-embryonic development. Tadpoles were exposed to radiolabelled (109)Cd, (75)Se and (65)Zn alone and in a mixture for 4 days, followed by 3 days depuration in clean water...
June 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645029/phytoavailability-of-cr-in-silene-vulgaris-the-role-of-soil-plant-genotype-and-bacterial-rhizobiome
#3
P García-Gonzalo, A E Pradas Del Real, M Pirredda, M J Gismera, M C Lobo, A Pérez-Sanz
Understanding the metal behavior at the soil-root interface is of utmost significance for a successful implementation of phytoremediation. In this study, we investigated the differences in chromium (Cr) uptake, chemical changes in soil solution and the shifts in rhizosphere bacterial communities of two genotypes of Silene vulgaris (SV21, SV38) with different tolerance to Cr. A greenhouse experiment was performed in two soils that differed on pH and organic matter (OM) content. An industrial sludge with high content in Cr was used as pollution source...
June 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644982/assessment-of-sublethal-endpoints-after-chronic-exposure-of-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-to-palladium-platinum-and-rhodium
#4
Gerhard Schertzinger, Sonja Zimmermann, Daniel Grabner, Bernd Sures
The aim of this study was to investigate chronic effects of the platinum-group elements (PGE) palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Aquatic toxicity testing was carried out according to ISO 10872 by determining 96 h EC50 values for sublethal endpoints, including growth, fertility and reproduction. Single PGE standard solutions were used as metal source. Based on the EC50 values for Pt, reproduction (96 h EC50 = 497 μg/L) was the most sensitive endpoint followed by fertility (96 h EC50 = 726 μg/L) and growth (96 h EC50 = 808 μg/L)...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644818/fabrication-and-optical-properties-of-nanostructured-plasmonic-al2o3-au-al2o3-al2o3-metamaterials
#5
Hicham Bakkali, Eduardo Blanco, Manuel Dominguez, Jose S Garitaonandia
Discontinuous multilayer (DML) thin films, which consist of nano-granular metals (NGMs) embedded in a dielectric matrix, have attracted significant interest as engineered plasmonic metamaterials. In this study, a systematic layer-by-layer deposition of three-dimensional sub-wavelength periodic plasmonic DML structures via the radio frequency sputtering of a composite target has been reported. The overall optical response of the DML films composed of AuAl2O3 NGM homogenous layers, which are periodically sandwiched between two amorphous Al2O3 layers, are studied using reflection spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission spectroscopy techniques...
June 23, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644760/expression-and-characterization-of-soybean-seed-coat-peroxidase-in-escherichia-coli-bl21-de3
#6
Changqing Liu, Kai Zheng, Ying Xu, Lacmata Tamekou Stephen, Jiming Wang, Hongwei Zhao, Tongqing Yue, Rui Nian, Haibo Zhang, Mo Xian, Huizhou Liu
Soybean seed coat peroxidase(SBP) is a valuable enzyme having a broad variety of applications in analytical chemistry, biochemistry and food processing. In the present study, the sscp gene (Gene ID: 548068) was optimized based on the preferred codon usage of Escherichia coli, synthesized, and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis of this expressed protein revealed that its molecular weight is approximately 39 kDa. The effects of induction temperature, concentration of IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside) and hemin, induction time, expression time were optimized to enhance SBP production with a maximum activity of 11...
