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Surveillance bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782079/the-dipep-diagnosis-of-pe-in-pregnancy-study-an-observational-study-of-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-clinical-assessment-d-dimer-and-chest-x-ray-for-suspected-pulmonary-embolism-in-pregnancy-and-postpartum
#1
Steve Goodacre, Kimberley Horspool, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Marian Knight, Neil Shephard, Fiona Lecky, Steven Thomas, Beverley J Hunt, Gordon Fuller
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical features associated with PE diagnosis and determine the accuracy of decision rules and D-dimer for diagnosing suspected PE in pregnant/postpartum women. DESIGN: Observational cohort study augmented with additional cases. SETTING: Emergency departments and maternity units at eleven prospectively recruiting sites and maternity units in the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). POPULATION: 324 pregnant/postpartum women with suspected PE and 198 pregnant/postpartum women with diagnosed PE...
May 21, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771795/the-effect-of-peer-support-on-colorectal-cancer-patients-adherence-to-guideline-concordant-multidisciplinary-care
#2
Arielle E Kanters, Arden M Morris, Paul H Abrahamse, Lona Mody, Pasithorn A Suwanabol
BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary care is critical for the successful treatment of stage III colorectal cancer, yet receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy remains unacceptably low. Peer support, or exposure to others treated for colorectal cancer, has been proposed as a means to improve patient acceptance of cancer care. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of peer support on the attitudes of patients with colorectal cancer toward chemotherapy and their adherence to it...
May 15, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768660/validation-of-a-computerized-algorithm-to-quantify-fetal-heart-rate-deceleration-area
#3
Erika Gyllencreutz, Ke Lu, Kaj Lindecrantz, Pelle G Lindqvist, Lennart Nordstrom, Malin Holzmann, Farhad Abtahi
INTRODUCTION: Reliability in visual cardiotocography interpretation is unsatisfying, which has led to development of computerized cardiotocography. Computerized analysis is well established for antenatal fetal surveillance, but has yet not performed sufficiently during labor. We aimed to investigate the capacity of a new computerized algorithm compared to visual assessment in identifying intrapartum fetal heart rate baseline and decelerations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three-hundred-and-twelve intrapartum cardiotocography tracings with variable decelerations were analysed by the computerized algorithm and visually examined by two observers, blinded to each other and the computer analysis...
May 16, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757886/perioperative-lidocaine-infusions-for-the-prevention-of-chronic-post-surgical-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-efficacy-and-safety
#4
Martin Bailey, Tomas Corcoran, Stephan Schug, Andrew Toner
Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) occurs in 12% of surgical populations and is a high priority for perioperative research. Systemic lidocaine may modulate several of the pathophysiological processes linked to CPSP. This systematic review aims to identify and synthesize the evidence linking lidocaine infusions and CPSP.The authors conducted a systematic literature search of the major medical databases from inception until October 2017. Trials that randomized adults without baseline pain to perioperative lidocaine infusion or placebo were included if they reported on CPSP...
May 11, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746978/clinical-studies-of-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-antivenoms
#5
David J Williams, Abdulrazaq G Habib, David A Warrell
In the 1890s, hyperimmune sera proved effective in animals against challenge by the snake venom against which they had been raised. They were first used, apparently successfully, in a human patient in about 1895. Since then, antivenoms have become accepted as the only reliable specific treatment for snake-bite envenoming. Despite decades of accumulated clinical experience and a number of published randomised comparative and observational studies, the clinical effectiveness and safety of some antivenoms remain open to question, due to a lack of robust randomised controlled trial data...
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746507/feasibility-of-using-postal-and-web-based-surveys-to-estimate-the-prevalence-of-tuberculosis-among-health-care-workers-in-south-africa
#6
Pinky N Manana, Lazarus Kuonza, Alfred Musekiwa, Hendrik Koornhof, Ananta Nanoo, Nazir Ismail
INTRODUCTION: Health Care Workers (HCWs) are among the highest risk groups for contracting tuberculosis (TB), which is ranked the third most common occupational health disease in South Africa. Little is known about the true extent of the burden of TB among South African HCWs and current surveillance approaches are inadequate. The study aimed to determine the feasibility of using postal and web-based surveys accessed through registries of registered professionals to estimate the prevalence of TB among HCWs in South Africa...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744601/asymptomatic-recurrence-detection-and-cost-effectiveness-in-urothelial-carcinoma
#7
REVIEW
Hiromichi Iwamura, Shingo Hatakeyama, Makoto Sato, Chikara Ohyama
For the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer or upper tract urothelial carcinoma, the set guidelines recommend regular surveillance after radical cystectomy or radical nephroureterectomy. However, the prognostic benefit of regular oncological surveillance remains controversial in the absence of prospective studies although several retrospective studies with relatively large sample sizes have demonstrated the association between asymptomatic recurrence and better oncological outcomes. Seven out of eight studies reported that patients diagnosed with symptomatic recurrence showed significantly poorer prognosis in comparison to those diagnosed with asymptomatic recurrence...
