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Surveillance bias

Alex J Elliot, Helen E Hughes, John Astbury, Grainne Nixon, Kate Brierley, Roberto Vivancos, Thomas Inns, Valerie Decraene, Katherine Platt, Iain Lake, Sarah J O'Brien, Gillian E Smith
During August 2015, a boil water notice (BWN) was issued across parts of North West England following the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the public water supply. Using prospective syndromic surveillance, we detected statistically significant increases in the presentation of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea to general practitioner services and related calls to the national health telephone advice service in those areas affected by the BWN. In the affected areas, average in-hours general practitioner consultations for gastroenteritis increased by 24...
October 13, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Paul J Planet, Apurva Narechania, Liang Chen, Barun Mathema, Sam Boundy, Gordon Archer, Barry Kreiswirth
A deluge of whole-genome sequencing has begun to give insights into the patterns and processes of microbial evolution, but genome sequences have accrued in a haphazard manner, with biased sampling of natural variation that is driven largely by medical and epidemiological priorities. For instance, there is a strong bias for sequencing epidemic lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over sensitive isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus: MSSA). As more diverse genomes are sequenced the emerging picture is of a highly subdivided species with a handful of relatively clonal groups (complexes) that, at any given moment, dominate in particular geographical regions...
October 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
Mary Adams
BACKGROUND: Limited study has been done on proxy responses for non-respondents with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). OBJECTIVE: To directly compare results for survey respondents with SCD with those for proxies provided for non-respondents with SCD. METHODS: Publicly available 2011 BRFSS data from 120,485 households in 21 states were analyzed using Stata. Respondents ages 40 and older with SCD (n = 10,831) were compared with proxy responses for non-respondents ages 40 and older with SCD (n = 4296) living in households where the respondent did not have SCD...
September 13, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
Yoo Jee Hee, Chang Seok Bang, Gwang Ho Baik, In Soo Shin, Ki Tae Suk, Tae Young Park, Dong Joon Kim
PURPOSE: Colorectal neoplasm and ischemic heart disease (IHD) share common risk factors. However, clinical guidance about screening or surveillance of colorectal neoplasm in patients with IHD has not been made. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IHD and the development of colorectal neoplasm. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using the core databases (MEDLINE through PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library). The data about the association between IHD and the development of colorectal neoplasm were extracted and analyzed using odds ratio (OR)...
2016: SpringerPlus
Satoshi Oeda, Shinji Iwane, Mitsuhiro Takasaki, Naoko E Furukawa, Taiga Otsuka, Yuichiro Eguchi, Keizo Anzai
Objective To manage patients with viral hepatitis, it is important to screen for hepatitis, conduct a comprehensive examination if such screening is positive, administer antiviral treatment, and conduct surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The proper execution of this strategy is expected to effectively reduce the number of deaths from viral hepatitis. Such an "optimal" follow-up for HCC surveillance is therefore important. This study aimed to determine the benefits of performing an optimal follow-up of patients with viral hepatitis...
2016: Internal Medicine
Maya Sabatello, S Appelbaum
This paper considers the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the prospect of increasing use of psychiatric genetic data in child custody litigation. Although genetic tests cannot currently confirm a parent or child's psychiatric diagnosis, it is likely that as relevant findings emerge, they will be introduced in family courts to challenge parental capacity. Here, we draw on three projected, but plausible, scenarios for obtaining psychiatric data about parents -- imposed genetic testing, access to medical records, and genetic theft -- then consider the use of psychiatric genetic data of children, to highlight the issues that judges, child custody evaluators, and clinicians who may provide treatment for parents or children with mental health issues will need to consider...
September 2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
Jennifer K Knapp, Mark L Wilson, Susan Murray, Matthew L Boulton
BACKGROUND: Pertussis is a potentially serious respiratory illness characterized by cough of exceptionally long duration of up to approximately100 days. While macrolide antibiotics are an effective treatment, there is an ongoing debate whether they also shorten the length of cough symptoms. We investigated whether public health surveillance data for pertussis, in which cases are identified at diagnosis, are potentially affected by selection bias and the possible consequences for reported cough duration...
September 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Simon Graham, Mary-Ellen Harrod, Jenny Iversen, Jane Simone Hocking
CONTEXT: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) account for approximately 3% of the Australian population. They have the poorest health, economic and social outcomes. Higher notification rates of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV) have been reported among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people. The identification of Aboriginal people in national surveillance has some weaknesses, with only four of the eight jurisdictions included in national reporting. To address some of these limitations, we aim to estimate the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in Australia...
July 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
Matthew Gittins, Roseanne McNamee, Fiona Holland, Lesley-Anne Carter
OBJECTIVE: Accurate estimation of the true incidence of ill-health is a goal of many surveillance systems. In surveillance schemes including zero reporting to remove ambiguity with non-response, reporter fatigue might increase the likelihood of a false zero case report in turn underestimating the true incidence rate and creating a biased downward trend over time. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial models were fitted to incidence case reports of three surveillance schemes running between 1996 and 2012 in the UK...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Geoffrey P Whitfield, Emily N Ussery, Brian Riordan, Arthur M Wendel
Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Daryl Michal Freedman, Jincao Wu, Honglei Chen, Ralph W Kuncl, Lindsey R Enewold, Eric A Engels, Neal D Freedman, Ruth M Pfeiffer
Several studies have reported bidirectional inverse associations between cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study evaluates these relationships in a Medicare population. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) linked to Medicare data, 1992-2005, we evaluated cancer risks following AD in a case-control study of 836,947 cancer cases and 142,869 controls as well as AD risk after cancer in 742,809 cancer patients and a non-cancer group of 420,518. We applied unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs)...
