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Surveillance bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891162/nutrition-surveillance-using-a-small-open-cohort-experience-from-burkina-faso
#1
Mathias Altmann, Christophe Fermanian, Boshen Jiao, Chiara Altare, Martin Loada, Mark Myatt
BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance remains generally weak and early warning systems are needed in areas with high burden of acute under-nutrition. In order to enhance insight into nutritional surveillance, a community-based sentinel sites approach, known as the Listening Posts (LP) Project, was piloted in Burkina Faso by Action Contre la Faim (ACF). This paper presents ACF's experience with the LP approach and investigates potential selection and observational biases. METHODS: Six primary sampling units (PSUs) were selected in each livelihood zone using the centric systematic area sampling methodology...
2016: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888478/examining-the-quality-of-medicines-at-kenyan-healthcare-facilities-a-validation-of-an-alternative-post-market-surveillance-model-that-uses-standardized-patients
#2
Francis Wafula, Amy Dolinger, Benjamin Daniels, Njeri Mwaura, Guadalupe Bedoya, Khama Rogo, Ana Goicoechea, Jishnu Das, Bernard Olayo
BACKGROUND: Promoting access to medicines requires concurrent efforts to strengthen quality assurance for sustained impact. Although problems of substandard and falsified medicines have been documented in low- and middle-income countries, reliable information on quality is rarely available. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate an alternative post-market surveillance model to complement existing models. METHODS: The study used standardized patients or mystery clients (people recruited from the local community and trained to pose as real patients) to collect medicine samples after presenting a pre-specified condition...
November 25, 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880777/avian-influenza-risk-surveillance-in-north-america-with-online-media
#3
Colin Robertson, Lauren Yee
The use of Internet-based sources of information for health surveillance applications has increased in recent years, as a greater share of social and media activity happens through online channels. The potential surveillance value in online sources of information about emergent health events include early warning, situational awareness, risk perception and evaluation of health messaging among others. The challenge in harnessing these sources of data is the vast number of potential sources to monitor and developing the tools to translate dynamic unstructured content into actionable information...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870055/cancer-risks-after-solid-organ-transplantation-and-after-long-term-dialysis
#4
Maria Hortlund, Laila Sara Arroyo Mühr, Hans Storm, Gerda Engholm, Joakim Dillner, Davit Bzhalava
Immunosuppression involves an inability to control virus infections and increased incidence of virus-associated cancers. Some cancers without known viral etiology are also increased, but data on exactly which cancer forms are increased has been inconsistent. To provide a reliable and generalizable estimate, with high statistical power and long follow-up time, we assessed cancer risks using comprehensive, population-based registries in 2 different countries and from 2 different immunosuppressed patient groups (solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs) and long-term dialysis patients (LDPs))...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848731/results-from-scotland-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-youth
#5
John J Reilly, Avril Johnstone, Geraldine McNeill, Adrienne R Hughes
BACKGROUND: The 2016 Active Healthy Kids Scotland Report Card aims to improve surveillance of physical activity (PA), facilitate international comparisons, and encourage evidence-informed PA and health policy. METHODS: Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card methodology was used: a search for data on child and adolescent PA and health published after the 2013 Scottish Report Card was carried out. Data sources were considered for grading if based on representative samples with prevalence estimates made using methods with low bias...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846798/improving-incidence-estimation-in-practice-based-sentinel-surveillance-networks-using-spatial-variation-in-general-practitioner-density
#6
Cécile Souty, Pierre-Yves Boëlle
BACKGROUND: In surveillance networks based on voluntary participation of health-care professionals, there is little choice regarding the selection of participants' characteristics. External information about participants, for example local physician density, can help reduce bias in incidence estimates reported by the surveillance network. METHODS: There is an inverse association between the number of reported influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and local general practitioners (GP) density...
November 15, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842500/national-weighting-of-data-from-the-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-brfss
#7
Ronaldo Iachan, Carol Pierannunzi, Kristie Healey, Kurt J Greenlund, Machell Town
BACKGROUND: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a network of health-related telephone surveys--conducted by all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and participating US territories-that receive technical assistance from CDC. Data users often aggregate BRFSS state samples for national estimates without accounting for state-level sampling, a practice that could introduce bias because the weighted distributions of the state samples do not always adhere to national demographic distributions...
