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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725217/metagenomics-the-next-culture-independent-game-changer
#1
REVIEW
Jessica D Forbes, Natalie C Knox, Jennifer Ronholm, Franco Pagotto, Aleisha Reimer
A trend towards the abandonment of obtaining pure culture isolates in frontline laboratories is at a crossroads with the ability of public health agencies to perform their basic mandate of foodborne disease surveillance and response. The implementation of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) including nucleic acid and antigen-based assays for acute gastroenteritis is leaving public health agencies without laboratory evidence to link clinical cases to each other and to food or environmental substances...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723959/a-novel-surveillance-approach-for-disaster-mental-health
#2
Oliver Gruebner, Sarah R Lowe, Martin Sykora, Ketan Shankardass, S V Subramanian, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. Social media data present an opportunity for mental health surveillance after disasters to help identify areas of mental health needs. We aimed to 1) identify specific basic emotions from Twitter for the greater New York City area during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and to 2) detect and map spatial temporal clusters representing excess risk of these emotions. METHODS: We applied an advanced sentiment analysis on 344,957 Twitter tweets in the study area over eleven days, from October 22 to November 1, 2012, to extract basic emotions, a space-time scan statistic (SaTScan) and a geographic information system (QGIS) to detect and map excess risk of these emotions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721858/detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-in-the-tissues-of-asymptomatic-pigs-in-smallholder-farming-systems-along-the-kenya-uganda-border-implications-for-transmission-in-endemic-areas-and-asf-surveillance-in-east-africa
#3
Edward Okoth Abworo, Cynthia Onzere, Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Victor Riitho, Waithaka Mwangi, Jocelyn Davies, Sandra Blome, Richard Peter Bishop
The persistence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in endemic areas, with small-scale but regular outbreaks in domestic pigs, is not well understood. ASFV has not been detected using conventional diagnosis in these pigs or adjacent populations of resistant African wild pigs, that could act as potential carriers during the outbreaks. However, such data are crucial for the design of evidence-based control strategies. We conducted cross-sectional (1107 pigs) and longitudinal (100 pigs) monitoring of ASFV prevalence in local pigs in Kenya and Uganda...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721069/the-effect-of-circulating-mir-223-on-surveillance-of-different-cancers-a-meta-analysis
#4
Yunfeng Zhang, Jinbo Lin, Wenjie Huang, Yong Cao, Yi Liu, Tieqiang Wang, Weiyi Zhong, Dongli Wang, Rongrong Mao, Xiaoliang Chen
PURPOSE: Abnormal expression of miR-223 in cancerous tissue has confirmed it as an important player in tumorigenesis of cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, osteosarcoma, gastric cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The present meta-analysis aimed to explore the association between circulating miR-223 and prognosis of cancers. METHODS: The studies were accessed by an electronic search of multiple databases. RevMan5.3 and STATA14...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720556/ecological-momentary-assessment-of-physical-activity-validation-study
#5
Gregory Knell, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Michael S Businelle, Kerem Shuval, David W Wetter, Darla E Kendzor
BACKGROUND: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) may elicit physical activity (PA) estimates that are less prone to bias than traditional self-report measures while providing context. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the convergent validity of EMA-assessed PA compared with accelerometry. METHODS: The participants self-reported their PA using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and wore an accelerometer while completing daily EMAs (delivered through the mobile phone) for 7 days...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712790/prognostic-factors-for-tumor-recurrence-in-patients-with-clinical-stage-i-seminoma-undergoing-surveillance-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Friedemann Zengerling, Frank Kunath, Katrin Jensen, Christian Ruf, Stefanie Schmidt, Annabel Spek
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate evidence on prognostic factors for tumor recurrence in patients with clinical stage I seminoma undergoing surveillance. METHODS: Systematic literature search conducted of Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and the conference proceedings of the ASCO, AUA, and EAU meetings (last search: October 2016), according to our prospectively registered protocol (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014009434). Identified records were reviewed according to the Cochrane Method Group of Prognosis Reviews recommendations and the PRISMA reporting guideline...
