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Surveillance bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934206/estimating-the-prevalence-and-intensity-of-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-among-rural-communities-in-western-tanzania-the-influence-of-sampling-strategy-and-statistical-approach
#1
Jared S Bakuza, Matthew J Denwood, Gamba Nkwengulila, Barbara K Mable
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni is a parasite of major public health importance in developing countries, where it causes a neglected tropical disease known as intestinal schistosomiasis. However, the distribution of the parasite within many endemic regions is currently unknown, which hinders effective control. The purpose of this study was to characterize the prevalence and intensity of infection of S. mansoni in a remote area of western Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples were collected from 192 children and 147 adults residing in Gombe National Park and four nearby villages...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934157/complete-systematic-error-model-of-ssr-for-sensor-registration-in-atc-surveillance-networks
#2
Ángel J Jarama, Jaime López-Araquistain, Gonzalo de Miguel, Juan A Besada
In this paper, a complete and rigorous mathematical model for secondary surveillance radar systematic errors (biases) is developed. The model takes into account the physical effects systematically affecting the measurement processes. The azimuth biases are calculated from the physical error of the antenna calibration and the errors of the angle determination dispositive. Distance bias is calculated from the delay of the signal produced by the refractivity index of the atmosphere, and from clock errors, while the altitude bias is calculated taking into account the atmosphere conditions (pressure and temperature)...
September 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922695/strategies-for-detecting-colon-cancer-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
REVIEW
William A Bye, Tran M Nguyen, Claire E Parker, Vipul Jairath, James E East
BACKGROUND: Patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with the general population. This review assessed the evidence that endoscopic surveillance may prolong life by allowing earlier detection of CRC or its pre-cursor lesion, dysplasia, in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cancer surveillance programs for diagnosis of IBD-associated colorectal cancer and in reducing the mortality rate from colorectal cancer in patients with IBD...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911326/borrelia-infection-and-risk-of-celiac-disease
#4
Armin Alaedini, Benjamin Lebwohl, Gary P Wormser, Peter H Green, Jonas F Ludvigsson
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors, including infectious agents, are speculated to play a role in the rising prevalence and the geographic distribution of celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder. In the USA and Sweden where the regional variation in the frequency of celiac disease has been studied, a similarity with the geographic distribution of Lyme disease, an emerging multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, has been found, thus raising the possibility of a link...
September 15, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906005/group-a-rotaviruses-circulating-prior-to-a-national-immunization-programme-in-nigeria-clinical-manifestations-high-g12p-8-frequency-intra-genotypic-divergence-of-vp4-and-vp7
#5
M O Japhet, O Famurewa, M Iturriza-Gomara, O A Adesina, O O Opaleye, S Niendorf, C T Bock, A Mas Marques
Nigeria having approximately 50,000 Rotavirus A (RVA) deaths annually is yet to introduce RVA vaccine into routine national immunization; therefore surveillance of RVA strains circulating before vaccine introduction is essential in evaluating impact of the intervention. Stool samples and sociodemographic data of diarrhoeic children, <5 years were collected between August 2012 and December 2013. While a high prevalence of RVA infection (47.6%; 49/103) was observed by quantitative reverse transcription real time PCR, only 25% (26/103) had high RVA genome concentrations and were antigen positive...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899847/enhancing-seasonal-influenza-surveillance-topic-analysis-of-widely-used-medicinal-drugs-using-twitter-data
#6
Ireneus Kagashe, Zhijun Yan, Imran Suheryani
BACKGROUND: Uptake of medicinal drugs (preventive or treatment) is among the approaches used to control disease outbreaks, and therefore, it is of vital importance to be aware of the counts or frequencies of most commonly used drugs and trending topics about these drugs from consumers for successful implementation of control measures. Traditional survey methods would have accomplished this study, but they are too costly in terms of resources needed, and they are subject to social desirability bias for topics discovery...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895562/focal-ablation-therapy-for-renal-cancer-in-the-era-of-active-surveillance-and-minimally-invasive-partial-nephrectomy
#7
REVIEW
Serge Ginzburg, Jeffrey J Tomaszewski, Alexander Kutikov
Partial nephrectomy is the optimal surgical approach in the management of small renal masses (SRMs). Focal ablation therapy has an established role in the modern management of SRMs, especially in elderly patients and those with comorbidities. Percutaneous ablation avoids general anaesthesia and laparoscopic ablation can avoid excessive dissection; hence, these techniques can be suitable for patients who are not ideal surgical candidates. Several ablation modalities exist, of which radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are most widely applied and for which safety and oncological efficacy approach equivalency to partial nephrectomy...