November 15, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829014/systematic-review-of-screening-and-surveillance-programs-to-protect-workers-from-nanomaterials
#8
Mary Gulumian, Jos Verbeek, Charlene Andraos, Natasha Sanabria, Pieter de Jager
BACKGROUND: Screening and surveillance approaches for workers exposed to nanomaterials could aid in early detection of health effects, provide data for epidemiological studies and inform action to decrease exposure. The aim of this review is to identify such screening and surveillance approaches, in order to extract available data regarding (i) the studies that have successfully been implemented in present day, (ii) identification of the most common and/or toxic nano-related health hazards for workers and (iii) possible exposure surveillance markers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822541/16s-rrna-amplicon-sequencing-for-epidemiological-surveys-of-bacteria-in-wildlife
#9
Maxime Galan, Maria Razzauti, Emilie Bard, Maria Bernard, Carine Brouat, Nathalie Charbonnel, Alexandre Dehne-Garcia, Anne Loiseau, Caroline Tatard, Lucie Tamisier, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Helene Vignes, Jean-François Cosson
The human impact on natural habitats is increasing the complexity of human-wildlife interactions and leading to the emergence of infectious diseases worldwide. Highly successful synanthropic wildlife species, such as rodents, will undoubtedly play an increasingly important role in transmitting zoonotic diseases. We investigated the potential for recent developments in 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to facilitate the multiplexing of the large numbers of samples needed to improve our understanding of the risk of zoonotic disease transmission posed by urban rodents in West Africa...
July 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821892/afrocolombian-ethnicity-a-paradoxical-protective-factor-against-dengue
#10
Jorge Humberto Rojas Palacios, Alberto Alzate, Héctor Jairo Martínez Romero, Alberto Ignacio Concha-Eastman
INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a priority public health problem. During epidemics in Cuba and Haiti, ethnic African descendant population had lower risk of dengue, and the ethnic factor was proposed as a protective one. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between the Dengue's cumulative incidence and the Afro-Colombian proportion in communities of Cali, during the epidemic of 2013. METHODS: This study was conducted in Cali, Colombia. The design was ecological, using information from the National Census 2005 projected to 2013, from the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE), and the National Epidemiological Surveillance System...
September 30, 2016: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811529/adult-outcomes-after-newborn-respiratory-failure-treated-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#11
William A Engle, Karen W West, Gail A Hocutt, Eugenia K Pallotto, Barbara Haney, Rachel J Keith, Dan L Stewart, Ellen Knodel, Denise Suttner, Rachel Chapman, Alison Thomas, Beverly Schwerin, Eileen Stork, Moira Crowley, Anthony J Piazza, Micheal L Heard, Netsanet Gebregziabher, William Fadel, Robert Bartlett
OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of young adults treated for hypoxemic respiratory failure with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as neonates. DESIGN: The study was designed as a multisite, cross sectional survey. SETTING: The survey was completed electronically or on paper by subjects and stored in a secure data base. SUBJECTS: Subjects were surviving neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients from eight institutions who were18 years old or older...
November 1, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780784/comparative-effectiveness-of-fluorescent-versus-white-light-cystoscopy-for-initial-diagnosis-or-surveillance-of-bladder-cancer-on-clinical-outcomes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Roger Chou, Shelley Selph, David I Buckley, Rongwei Fu, Jessica C Griffin, Sara Grusing, John L Gore
PURPOSE: We systematically reviewed the comparative effectiveness of fluorescent vs white light cystoscopy in bladder cancer clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic literature searches of Ovid MEDLINE® (January 1990 through September 2015), Cochrane databases and reference lists were performed. A total of 14 randomized trials of fluorescent cystoscopy using 5-amimolevulinic acid or hexaminolevulinic acid vs white light cystoscopy for the diagnosis of initial or recurrent bladder cancer that reported bladder cancer recurrence, progression, mortality and harms were selected for review...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780192/pathogenesis-and-progression-of-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-varies-by-prior-diagnosis-of-barrett-s-oesophagus
#13
Michael B Cook, Jennifer Drahos, Shannon Wood, Lindsey Enewold, Ruth Parsons, Neal D Freedman, Philip R Taylor, Winnie Ricker, Christian C Abnet
BACKGROUND: The absolute risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among individuals with Barrett's oesophagus (BE) is low and a majority of EA cases are diagnosed among individuals with no prior BE diagnosis. To ensure that insights from EA case-control studies are transferable to clinical management of BE populations, we conducted a case-case study to compare the clinical presentation, medical history and survival of EA cases with and without a prior BE diagnosis in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Medicare database...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776164/risk-of-premenopausal-and-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-among-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#14
Mohammadhossein Hajiebrahimi, Scott Montgomery, Sarah Burkill, Shahram Bahmanyar
OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer among Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, considering tumor stage. METHODS: The Swedish Patient Register identified 19,330 women with MS between 1968 and 2012, matched individually with a cohort of 193,458 without MS. Matching variables were year of birth, sex, region of residence and vital status at the time of diagnosis. The cancer register identified 471 and 5,753 breast cancer cases among the MS and non-MS cohorts, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762208/the-potential-impact-of-media-reporting-in-syndromic-surveillance-an-example-using-a-possible-cryptosporidium-exposure-in-north-west-england-august-to-september-2015
#15
Alex J Elliot, Helen E Hughes, John Astbury, Grainne Nixon, Kate Brierley, Roberto Vivancos, Thomas Inns, Valerie Decraene, Katherine Platt, Iain Lake, Sarah J O'Brien, Gillian E Smith
During August 2015, a boil water notice (BWN) was issued across parts of North West England following the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the public water supply. Using prospective syndromic surveillance, we detected statistically significant increases in the presentation of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea to general practitioner services and related calls to the national health telephone advice service in those areas affected by the BWN. In the affected areas, average in-hours general practitioner consultations for gastroenteritis increased by 24...