July 13, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708471/use-of-bisphosphonates-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-a-french-cohort-of-postmenopausal-women
#7
Agnès Fournier, Sylvie Mesrine, Amandine Gelot, Guy Fagherazzi, Laura Baglietto, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet
Purpose To assess whether bisphosphonate (BP) use is associated with decreased breast cancer incidence in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Methods The study population included 64,438 postmenopausal women participating in the French E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) prospective cohort, with data self-reported in biennial questionnaires matched with data from a drug reimbursement database. Exposure to BPs and the use of other osteoporosis treatments during follow-up were determined using reimbursement data...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704362/local-and-global-genetic-diversity-of-protozoan-parasites-spatial-distribution-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-genotypes
#8
Juan C Garcia-R, Nigel French, Anthony Pita, Niluka Velathanthiri, Rima Shrestha, David Hayman
Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are recognized as significant enteric diseases due to their long-term health effects in humans and their economic impact in agriculture and medical care. Molecular analysis is essential to identify species and genotypes causing these infectious diseases and provides a potential tool for monitoring. This study uses information on species and genetic variants to gain insights into the geographical distribution and spatial patterns of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites. Here, we describe the population heterogeneity of genotypic groups within Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in New Zealand using gp60 and gdh markers to compare the observed variation with other countries around the globe...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693428/inverse-probability-of-treatment-weighted-competing-risks-analysis-an-application-on-long-term-risk-of-urinary-adverse-events-after-prostate-cancer-treatments
#9
Charlotte A Bolch, Haitao Chu, Stephanie Jarosek, Stephen R Cole, Sean Elliott, Beth Virnig
BACKGROUND: To illustrate the 10-year risks of urinary adverse events (UAEs) among men diagnosed with prostate cancer and treated with different types of therapy, accounting for the competing risk of death. METHODS: Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy among adult males in the United States. Few studies have reported the long-term post-treatment risk of UAEs and those that have, have not appropriately accounted for competing deaths. This paper conducts an inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weighted competing risks analysis to estimate the effects of different prostate cancer treatments on the risk of UAE, using a matched-cohort of prostate cancer/non-cancer control patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Medicare database...
July 10, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686715/use-of-multiple-data-sources-to-estimate-hepatitis-c-seroprevalence-among-prisoners-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Kathryn J Snow, Alun H Richards, Stuart A Kinner
Hepatitis C is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Prisoners are a key population for hepatitis C control programs, and with the advent of highly effective therapies, prisons are increasingly important sites for hepatitis C diagnosis and treatment. Accurate estimates of hepatitis C prevalence among prisoners are needed in order to plan and resource service provision, however many prevalence estimates are based on surveys compromised by limited and potentially biased participation. We aimed to compare estimates derived from three different data sources, and to assess whether the use of self-report as a supplementary data source may help researchers assess the risk of selection bias...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685503/interventions-to-prevent-occupational-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#11
REVIEW
Christina Tikka, Jos H Verbeek, Erik Kateman, Thais C Morata, Wouter A Dreschler, Silvia Ferrite
BACKGROUND: This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or occupational hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions...
July 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679418/transitioning-from-antenatal-surveillance-surveys-to-routine-hiv-testing-a-turning-point-in-the-mother-to-child-transmission-prevention-programme-for-hiv-surveillance-in-brazil
#12
Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Meritxell Sabidó, Alessandro Caruso, Adele Schwartz Benzaken
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, due to the rapid increase in programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), routine programme data are widely available. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of programmatic data to replace HIV surveillance based on the antenatal care (ANC) surveillance survey (SS). METHODS: We analysed ANC SS data from 219 maternity service clinics. PMTCT variables were extracted from the ANC SS data collection form, which allowed us to capture and compare the ANC SS data and PMTCT HIV test results for each pregnant woman who completed the ANC SS...
July 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674736/the-impact-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-on-90-day-outcomes-following-major-orthopaedic-surgery-a-propensity-matched-analysis
#13
Ritam Chowdhury, Muhammad Ali Chaudhary, Daniel J Sturgeon, Wei Jiang, Allan L Yau, Tracey P Koehlmoos, Adil H Haider, Andrew J Schoenfeld
INTRODUCTION: The impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on outcomes following major orthopaedic interventions, such as joint arthroplasty or spine surgery, has not been effectively studied in the past. Most prior studies are impaired by small samples, limited surveillance for adverse events, or the potential for selection bias to confound results. In this context, we sought to evaluate the impact of HCV infection on 90-day outcomes following joint arthroplasty or spine surgery using propensity-matched techniques...
