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Surveillance bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346806/lithium-and-renal-impairment-a-review-on-a-still-hot-topic
#1
René Ernst Nielsen, Lars Vedel Kessing, Willem A Nolen, Rasmus W Licht
INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results...
January 18, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338978/non-risk-adapted-surveillance-for-stage-i-testicular-cancer-critical-review-and-summary
#2
REVIEW
Phillip Martin Pierorazio, Peter Albers, Peter C Black, Torgrim Tandstad, Axel Heidenreich, Nicola Nicolai, Craig Nichols
CONTEXT: Cancer-specific survival for men with clinical stage I testicular cancer (CSITC) is uniformly excellent. Non-risk-adapted active surveillance (NRAS) is a management strategy for CSITC to minimize overtreatment and avoid possible long-term side effects of adjuvant therapy. OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence regarding oncologic outcomes for men with CSITC undergoing NRAS and discuss ongoing controversies in the management of CSITC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from January 1, 1987 through January 1, 2017...
January 12, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334514/monitoring-depression-rates-in-an-urban-community-use-of-electronic-health-records
#3
Arthur J Davidson, Stanley Xu, Carlos Irwin A Oronce, M Josh Durfee, Emily V McCormick, John F Steiner, Edward Havranek, Arne Beck
OBJECTIVES: Depression is the most common mental health disorder and mediates outcomes for many chronic diseases. Ability to accurately identify and monitor this condition, at the local level, is often limited to estimates from national surveys. This study sought to compare and validate electronic health record (EHR)-based depression surveillance with multiple data sources for more granular demographic subgroup and subcounty measurements. DESIGN/SETTING: A survey compared data sources for the ability to provide subcounty (eg, census tract [CT]) depression prevalence estimates...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317190/normal-pelvic-ultrasound-or-mri-does-not-rule-out-neoplasm-in-patients-with-gonadal-dysgenesis-and-y-chromosome-material
#4
Kristin M Ebert, Geri D Hewitt, Justin A Indyk, Katherine A McCracken, Leena Nahata, Venkata R Jayanthi
INTRODUCTION: Patients with gonadal dysgenesis (GD) with a Y chromosome have an increased risk of gonadal neoplasm. Few data exist on the ability of imaging to detect malignancy in intra-abdominal gonads in these patients. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the correlation between preoperative imaging findings and gonadal pathology in GD patients with Y chromosome material. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients with XY or XO/XY GD who underwent gonadectomy at our institution from 2003 to 2017...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300876/impact-of-dengue-vaccination-on-serological-diagnosis-insights-from-phase-iii-dengue-vaccine-efficacy-trials
#5
Eric Plennevaux, Annick Moureau, José L Arredondo-García, Luis Villar, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Ngoc H Tran, Matthew Bonaparte, Danaya Chansinghakul, Diana L Coronel, Maïna L'Azou, R Leon Ochiai, Myew-Ling Toh, Fernando Noriega, Alain Bouckenooghe
Background: We previously reported that vaccination with the tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV; Dengvaxia) may bias the diagnosis of dengue based on immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) assessments. Methods: We undertook a post hoc pooled analysis of febrile episodes that occurred during the active surveillance phase (the 25 months after the first study injection) of 2 pivotal phase III, placebo-controlled CYD-TDV efficacy studies that involved ≥31000 children aged 2-16 years across 10 countries in Asia and Latin America...
December 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300319/surveillance-of-foodborne-pathogens-towards-diagnostic-metagenomics-of-fecal-samples
#6
REVIEW
Sandra Christine Andersen, Jeffrey Hoorfar
Diagnostic metagenomics is a rapidly evolving laboratory tool for culture-independent tracing of foodborne pathogens. The method has the potential to become a generic platform for detection of most pathogens and many sample types. Today, however, it is still at an early and experimental stage. Studies show that metagenomic methods, from sample storage and DNA extraction to library preparation and shotgun sequencing, have a great influence on data output. To construct protocols that extract the complete metagenome but with minimal bias is an ongoing challenge...