June 23, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644675/origin-of-noncubic-scaling-law-in-disordered-granular-packing
#7
Chengjie Xia, Jindong Li, Binquan Kou, Yixin Cao, Zhifeng Li, Xianghui Xiao, Yanan Fu, Tiqiao Xiao, Liang Hong, Jie Zhang, Walter Kob, Yujie Wang
Recent diffraction experiments on metallic glasses have unveiled an unexpected noncubic scaling law between density and average interatomic distance, which led to the speculation of the presence of fractal glass order. Using x-ray tomography we identify here a similar noncubic scaling law in disordered granular packing of spherical particles. We find that the scaling law is directly related to the contact neighbors within the first nearest neighbor shell, and, therefore, is closely connected to the phenomenon of jamming...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644662/novel-metal-insulator-transition-at-the-smtio_-3-srtio_-3-interface
#8
Kaveh Ahadi, Susanne Stemmer
We report on a metal-insulator transition (MIT) that is observed in an electron system at the SmTiO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} interface. This MIT is characterized by an abrupt transition at a critical temperature, below which the resistance changes by more than an order of magnitude. The temperature of the transition systematically depends on the carrier density, which is tuned from ∼1×10^{14} to 3×10^{14}  cm^{-2} by changing the SmTiO_{3} thickness. An analysis of the transport properties shows non-Fermi-liquid behavior and mass enhancement as the carrier density is lowered...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644637/comment-on-quasi-one-dimensional-metal-insulator-transitions-in-compound-semiconductor-surfaces
#9
Sun-Woo Kim, Yoon-Gu Kang, Hyun-Jung Kim, Jun-Hyung Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644630/expanding-the-therapeutic-potential-of-the-iron-chelator-deferasirox-in-the-development-of-aqueous-stable-ti-iv-anticancer-complexes
#10
Sergio A Loza-Rosas, Alexandra M Vázquez-Salgado, Kennett I Rivero, Lenny J Negrón, Yamixa Delgado, Josué A Benjamín-Rivera, Angel L Vázquez-Maldonado, Timothy B Parks, Charlene Munet-Colón, Arthur D Tinoco
The recent X-ray structure of titanium(IV)-bound human serum transferrin (STf) exhibiting citrate as a synergistic anion reveals a difference in Ti(IV) coordination versus iron(III), the metal endogenously delivered by the protein to cells. This finding enriches our bioinspired drug design strategy for Ti(IV)-based anticancer therapeutics, which applies a family of Fe(III) chelators termed chemical transferrin mimetic (cTfm) ligands to inhibit Fe bioavailability in cancer cells. Deferasirox, a drug used for iron overload disease, is a cTfm ligand that models STf coordination to Fe(III), favoring Fe(III) binding versus Ti(IV)...
June 23, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644617/dynamic-covalent-chemistry-of-carbon-dioxide-opportunities-to-address-environmental-issues
#11
Jean Septavaux, Geoffroy Germain, Julien Leclaire
Extraction and purification of basic chemicals from complex mixtures has been a persistent issue throughout the development of the chemical sciences. The chemical industry and academic research have grown over the centuries by following a deconstruction-reconstruction approach, reminiscent of the metabolism process. Chemists have designed and optimized extraction, purification, and transformation processes of molecules from natural deposits (fossil fuels, biomass, ores), in order to reassemble them into complex adducts...
June 23, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644474/%C3%AF-electron-s%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-quantum-spin-liquid-state-in-an-ionic-polyaromatic-hydrocarbon
#12
Yasuhiro Takabayashi, Melita Menelaou, Hiroyuki Tamura, Nayuta Takemori, Takashi Koretsune, Aleš Štefančič, Gyöngyi Klupp, A Johan C Buurma, Yusuke Nomura, Ryotaro Arita, Denis Arčon, Matthew J Rosseinsky, Kosmas Prassides
Molecular solids with cooperative electronic properties based purely on π electrons from carbon atoms offer a fertile ground in the search for exotic states of matter, including unconventional superconductivity and quantum magnetism. The field was ignited by reports of high-temperature superconductivity in materials obtained by the reaction of alkali metals with polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and picene, but the composition and structure of any compound in this family remained unknown. Here we isolate the binary caesium salts of phenanthrene, Cs(C14H10) and Cs2(C14H10), to show that they are multiorbital strongly correlated Mott insulators...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644470/rapid-heteroatom-transfer-to-arylmetals-utilizing-multifunctional-reagent-scaffolds
#13
Hongyin Gao, Zhe Zhou, Doo-Hyun Kwon, James Coombs, Steven Jones, Nicole Erin Behnke, Daniel H Ess, László Kürti
Arylmetals are highly valuable carbon nucleophiles that are readily and inexpensively prepared from aryl halides or arenes and widely used on both laboratory and industrial scales to react directly with a wide range of electrophiles. Although C-C bond formation has been a staple of organic synthesis, the direct transfer of primary amino (-NH2) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups to arylmetals in a scalable and environmentally friendly fashion remains a formidable synthetic challenge because of the absence of suitable heteroatom-transfer reagents...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644463/hypersensitive-dual-function-luminescence-switching-of-a-silver-chalcogenolate-cluster-based-metal-organic-framework
#14