September 14, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Leslie A Sim, Jocelyn Lebow, Zhen Wang, Afton Koball, M Hassan Murad
CONTEXT: Although practice guidelines suggest that primary care providers working with children and adolescents incorporate BMI surveillance and counseling into routine practice, the evidence base for this practice is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of brief, primary care interventions for pediatric weight management on BMI. DATA SOURCES: Medline, CENTRAL, Embase, PsycInfo, and CINAHL were searched for relevant publications from January 1976 to March 2016 and cross-referenced with published studies...
September 12, 2016: Pediatrics
Hélène Théophile, Nicholas Moore, Philip Robinson, Bernard Bégaud, Antoine Pariente
INTRODUCTION: The case-population approach compares exposure among cases to that of their source population. By using aggregated data to estimate the denominator, this approach can provide a real-time estimate of an association that could be particularly valuable to explore urgent vaccine safety concerns and to generate signals during a vaccine campaign. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to present the vaccine case-population method, a method derived from the case-population approach and adapted for vaccine safety surveillance, and to test it using several published examples...
September 9, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Daniel C Beachler, Eric A Engels
Importance: Chronic sinusitis may be involved in the etiology of certain head and neck cancers (HNCs), due to immunodeficiency or inflammation. However, the risk of specific HNCs among people with chronic sinusitis is largely unknown. Objective: To evaluate the associations of chronic sinusitis with subsequent HNC, including nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OPC), and nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer (NCPSC), in an elderly US population...
September 8, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Elisabeth Dowling Root, Marilla Lucero, Hanna Nohynek, Rebecca Stubbs, Veronica Tallo, Socorro P Lupisan, Diozele M Sanvictores, Leilani T Nillos, Eric A F Simões
BACKGROUND: Both vaccine trials and surveillance studies typically use passive surveillance systems to monitor study outcomes, which may lead to under-reporting of study outcomes in areas with poor access to care. This detection bias can have an adverse effect on conventional estimates of pneumonia risk derived from vaccine trials. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind vaccine trial that examined the efficacy of an 11-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) among children less than 2 years of age in Bohol, Philippines...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
S Reza Jafarzadeh, Benjamin S Thomas, Jeff Gill, Victoria J Fraser, Jonas Marschall, David K Warren
PURPOSE: Past studies of sepsis epidemiology did not address misclassification bias due to imperfect verification of sepsis detection methods to estimate the true prevalence. METHODS: We examined 273,126 hospitalizations from 2008 to 2012 at a tertiary-care center to develop surveillance-aimed sepsis detection criteria, based on the presence of the sepsis-explicit International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes (995.92 or 785...
August 20, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Sheena G Sullivan, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Benjamin J Cowling
Influenza viruses undergo frequent antigenic changes. As a result, the viruses circulating change within and between seasons, and the composition of the influenza vaccine is updated annually. Thus, estimation of the vaccine's effectiveness is not constant across seasons. In order to provide annual estimates of the influenza vaccine's effectiveness, health departments have increasingly adopted the "test-negative design," using enhanced data from routine surveillance systems. In this design, patients presenting to participating general practitioners with influenza-like illness are swabbed for laboratory testing; those testing positive for influenza virus are defined as cases, and those testing negative form the comparison group...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
William Moir, Rachel Zeig-Owens, Robert D Daniels, Charles B Hall, Mayris P Webber, Nadia Jaber, James H Yiin, Theresa Schwartz, Xiaoxue Liu, Madeline Vossbrinck, Kerry Kelly, David J Prezant
BACKGROUND: We previously reported a modest excess of cancer in World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters versus the general population. This study aimed to separate the potential carcinogenic effects of firefighting and WTC exposure by comparing to a cohort of non-WTC-exposed firefighters. METHODS: Relative rates (RRs) for all cancers combined and individual cancer subtypes from 9/11/2001 to 12/31/2009 were modeled using Poisson regression comparing 11,457 WTC-exposed firefighters to 8,220 urban non-WTC-exposed firefighters...
September 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Caroline Main, Simon P Stevens, Simon Bailey, Robert Phillips, Barry Pizer, Keith Wheatley, Pamela R Kearns, Martin English, Sophie Wilne, Jayne S Wilson
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of routine MRI surveillance to detect tumour recurrence in children with no new neurological signs or symptoms compared with alternative follow-up practices, including periodic clinical and physical examinations and the use of non-routine imaging upon presentation with disease signs or symptoms. METHODS: Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Colin J Carlson, Eric R Dougherty, Wayne Getz
The current outbreak of Zika virus poses a severe threat to human health. While the range of the virus has been cataloged growing slowly over the last 50 years, the recent explosive expansion in the Americas indicates that the full potential distribution of Zika remains uncertain. Moreover, many studies rely on its similarity to dengue fever, a phylogenetically closely related disease of unknown ecological comparability. Here we compile a comprehensive spatially-explicit occurrence dataset from Zika viral surveillance and serological surveys based in its native range, and construct ecological niche models to test basic hypotheses about its spread and potential establishment...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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