January 4, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299879/injuries-in-field-hockey-players-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Saulo Delfino Barboza, Corey Joseph, Joske Nauta, Willem van Mechelen, Evert Verhagen
BACKGROUND: To commence injury prevention efforts, it is necessary to understand the magnitude of the injury problem. No systematic reviews have yet investigated the extent of injuries in field hockey, despite the popularity of the sport worldwide. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe the rate and severity of injuries in field hockey and investigate their characteristics. METHODS: We conducted electronic searches in PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290972/survival-benefits-of-gastrectomy-in-gastric-cancer-patients-with-stage-iv-a-population-based-study
#8
Xingkang He, Sanchuan Lai, Tingting Su, Yangyang Liu, Yue Ding, Sheng Quan, Jianmin Si, Leimin Sun
Objective: The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of gastrectomy for survival among metastatic gastric cancer patients. Results: We finally identified 12,986 eligible patients with stage IV GC between 2004 and 2012, including 1,981 (15.3%) patients with gastrectomy and 11,005 (84.7%) without surgery. The median overall survival time for patients with and without surgery were 9.0 (95%, 8.3-9.7) and 4.0 (95%, 3.9-4.1) months respectively. Patients who received gastrectomy had a significantly better survival outcome compared with those without surgery (P < 0...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290269/how-does-autoimmune-disease-impact-treatment-and-outcomes-among-patients-with-lung-cancer-a-national-seer-medicare-analysis
#9
Saad A Khan, Sandi L Pruitt, Lei Xuan, Una Makris, David E Gerber
BACKGROUND: The advent of cancer immunotherapy has made autoimmune disease in oncology populations clinically important. We analyzed the association of autoimmune disease with treatment and outcomes among lung cancer patients. METHODS: Using linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data, we identified lung cancer patients diagnosed between 1992 and 2009 with autoimmune diseases. We recorded number and timing of autoimmune disease diagnoses, lung cancer treatment, and markers of healthcare utilization including emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and outpatient visits...
January 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287969/association-between-symptomatic-versus-asymptomatic-recurrence-and-survival-in-bladder-cancer
#10
Chelsea K Osterman, Jaber Alanzi, James D Lewis, Elizabeth L Kaufman, Vivek Narayan, Ben Boursi, Ravy K Vajravelu, Frank I Scott, S Bruce Malkowicz, Ronac Mamtani
BACKGROUND: The benefit of surveillance after curative cystectomy in bladder cancer is unproven, but might be justified if detection of asymptomatic recurrence improves survival. Previous studies showing a benefit of surveillance might have been affected by lead-time or length-time bias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 463 cystectomy patients at the University of Pennsylvania. Patients were followed according to a standardized protocol and classified according to asymptomatic or symptomatic recurrence detection...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287074/coronary-angiography-is-related-to-improved-clinical-outcome-of-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-with-initial-non-shockable-rhythm
#11
Eunsil Ko, Ji Kyoung Shin, Won Chul Cha, Joo Hyun Park, Tae Rim Lee, Hee Yoon, Guntak Lee, Sung Yeon Hwang, Tae Gun Shin, Min Seob Sim, Ik Joon Jo, Joong Eui Rhee, Keun Jeong Song, Yeon Kwon Jeong, Sang Do Shin, Jin-Ho Choi
OBJECTIVE: Coronary angiography (CAG) for survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) enables early identification of coronary artery disease and revascularization, which might improve clinical outcome. However, little is known for the role of CAG in patients with initial non-shockable cardiac rhythm. METHODS: We investigated clinical outcomes of successfully resuscitated 670 adult OHCA patients who were transferred to 27 hospitals in Cardiac Arrest Pursuit Trial with Unique Registration and Epidemiologic Surveillance (CAPTURES), a Korean nationwide multicenter registry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279613/the-dawn-of-vaccines-for-cancer-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Olivera J Finn
An important role of the immune system is in the surveillance for abnormal or transformed cells, which is known as cancer immunosurveillance. Through this process, the first changes to normal tissue homeostasis caused by infectious or other inflammatory insults can be detected by the immune system through the recognition of antigenic molecules (including tumour antigens) expressed by abnormal cells. However, as they develop, tumour cells can acquire antigenic and other changes that allow them to escape elimination by the immune system...