Ren-Wu Huang, Yong-Sheng Wei, Xi-Yan Dong, Xiao-Hui Wu, Chen-Xia Du, Shuang-Quan Zang, Thomas C W Mak
Silver(i) chalcogenide/chalcogenolate clusters are promising photofunctional materials for sensing, optoelectronics and solar energy harvesting applications. However, their instability and poor room-temperature luminescent quantum yields have hampered more extensive study. Here, we graft such clusters to adaptable bridging ligands, enabling their interconnection and the formation of rigid metal-organic frameworks. By controlling the spatial separation and orientation of the clusters, they then exhibit enhanced stability (over one year) and quantum yield (12...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644416/evaluation-of-trace-element-and-metal-accumulation-and-edibility-risk-associated-with-consumption-of-labeo-umbratus-from-the-vaal-dam-south-africa
#15
Beric M Gilbert, Ebrahim Hussain, Franz Jirsa, Annemariè Avenant-Oldewage
With the occurrence of recreational and small scale subsistence fishing activities at the Vaal Dam, South Africa, consumption of fish from this dam may result in health risks associated with trace elements and metals. The Vaal Dam is one of the largest dams in South Africa, located between the Gauteng Province and Orange Free State, and supplies water to approximately 11.6 million people. A total of 38 specimens of the benthic cyprinid fish Labeo umbratus were collected from the Vaal Dam during two surveys, in 2011 and 2016...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644399/effects-of-biochar-derived-sewage-sludge-on-heavy-metal-adsorption-and-immobilization-in-soils
#16
Dan Zhou, Dan Liu, Fengxiang Gao, Mengke Li, Xianping Luo
The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge biochar on adsorption and mobility of Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Biochar (BC400) was produced via pyrolysis of municipal sewage sludge at 400 °C. Maximum adsorption capacities (qm) for Zn, Cr, Mn, and Cu were 5.905, 5.724, 5.681, and 5.342 mg·g(-1), respectively, in the mono-metal solution and 2.475, 8.204, 1.01, and 5.415 mg·g(-1), respectively, in the multi-metal solution. The adsorption capacities for Mn, Cu, and Zn decreased in the multi-metal solution due to competitive adsorption, whereas the capacity for Cr increased...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644382/metal-ion-loaded-nanofibre-matrices-for-calcification-inhibition-in-polyurethane-implants
#17
Charanpreet Singh, Xungai Wang
Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s for inhibiting pathological calcification in polyurethane (PU) implants. The hypothesis of using MIs as anti-calcification agents was based on the natural calcium-antagonist role of Mg(2+) ions in human body, and the anti-calcification effect of Fe(3+) ions in bio-prosthetic heart valves has previously been confirmed...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644375/gaden-a-3d-gas-dispersion-simulator-for-mobile-robot-olfaction-in-realistic-environments
#18
Javier Monroy, Victor Hernandez-Bennets, Han Fan, Achim Lilienthal, Javier Gonzalez-Jimenez
This work presents a simulation framework developed under the widely used Robot Operating System (ROS) to enable the validation of robotics systems and gas sensing algorithms under realistic environments. The framework is rooted in the principles of computational fluid dynamics and filament dispersion theory, modeling wind flow and gas dispersion in 3D real-world scenarios (i.e., accounting for walls, furniture, etc.). Moreover, it integrates the simulation of different environmental sensors, such as metal oxide gas sensors, photo ionization detectors, or anemometers...
June 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644042/a-review-on-recent-applications-of-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-in-metal-determination-and-speciation-analysis
#19
Susheela Rani, Neha Sharma, Ashok Kumar Malik
High performance liquid chromatography has several advantages over the conventional methods due to their operational simplicity. It is a vital tool to determine metal ions having same mass but different electronic configuration, to separate complex mixtures and to resolve ions that may be indistinguishable by mass spectrometry alone. Metal ions play vital role in many biological processes and involved in setting up of many diseases. Therefore the development of simple methods for the detection and quantification of metals in real samples might serve as diagnostic tools for various diseases...
June 23, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644041/identifying-the-functional-groups-and-the-influence-of-synthetic-chelators-on-cd-availability-and-microbial-biomass-carbon-in-cd-contaminated-soil
#20
Muhammad Afzal Chhajro, Qingling Fu, Muhammad Shaaban, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan, Jun Zhu, Abdus Salam, Kashif Ali Kubar, Saqib Bashir, Hongqing Hu, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro
Synthetic chelators play an important role in boosting the microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and heavy metal solubility in a contaminated soil towards a sustainability of environment for agricultural crops. Castor was selected as a potential cadmium (Cd) accumulator in different levels of Cd (-Cd and +Cd) contamination with using three chelating agents, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (H4EDTA), nitriloacetic acid (H3 NTA) and NH4 citrate (ammonium citrate) were added to soil at rates of 10, 15 and 25 mmol in 5 kg of soil per pot...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
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