May 9, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730905/assessment-of-the-surveillance-interval-at-1-year-after-curative-treatment-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-stratification
#8
Minjong Lee, Young Chang, Sohee Oh, Young Youn Cho, Dhong-Eun Jung, Hong Hyun Kim, Joon Yeul Nam, Hyeki Cho, Eun Ju Cho, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Su Jong Yu, Nam-Joon Yi, Kwang-Woong Lee, Dong Ho Lee, Jeong Min Lee, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Kyung-Suk Suh, Yoonjun Kim
Background/Aims: Guidelines recommend surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence at 3-month intervals during the first year after curative treatment and 6-month intervals thereafter in all patients. This strategy does not reflect individual risk of recurrence. We aimed to stratify risk of recurrence to optimize surveillance intervals during the first year after treatment. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 1,316 HCC patients treated with resection/radiofrequency ablation at Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0/A...
May 4, 2018: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717943/cox-regression-analysis-with-missing-covariates-via-nonparametric-multiple-imputation
#9
Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, Mandi Yu
We consider the situation of estimating Cox regression in which some covariates are subject to missing, and there exists additional information (including observed event time, censoring indicator and fully observed covariates) which may be predictive of the missing covariates. We propose to use two working regression models: one for predicting the missing covariates and the other for predicting the missing probabilities. For each missing covariate observation, these two working models are used to define a nearest neighbor imputing set...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715680/effect-of-african-american-race-on-cancer-specific-mortality-differs-according-to-clear-cell-vs-non-clear-cell-histologic-subtype-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Michele Marchioni, Sabrina S Harmouch, Sebastiano Nazzani, Marco Bandini, Felix Preisser, Zhe Tian, Anil Kapoor, Luca Cindolo, Alberto Briganti, Shahrokh F Shariat, Luigi Schips, Pierre I Karakiewicz
AIM: To test the effect of African-American race on cancer specific mortality (CSM) in clear cell metastatic renal cell carcinoma (ccmRCC) and non-ccmRCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Within Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry (2001-2014), we identified patients with ccmRCC and non-ccmRCC. We relied on propensity score (PS) matching to reduce the effect of inherent differences between African-American vs. Caucasian patients. After PS matching that included access to cytoreductive nephrectomy (CNT), cumulative incidence, competing-risks regression (CRR) models and landmark analyses tested the effect of race on CSM...
April 28, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710235/national-institutes-of-health-pathways-to-prevention-workshop-methods-for-evaluating-natural-experiments-in-obesity
#11
Karen M Emmons, Chyke A Doubeni, Maria E Fernandez, Diana L Miglioretti, Jonathan M Samet
On 5 and 6 December 2017, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened the Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Methods for Evaluating Natural Experiments in Obesity to identify the status of methods for assessing natural experiments to reduce obesity, areas in which these methods could be improved, and research needs for advancing the field. This article considers findings from a systematic evidence review on methods for evaluating natural experiments in obesity, workshop presentations by experts and stakeholders, and public comment...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705770/post-treatment-surveillance-testing-of-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-and-the-association-with-survival-protocol-for-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-seer-medicare-database
#12
Robert B Hines, Md Jibanul Haque Jiban, Kanak Choudhury, Victoria Loerzel, Adrian V Specogna, Steven P Troy, Shunpu Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Although the colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rate has significantly improved over the past several decades, many patients will have a recurrence following curative treatment. Despite this high risk of recurrence, adherence to CRC surveillance testing guidelines is poor which increases cancer-related morbidity and potentially, mortality. Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with varying surveillance strategies have yielded conflicting evidence regarding the survival benefit associated with surveillance testing...
April 28, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689134/inferring-pathogen-dynamics-from-temporal-count-data-the-emergence-of-xylella-fastidiosa-in-france-is-probably-not-recent
#13
Samuel Soubeyrand, Pauline de Jerphanion, Olivier Martin, Mathilde Saussac, Charles Manceau, Pascal Hendrikx, Christian Lannou
Unravelling the ecological structure of emerging plant pathogens persisting in multi-host systems is challenging. In such systems, observations are often heterogeneous with respect to time, space and host species, and may lead to biases of perception. The biased perception of pathogen ecology may be exacerbated by hidden fractions of the whole host population, which may act as infection reservoirs. We designed a mechanistic-statistical approach to help understand the ecology of emerging pathogens by filtering out some biases of perception...