December 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276976/behavioural-phenotypes-in-mice-after-prenatal-and-early-postnatal-exposure-to-intermediate-frequency-magnetic-fields
#13
Kajal Kumari, Hennariikka Koivisto, Capstick Myles, Naarala Jonne, Viluksela Matti, Tanila Heikki, Juutilainen Jukka
Electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in the environment. Human exposure to intermediate frequency (IF) fields is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems, wireless power transfer, and induction heating cooking hobs. However, there are limited data on possible health effects of exposure to IF magnetic fields (MF). In the present study, we set out to assess cognitive and behavioural effects of IF MF in mice exposed during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Pregnant female mice were exposed continuously to 7...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258917/clostridium-difficile-classification-overestimates-hospital-acquired-infections
#14
Angus McLure, Archie C A Clements, Martyn Kirk, Kathryn Glass
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections are common among hospitalised patients, with some infections acquired in hospital and others in the community. International guidelines classify cases as hospital-acquired if symptom onset occurs >2 days after admission. This classification informs surveillance and infection control, but has not been verified by empirical or modelling studies. AIMS: To assess current classification of C. difficile acquisition using a simulation model as a gold standard...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247982/ultrasound-surveillance-for-cholangiocarcinoma-in-an-endemic-area-provided-survival-benefits
#15
Surachate Siripongsakun, Sirachat Vidhyarkorn, Sirivipa Charuswattanakul, Poemlarp Mekraksakit, Prakongboon Sungkasubun, Nuphat Yodkhunnathum, Sutthirak Tangruangkiat, Napat Ritlumlert, Thaniya Sricharunrat, Sirima Jaroenpatarapesaj, Kamonwan Soonklang, Anond Kulthanmanusorn, Chirayu U Auewarakul, Chulabhorn Mahidol
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive malignancy with rapid progression and poor prognosis. Abdominal ultrasound surveillance may detect early-stage malignancy and improve surgical outcome. However, little data exists on the benefits of abdominal ultrasound surveillance in populations at high risk for CCA development in an endemic area. This study compared survival outcomes of CCA patients recruited through abdominal ultrasound surveillance program and those presented to the hospital independent of surveillance...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247082/healthcare-resource-availability-and-cardiovascular-health-in-the-usa
#16
Courtney S Pilkerton, Sarah S Singh, Thomas K Bias, Stephanie J Frisbee
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Reducing the population-level burden of CVD disease will require a better understanding and support of cardiovascular health (CVH) in individuals and entire communities. The objectives for this study were to examine associations between community-level healthcare resources (HCrRes) and CVH in individuals and entire communities. SETTING: This study consisted of a retrospective, cross-sectional study design, using multivariable epidemiological analyses...
December 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240786/time-trend-analysis-2009-2016-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolated-in-italy-following-the-introduction-of-the-combined-antimicrobial-therapy
#17
Paola Stefanelli, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Maria Paola Landini, Ivano Dal Conte, Alberto Matteelli, Antonio Cristaudo, Marina Gaino, Marco Cusini, Anna Maria Barbui, Antonella Mencacci, Rosella De Nittis, Valeria Ghisetti, Elena Stroppiana, Anna Carannante
INTRODUCTION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) antimicrobial susceptibility trends to azithromycin, cefixime and ceftriaxone were analyzed, from 2009 to 2016, to monitor changing antimicrobial susceptibility concomitant with the change in prescribing practice in 2012 from cefixime, or ceftriaxone, to ceftriaxone plus azithromycin. Patient characteristics predictive to be infected by antibiotic resistant N. gonorrhoeae were estimated. Finally, the protocol for the treatment of gonorrhoea, in comparison with the international guidelines, was also evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239131/finasteride-treatment-and-male-breast-cancer-a-register-based-cohort-study-in-four-nordic-countries
#18
Mathias Meijer, Lau Caspar Thygesen, Anders Green, Martha Emneus, Klaus Brasso, Peter Iversen, Eero Pukkala, Kristian Bolin, Knut Stavem, Annette K Ersbøll
A potential link has been suggested between dispensed finasteride and increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). Due to the rare occurrence of MBC, it remains to be established if such a relationship exists. The purpose of this study was to combine nationwide registers in four countries to assess the potential association between dispensed finasteride and MBC. A cohort of all males with dispensed finasteride in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden (1,365,088 person years) was followed up for up to 15 years for breast cancer, and compared to a cohort of males unexposed to finasteride...
December 13, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232871/thin-film-quantum-dot-photodiode-for-monolithic-infrared-image-sensors
#19
Pawel E Malinowski, Epimitheas Georgitzikis, Jorick Maes, Ioanna Vamvaka, Fortunato Frazzica, Jan Van Olmen, Piet De Moor, Paul Heremans, Zeger Hens, David Cheyns
Imaging in the infrared wavelength range has been fundamental in scientific, military and surveillance applications. Currently, it is a crucial enabler of new industries such as autonomous mobility (for obstacle detection), augmented reality (for eye tracking) and biometrics. Ubiquitous deployment of infrared cameras (on a scale similar to visible cameras) is however prevented by high manufacturing cost and low resolution related to the need of using image sensors based on flip-chip hybridization. One way to enable monolithic integration is by replacing expensive, small-scale III-V-based detector chips with narrow bandgap thin-films compatible with 8- and 12-inch full-wafer processing...
December 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232689/a-computational-model-for-regulation-of-nanoscale-glucan-exposure-in-candida-albicans
#20
Michael J Wester, Jia Lin, Aaron K Neumann
Candida albicans is a virulent human opportunistic pathogen. It evades innate immune surveillance by masking an immunogenic cell wall polysaccharide, β-glucan, from recognition by the immunoreceptor Dectin-1. Glucan unmasking by the antifungal drug caspofungin leads to changes in the nanostructure of glucan exposure accessible to Dectin-1. The physical mechanism that regulates glucan exposure is poorly understood, but it controls the nanobiology of fungal pathogen recognition. We created computational models to simulate hypothetical physical processes of unmasking glucan in a biologically realistic distribution of cell wall glucan fibrils...
2017: PloS One
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