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Surveillance bias

Hiroshi Ihara, Sachiko Kiuchi, Takayuki Ishige, Motoi Nishimura, Kazuyuki Matsushita, Mamoru Satoh, Fumio Nomura, Mine Yamashita, Isamu Kitajima, Naoko Tsugawa, Toshio Okano, Kouichi Hirota, Masakazu Miura, Masayuki Totani, Naotaka Hashizume
BACKGROUND: To assess vitamin D nutritional status, serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration is measured. We used six automated 25(OH)D immunoassays (AIAs) available in Japan and certified by the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) at U.S. CDC to assess the concordance of assay results. METHODS: Serum total 25(OH)D concentrations in SRM 972a and 20 sera from patients were determined using three liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and six AIAs (pilot study), and an additional 110 sera were assessed by the six AIAs (surveillance study)...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Sibylle C Mellinghoff, Jörg Janne Vehreschild, Blasius J Liss, Oliver A Cornely
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common hospital acquired infections. While the incidence of SSI in certain indicator procedures is the subject of ongoing surveillance efforts in hospitals and health care systems around the world, SSI rates vary markedly within surgical categories and are poorly represented by routinely monitored indicator procedures (eg, mastectomy or hernia surgery). Therefore, relying on indicator procedures to estimate the burden of SSI is imprecise and introduces bias as hospitals may take special precautions to achieve lower SSI rates...
March 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Elizabeth C Lee, Ali Arab, Sandra M Goldlust, Cécile Viboud, Bryan T Grenfell, Shweta Bansal
The surveillance of influenza activity is critical to early detection of epidemics and pandemics and the design of disease control strategies. Case reporting through a voluntary network of sentinel physicians is a commonly used method of passive surveillance for monitoring rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) worldwide. Despite its ubiquity, little attention has been given to the processes underlying the observation, collection, and spatial aggregation of sentinel surveillance data, and its subsequent effects on epidemiological understanding...
March 7, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Diana Sarfati, Gail Garvey, Bridget Robson, Suzanne Moore, Ruth Cunningham, Diana Withrow, Kalinda Griffiths, Nadine R Caron, Freddie Bray
It is estimated that there are 370 million indigenous peoples in 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantage and poorer health status compared with nonindigenous peoples. Population-level cancer surveillance provides data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress over time. Measuring the cancer burden of vulnerable subpopulations, particularly indigenous peoples, is problematic. There are a number of practical and methodological issues potentially resulting in substantial underestimation of cancer incidence and mortality rates, and biased survival rates, among indigenous peoples...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Douglas Grossman, James M Farnham, John Hyngstrom, Marki E Klapperich, Aaron M Secrest, Sarah Empey, Glen M Bowen, David Wada, Robert H I Andtbacka, Kenneth Grossmann, Tawnya L Bowles, Lisa A Cannon-Albright
BACKGROUND: Survival data are mixed comparing patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) to those with single primary melanomas (SPM). OBJECTIVES: To compare MPM vs. SPM patient survival, using a matching method that avoids potential biases associated with other analytic approaches. METHODS: Records of 14,138 individuals obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results registry of all melanomas diagnosed or treated in Utah from 1973-2011 were reviewed...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Mengping Zhang, Zhijian Zhao, Xiaolu Duan, Tuo Deng, Chao Cai, Wenqi Wu, Guohua Zeng
PURPOSE: Controversy continues on the tailored therapy for patients with larger renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We investigated whether partial nephrectomy (PN) can improve patient prognosis compared to radical nephrectomy (RN) and the indications for each approach in patients with T1b-2N0M0 RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 9907 patients were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 2004 to 2012. Propensity scores were used to balance the selection bias of undergoing PN...