October 13, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751626/architecture-of-a-species-phylogenomics-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Paul J Planet, Apurva Narechania, Liang Chen, Barun Mathema, Sam Boundy, Gordon Archer, Barry Kreiswirth
A deluge of whole-genome sequencing has begun to give insights into the patterns and processes of microbial evolution, but genome sequences have accrued in a haphazard manner, with biased sampling of natural variation that is driven largely by medical and epidemiological priorities. For instance, there is a strong bias for sequencing epidemic lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over sensitive isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus: MSSA). As more diverse genomes are sequenced the emerging picture is of a highly subdivided species with a handful of relatively clonal groups (complexes) that, at any given moment, dominate in particular geographical regions...
October 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746150/results-and-their-implications-from-comparing-respondents-and-proxy-responses-for-non-respondents-with-cognitive-difficulties-on-a-telephone-survey
#17
Mary Adams
BACKGROUND: Limited study has been done on proxy responses for non-respondents with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). OBJECTIVE: To directly compare results for survey respondents with SCD with those for proxies provided for non-respondents with SCD. METHODS: Publicly available 2011 BRFSS data from 120,485 households in 21 states were analyzed using Stata. Respondents ages 40 and older with SCD (n = 10,831) were compared with proxy responses for non-respondents ages 40 and older with SCD (n = 4296) living in households where the respondent did not have SCD...
January 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730024/association-between-ischemic-heart-disease-and-colorectal-neoplasm-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Yoo Jee Hee, Chang Seok Bang, Gwang Ho Baik, In Soo Shin, Ki Tae Suk, Tae Young Park, Dong Joon Kim
PURPOSE: Colorectal neoplasm and ischemic heart disease (IHD) share common risk factors. However, clinical guidance about screening or surveillance of colorectal neoplasm in patients with IHD has not been made. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IHD and the development of colorectal neoplasm. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted using the core databases (MEDLINE through PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library). The data about the association between IHD and the development of colorectal neoplasm were extracted and analyzed using odds ratio (OR)...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725532/optimal-follow-up-of-patients-with-viral-hepatitis-improves-the-detection-of-early-stage-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-the-prognosis-of-survival
#19
Satoshi Oeda, Shinji Iwane, Mitsuhiro Takasaki, Naoko E Furukawa, Taiga Otsuka, Yuichiro Eguchi, Keizo Anzai
Objective To manage patients with viral hepatitis, it is important to screen for hepatitis, conduct a comprehensive examination if such screening is positive, administer antiviral treatment, and conduct surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The proper execution of this strategy is expected to effectively reduce the number of deaths from viral hepatitis. Such an "optimal" follow-up for HCC surveillance is therefore important. This study aimed to determine the benefits of performing an optimal follow-up of patients with viral hepatitis...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695660/psychiatric-genetics-in-child-custody-proceedings-ethical-legal-and-social-issues
#20
Maya Sabatello, S Appelbaum
This paper considers the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the prospect of increasing use of psychiatric genetic data in child custody litigation. Although genetic tests cannot currently confirm a parent or child's psychiatric diagnosis, it is likely that as relevant findings emerge, they will be introduced in family courts to challenge parental capacity. Here, we draw on three projected, but plausible, scenarios for obtaining psychiatric data about parents -- imposed genetic testing, access to medical records, and genetic theft -- then consider the use of psychiatric genetic data of children, to highlight the issues that judges, child custody evaluators, and clinicians who may provide treatment for parents or children with mental health issues will need to consider...
September 2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
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