April 24, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689085/determining-the-scope-of-attacks-on-health-in-four-governorates-of-syria-in-2016-results-of-a-field-surveillance-program
#14
Rohini J Haar, Casey B Risko, Sonal Singh, Diana Rayes, Ahmad Albaik, Mohammed Alnajar, Mazen Kewara, Emily Clouse, Elise Baker, Leonard S Rubenstein
BACKGROUND: Violent attacks on and interferences with hospitals, ambulances, health workers, and patients during conflict destroy vital health services during a time when they are most needed and undermine the long-term capacity of the health system. In Syria, such attacks have been frequent and intense and represent grave violations of the Geneva Conventions, but the number reported has varied considerably. A systematic mechanism to document these attacks could assist in designing more protection strategies and play a critical role in influencing policy, promoting justice, and addressing the health needs of the population...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687467/estimating-lead-time-bias-in-lung-cancer-diagnosis-of-patients-with-previous-cancers
#15
Zhiyun Ge, Daniel F Heitjan, David E Gerber, Lei Xuan, Sandi L Pruitt
Surprisingly, survival from a diagnosis of lung cancer has been found to be longer for those who experienced a previous cancer than for those with no previous cancer. A possible explanation is lead-time bias, which, by advancing the time of diagnosis, apparently extends survival among those with a previous cancer even when they enjoy no real clinical advantage. We propose a discrete parametric model to jointly describe survival in a no-previous-cancer group (where, by definition, lead-time bias cannot exist) and in a previous-cancer group (where lead-time bias is possible)...
April 23, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673922/patient-reported-outcomes-after-treatment-for-clinically-localized-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Mónica Ávila, Laila Patel, Silvia López, Laura Cortés-Sanabria, Olatz Garin, Àngels Pont, Ferran Ferrer, Ana Boladeras, Victor Zamora, Sophie Fosså, Anne H Storås, Martin Sanda, Vicky Serra-Sutton, Montse Ferrer
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review is to assess the impact of primary treatments with curative intention in patients with localized prostate cancer, measured with Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs), and to examine differences among modalities within treatments. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search for January 2005-March 2017 following PRISMA guidelines, including longitudinal studies measuring disease-specific PROs in localized prostate cancer patients with a follow-up from pre- to post-treatment (≥1 year)...
April 3, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673539/methodological-considerations-and-future-insights-for-24-hour-dietary-recall-assessment-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Emma Foster, Jennifer Bradley
Dietary assessment has come under much criticism of late to the extent that it has been questioned whether self-reported methods of dietary assessment are worth doing at all. Widespread under-reporting of energy intake, limitations due to memory, changes to intake due to the burden of recording and social desirability bias all impact significantly on the accuracy of the dietary information collected. Under-reporting of energy intakes has long been recognized as a problem in dietary research with doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure uncovering significant under-reporting of energy intakes across different populations and different dietary assessment methods...
March 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666018/a-bayesian-evidence-synthesis-approach-to-estimate-disease-prevalence-in-hard-to-reach-populations-hepatitis-c-in-new-york-city
#18
Sarah Tan, Susanna Makela, Daliah Heller, Kevin Konty, Sharon Balter, Tian Zheng, James H Stark
Existing methods to estimate the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in New York City (NYC) are limited in scope and fail to assess hard-to-reach subpopulations with highest risk such as injecting drug users (IDUs). To address these limitations, we employ a Bayesian multi-parameter evidence synthesis model to systematically combine multiple sources of data, account for bias in certain data sources, and provide unbiased HCV prevalence estimates with associated uncertainty. Our approach improves on previous estimates by explicitly accounting for injecting drug use and including data from high-risk subpopulations such as the incarcerated, and is more inclusive, utilizing ten NYC data sources...
February 3, 2018: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644442/-current-aspects-of-the-definition-and-diagnosis-of-sepsis-and-antibiotic-resistance
#19
REVIEW
Frank M Brunkhorst, Petra Gastmeier, Muna Abu Sin
Hospital mortality of patients with secondary sepsis remains high at around 40%. Because of the methodological deficiencies of the definitions used so far, valid epidemiological data on secondary sepsis that allow for national and international comparisons are lacking. Since 2016, new clinical diagnostic tools that are also suitable for sepsis screening outside of intensive care units have been available. To counteract the high mortality of nosocomial sepsis, new approaches to the early identification of at-risk patients are needed...
May 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629806/comparative-effectiveness-of-transarterial-embolization-and-sorafenib-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-population-based-study
#20
Sharon W Kwan, William P Harris, Laura S Gold, Paul L Hebert
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness of embolization with that of sorafenib in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma as practiced in real-world settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population-based observational study was conducted with the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database. Patients 65 years old and older with a diagnosis of primary liver cancer between 2007 and 2011 who underwent embolization or sorafenib treatment were identified...
April 9, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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