September 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895526/molecular-testing-for-lynch-syndrome-in-people-with-colorectal-cancer-systematic-reviews-and-economic-evaluation
#8
Tristan Snowsill, Helen Coelho, Nicola Huxley, Tracey Jones-Hughes, Simon Briscoe, Ian M Frayling, Chris Hyde
BACKGROUND: Inherited mutations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair (MMR) genes lead to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), gynaecological cancers and other cancers, known as Lynch syndrome (LS). Risk-reducing interventions can be offered to individuals with known LS-causing mutations. The mutations can be identified by comprehensive testing of the MMR genes, but this would be prohibitively expensive in the general population. Tumour-based tests - microsatellite instability (MSI) and MMR immunohistochemistry (IHC) - are used in CRC patients to identify individuals at high risk of LS for genetic testing...
September 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893677/accuracy-of-self-reported-heart-failure-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#9
Ricky Camplain, Anna Kucharska-Newton, Laura Loehr, Thomas C Keyserling, J Bradley Layton, Lisa Wruck, Aaron R Folsom, Alain G Bertoni, Gerardo Heiss
OBJECTIVE: To estimate agreement of self-reported heart failure (HF) with physician diagnosed HF and compare the prevalence of HF by method of ascertainment. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: ARIC cohort members (60-83 years of age) were asked annually whether a physician indicated they have HF. For those self-reporting HF, physicians were asked to confirm their patient's HF status. Physician diagnosed HF included surveillance of hospitalized HF, and hospitalized and outpatient HF identified in administrative claims databases...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871979/reducing-bias-in-oncology-research-the-end-of-the-radiation-variable-in-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-seer-program
#10
Gary V Walker, Stephen R Grant, Reshma Jagsi, Benjamin D Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858265/spatial-variability-of-geriatric-depression-risk-in-a-high-density-city-a-data-driven-socio-environmental-vulnerability-mapping-approach
#11
Hung Chak Ho, Kevin Ka-Lun Lau, Ruby Yu, Dan Wang, Jean Woo, Timothy Chi Yui Kwok, Edward Ng
Previous studies found a relationship between geriatric depression and social deprivation. However, most studies did not include environmental factors in the statistical models, introducing a bias to estimate geriatric depression risk because the urban environment was found to have significant associations with mental health. We developed a cross-sectional study with a binomial logistic regression to examine the geriatric depression risk of a high-density city based on five social vulnerability factors and four environmental measures...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856774/group-testing-regression-models-with-dilution-submodels
#12
Md S Warasi, Christopher S McMahan, Joshua M Tebbs, Christopher R Bilder
Group testing, where specimens are tested initially in pools, is widely used to screen individuals for sexually transmitted diseases. However, a common problem encountered in practice is that group testing can increase the number of false negative test results. This occurs primarily when positive individual specimens within a pool are diluted by negative ones, resulting in positive pools testing negatively. If the goal is to estimate a population-level regression model relating individual disease status to observed covariates, severe bias can result if an adjustment for dilution is not made...