2018: PloS One
Karoliina Tainio, Antonios Athanasiou, Kari A O Tikkinen, Riikka Aaltonen, Jovita Cárdenas, Hernándes, Sivan Glazer-Livson, Maija Jakobsson, Kirsi Joronen, Mari Kiviharju, Karolina Louvanto, Sanna Oksjoki, Riikka Tähtinen, Seppo Virtanen, Pekka Nieminen, Maria Kyrgiou, Ilkka Kalliala
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the regression, persistence, and progression of untreated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) lesions managed conservatively as well as compliance with follow-up protocols. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from 1 January 1973 to 20 August 2016. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies reporting on outcomes of histologically confirmed CIN2 in non-pregnant women, managed conservatively for three or more months...
February 27, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
S F M Chastin, M L Dontje, D A Skelton, I Čukić, R J Shaw, J M R Gill, C A Greig, C R Gale, I J Deary, G Der, P M Dall
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour is a public health concern that requires surveillance and epidemiological research. For such large scale studies, self-report tools are a pragmatic measurement solution. A large number of self-report tools are currently in use, but few have been validated against an objective measure of sedentary time and there is no comparative information between tools to guide choice or to enable comparison between studies. The aim of this study was to provide a systematic comparison, generalisable to all tools, of the validity of self-report measures of sedentary time against a gold standard sedentary time objective monitor...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
C J Phythian, B Jackson, R Bell, L Citer, R Barwell, P A Windsor
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of macroscopic Sarcocystis spp., Cysticercus ovis and Echinococcus granulosus recorded at routine postmortem inspection of Tasmanian slaughter sheep during 2007 to 2013. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine postmortem meat inspection data maintained on 352,325 Tasmanian adult slaughter sheep inspected across nine abattoirs in Tasmania, Victoria and South Australia as part of the National Sheep Health Monitoring Project (NSHMP)...
March 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
Candyce Hamel, Mona Ghannad, Matthew D F McInnes, John Marshall, Jonothan Earnshaw, Roxanne Ward, Becky Skidmore, Chantelle Garritty
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to perform a rapid evidence summary to determine the prevalence of subaneurysmal aortic aneurysms, growth rates, and risk factors that modulate growth in average-risk men aged 65 years and older. Secondary objectives were to evaluate benefits and harms of lifelong ultrasound (US) surveillance and treatment outcomes for any large aneurysms that develop in the screened population. METHODS: We searched multiple databases (eg, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic and Embase, and the Cochrane Library) on February 16, 2016...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Yoko Hirano, Yuko Asami, Kazuhiko Kuribayashi, Shigeru Kitazaki, Yuji Yamamoto, Yoko Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Many pharmacoepidemiologic studies using large-scale databases have recently been utilized to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs in Western countries. In Japan, however, conventional methodology has been applied to postmarketing surveillance (PMS) to collect safety and effectiveness information on new drugs to meet regulatory requirements. Conventional PMS entails enormous costs and resources despite being an uncontrolled observational study method. This study is aimed at examining the possibility of database research as a more efficient pharmacovigilance approach by comparing a health care claims database and PMS with regard to the characteristics and safety profiles of sertraline-prescribed patients...
June 20, 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
Victor A Brugman, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Jolyon M Medlock, Anthony R Fooks, Simon Carpenter, Nicholas Johnson
Over the past three decades, a range of mosquito-borne viruses that threaten public and veterinary health have emerged or re-emerged in Europe. Mosquito surveillance activities have highlighted the Culex pipiens species complex as being critical for the maintenance of a number of these viruses. This species complex contains morphologically similar forms that exhibit variation in phenotypes that can influence the probability of virus transmission. Critical amongst these is the choice of host on which to feed, with different forms showing different feeding preferences...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Martine Wallon, François Peyron
Maternal infection by Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy may have serious consequences for the fetus, ranging from miscarriage, central nervous system involvement, retinochoroiditis, or subclinical infection at birth with a risk of late onset of ocular diseases. As infection in pregnant women is usually symptomless, the diagnosis relies only on serological tests. Some countries like France and Austria have organized a regular serological testing of pregnant women, some others have no prenatal program of surveillance...