July 3, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662204/validation-of-an-algorithm-to-identify-children-with-biopsy-proven-celiac-disease-from-within-health-administrative-data-an-assessment-of-health-services-utilization-patterns-in-ontario-canada
#14
Jason Chan, David R Mack, Douglas G Manuel, Nassim Mojaverian, Joseph de Nanassy, Eric I Benchimol
IMPORTANCE: Celiac disease (CD) is a common pediatric illness, and awareness of gluten-related disorders including CD is growing. Health administrative data represents a unique opportunity to conduct population-based surveillance of this chronic condition and assess the impact of caring for children with CD on the health system. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to validate an algorithm based on health administrative data diagnostic codes to accurately identify children with biopsy-proven CD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653290/cardiovascular-complications-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Dipti Gupta, Chadi Salmane, Susan Slovin, Richard M Steingart
Prostate cancer is a common hormone-sensitive malignancy, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a cornerstone of therapy in advanced disease. The most important and controversial of ADT side effects is cardiovascular (CV) toxicity. Prospective trials have demonstrated that ADT increases CV risk by lowering insulin sensitivity, causing dyslipidemia, and causing weight gain thus mimicking metabolic syndrome. Retrospective data suggests that ADT increases CV risk; however, data on cardiovascular mortality is equivocal...
August 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652821/hiv-risk-and-barriers-to-care-for-african-born-immigrant-women-a-sociocultural-outlook
#16
Olihe N Okoro, Shanasha O Whitson
BACKGROUND: Data from the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2015 show that African-born (AB) women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. In 2015, these women accounted for more than half (54%) of all new cases of HIV reported among females in Minnesota and 34% of all known female cases in the state. This study was a needs assessment for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in vulnerable subgroups within the AB population and adequacy of HIV care for AB persons...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651513/the-performance-of-flash-glucose-monitoring-in-critically-ill-patients-with-diabetes
#17
Paolo Ancona, Glenn M Eastwood, Luca Lucchetta, Elif I Ekinci, Rinaldo Bellomo, Johan Mårtensson
OBJECTIVE: Frequent glucose monitoring may improve glycaemic control in critically ill patients with diabetes. We aimed to assess the accuracy of a novel subcutaneous flash glucose monitor (FreeStyle Libre [Abbott Diabetes Care]) in these patients. METHODS: We applied the FreeStyle Libre sensor to the upper arm of eight patients with diabetes in the intensive care unit and obtained hourly flash glucose measurements. Duplicate recordings were obtained to assess test-retest reliability...
June 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645518/blood-gas-analyzer-accuracy-of-glucose-measurements
#18
Yafen Liang, Jonathan Wanderer, James H Nichols, David Klonoff, Mark J Rice
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the comparability of glucose levels measured with blood gas analyzers (BGAs) and by central laboratories (CLs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Glucose measurements obtained between June 1, 2007, and March 1, 2016, at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center were reviewed. The agreement between CL and BGA results were assessed using Bland-Altman, consensus error grid (CEG), and surveillance error grid (SEG) analyses. We further analyzed the BGAs' performance against the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2014 draft guidance and 2016 final guidance for blood glucose monitoring and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 standard...
July 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631295/an-em-algorithm-for-nonparametric-estimation-of-the-cumulative-incidence-function-from-repeated-imperfect-test-results
#19
Birgit I Witte, Johannes Berkhof, Marianne A Jonker
In screening and surveillance studies, event times are interval censored. Besides, screening tests are imperfect so that the interval at which an event takes place may be uncertain. We describe an expectation-maximization algorithm to find the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of the cumulative incidence function of an event based on screening test data. Our algorithm has a closed-form solution for the combined expectation and maximization step and is computationally undemanding. A simulation study indicated that the bias of the estimator tends to zero for large sample size, and its mean squared error is in general lower than the mean squared error of the estimator that assumes the screening test is perfect...
June 20, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606821/analysis-of-synonymous-codon-usage-in-zika-virus
#20
Snawar Hussain, Sahibzada Tasleem Rasool
Zika virus is a zoonotic pathogen, which have made frequent incursion into the human population in Africa and South East Asia over the course of several decades but never reached to the pandemic proportions until the most recent outbreak. Viruses are solely dependent on host synthetic machinery for their replication cycle; therefore, replication and persistence in a host species of different genetic background requires certain degree of adaptation. These adaptations are necessary to avoid detection from host immune surveillance and maximize the utilization of available resources for efficient viral replication...
June 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
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