August 30, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856637/field-pathogenomics-an-advanced-tool-for-wheat-rust-surveillance
#13
Vanessa Bueno-Sancho, Daniel C E Bunting, Luis J Yanes, Kentaro Yoshida, Diane G O Saunders
Traditionally, diagnostic tools for plant pathogens were limited to the analysis of purified pathogen isolates subjected to phenotypic characterization and/or PCR-based genotypic analysis. However, these approaches detect only already known pathogenic agents, may not always recognize novel races, and can introduce bias in the results. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have provided new opportunities to integrate high-resolution genotype data into pathogen surveillance programs. Here, we describe some of the key bioinformatics analysis used in the newly developed "Field Pathogenomics" pathogen surveillance technique...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855659/increased-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-thromboembolism-in-patients-with-severe-psoriasis-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#14
Tae-Min Rhee, Ji Hyun Lee, Eue-Keun Choi, Kyung-Do Han, HyunJung Lee, Chan Soon Park, Doyeon Hwang, So-Ryoung Lee, Woo-Hyun Lim, Si-Hyuck Kang, Myung-Jin Cha, Youngjin Cho, Il-Young Oh, Seil Oh
Psoriasis increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and thromboembolic events (TE). There is limited information on the effect of psoriasis severity on AF and TE. In this study, psoriasis patients were enrolled from the Korean National Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2004-2008). Diagnosis and disease severity were determined from claims data. Newly diagnosed non-valvular AF and TE were identified during a 9.6-year follow-up. The effect of psoriasis severity on AF and TE was evaluated. We identified 13,385 psoriasis patients (1,947 with severe psoriasis)...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846657/surveillance-bias-in-child-maltreatment-a-tempest-in-a-teapot
#15
Brett Drake, Melissa Jonson-Reid, Hyunil Kim
Background: Children are believed to be more likely to be reported for maltreatment while they are working with mental health or social service professionals. This "surveillance bias" has been claimed to inflate reporting by fifty percent or more, and has been used to explain why interventions such as home visiting fail to reduce official maltreatment reporting rates. Methods: We use national child abuse reporting data (n = 825,763), supplemented by more detailed regional data from a multi-agency administrative data study (n = 7185)...
August 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837516/inflammatory-bowel-diseases-in-children-and-young-adults-with-celiac-disease-a-multigroup-matched-comparison
#16
Cristina Canova, Gisella Pitter, Loris Zanier, Renzo Zanotti, Lorenzo Simonato, Jonas F Ludvigsson
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) has been linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but previous reports have been inconsistent and may have been affected by surveillance bias. METHODS: Matched birth cohort study in Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region, Italy. We identified 1294 individuals with CD aged 0 to 23 years at diagnosis using pathology reports, hospital discharge records, or copayment exemptions. Each CD individual was matched with up to 5 general population reference individuals from the regional Medical Birth Register in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (n = 5681)...
August 22, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833803/important-statistical-considerations-in-the-evaluation-of-post-market-studies-to-assess-whether-opioids-with-abuse-deterrent-properties-result-in-reduced-abuse-in-the-community
#17
Kunthel By, Jana K McAninch, Stephine L Keeton, Alex Secora, Cynthia J Kornegay, Catherine S Hwang, Thomas Ly, Mark S Levenson
PURPOSE: Abuse, misuse, addiction, overdose, and death associated with non-medical use of prescription opioids have become a serious public health concern. Reformulation of these products with abuse-deterrent properties is one approach for addressing this problem. FDA has approved several extended-release opioid analgesics with abuse-deterrent labeling, the bases of which come from pre-market studies. As all opioid analgesics must be capable of delivering the opioid in order to reduce pain, abuse-deterrent properties do not prevent abuse, nor do pre-market evaluations ensure that there will be reduced abuse in the community...
August 23, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830113/big-data-for-infectious-disease-surveillance-and-modeling
#18
Shweta Bansal, Gerardo Chowell, Lone Simonsen, Alessandro Vespignani, Cécile Viboud
We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as social media, Internet searches, and cell-phone logs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826422/a-systematic-review-of-varicella-seroprevalence-in-european-countries-before-universal-childhood-immunization-deriving-incidence-from-seroprevalence-data
#19
K Bollaerts, M Riera-Montes, U Heininger, N Hens, A Souverain, T Verstraeten, S Hartwig
Surveillance systems for varicella in Europe are highly heterogeneous or completely absent. We estimated the varicella incidence based on seroprevalence data, as these data are largely available and not biased by under-reporting or underascertainment. We conducted a systematic literature search for varicella serological data in Europe prior to introduction of universal varicella immunization. Age-specific serological data were pooled by country and serological profiles estimated using the catalytic model with piecewise constant force of infection...
August 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822996/examining-bias-in-studies-of-statin-treatment-and-survival-in-patients-with-cancer
#20
Louise Emilsson, Xabier García-Albéniz, Roger W Logan, Ellen C Caniglia, Mette Kalager, Miguel A Hernán
Importance: Patients with cancer who use statins appear to have a substantially better survival than nonusers in observational studies. However, this inverse association between statin use and mortality may be due to selection bias and immortal-time bias. Objective: To emulate a randomized trial of statin therapy initiation that is free of selection bias and immortal-time bias. Design, Setting, and Participants: We used observational data on 17 372 patients with cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database (2007-2009) with complete follow-up until 2011...
August 20, 2017: JAMA Oncology
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