February 23, 2018: Pathogens
Fatoumata Hane
INTRODUCTION: Many countries have developed disease surveillance systems to deal with epidemics, but although health information systems have existed for more than two decades, constraints and biases in data collection limit the relevance of policy decisions and strategies in the field of health, as priority has been given to education and health in developing countries. Donor support has led to the development of systems for the production of statistics, designed, among other things, to more clearly target interventions in terms of educational objectives, action and credibility and enable health systems to continue to benefit from external funding...
November 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Maxime Bisseux, Jonathan Colombet, Audrey Mirand, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso, Florence Abravanel, Jacques Izopet, Christine Archimbaud, Hélène Peigue-Lafeuille, Didier Debroas, Jean-Luc Bailly, Cécile Henquell
BackgroundHuman enteric viruses are resistant in the environment and transmitted via the faecal-oral route. Viral shedding in wastewater gives the opportunity to track emerging pathogens and study the epidemiology of enteric infectious diseases in the community. Aim: The aim of this study was to monitor the circulation of enteric viruses in the population of the Clermont-Ferrand area (France) by analysis of urban wastewaters. Methods: Raw and treated wastewaters were collected between October 2014 and October 2015 and concentrated by a two-step protocol using tangential flow ultrafiltration and polyethylene glycol precipitation...
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Carmine Zoccali, Francesca Mallamaci
Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses provide complementary information about the usefulness of therapies. While intention-to-treat analyses of trials that tested low-protein diets remain debated, per-protocol analyses of the same trials show that low protein intake actually reduces the risk of kidney failure. Per-protocol analyses are notoriously open to bias but intention-to-treat analyses are less immaculate than commonly realized because they critically depend on adherence to the treatment being tested and therefore may not be directly relevant for informing clinical decisions when different degrees of adherence to therapy occur...
February 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Emily J Weston, Robert D Kirkcaldy, Mark Stenger, Eloisa Llata, Brooke Hoots, Elizabeth A Torrone
To assess trends in Neisseria gonorrhoeae among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), we reviewed existing and published gonorrhea surveillance data in the United States (U.S.). Data identified in this review include: national gonorrhea case report data and data from three other surveillance programs, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), the STD Surveillance Network (SSuN), and National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS).Rates of reported cases of gonorrhea among men increased 54...
October 6, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Emily R Learner, Elizabeth A Torrone, Jason P Fine, Brian W Pence, Kimberly A Powers, William C Miller
BACKGROUND: Evaluating chlamydia prevalence trends from sentinel surveillance is important for understanding population disease burden over time. However, prevalence trend estimates from surveillance data may be misleading if they do not account for changes in risk profiles of individuals who are screened (case mix) and changing performance of the screening tests used. METHODS: We analyzed chlamydia screening data from a sentinel surveillance population of 389,555 young women (1990-2012) and 303,699 young men (2003-2012) entering the US National Job Training Program...
January 26, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Raju K Mandal, Sajad A Dar, Arshad Jawed, Mohd Wahid, Mohtashim Lohani, Aditya K Panda, Bhartendu N Mishra, Naseem Akhter, Mohammed Y Areeshi, Shafiul Haque
Genetic variant LMP7 (low molecular weight polypeptide 7) -145 C > A may influence the function of immune surveillance of an individual and lead to cancer development. Various studies have investigated the relevance of LMP7 -145 C > A gene polymorphism with cancer risk; but, their results are conflicting and inconsistent. To obtain a comprehensive conclusion, a meta-analysis was performed by including eight eligible published studies retrieved from PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and Google Scholar web search until December 2016...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
Don Chamil Codipilly, Apoorva Krishna Chandar, Siddharth Singh, Sachin Wani, Nicholas J Shaheen, John M Inadomi, Amitabh Chak, Prasad G Iyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidelines recommend endoscopic surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) to identify those with dysplasia (a precursor of carcinoma) or early-stage esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), who can be treated endoscopically. However, it is unclear whether surveillance increases survival times of patients with BE. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to qualitatively and quantitatively examine evidence for the association of endoscopic surveillance in patients with BE with survival and other outcomes...
February 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
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