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Subcortical and encephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138115/active-forms-of-akt-and-erk-are-dominant-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-newborn-pigs-that-are-unaffected-by-asphyxia
#1
Viktória Kovács, Valéria Tóth-Szűki, János Németh, Viktória Varga, Gábor Remzső, Ferenc Domoki
AIMS: Perinatal asphyxia (PA) often results in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Introduction of therapeutic hypothermia improved HIE outcome, but further neuroprotective therapies are still warranted. The present study sought to determine the feasibility of the activation of the cytoprotective PI-3-K/Akt and the MAPK/ERK signaling pathways in the subacute phase of HIE development in a translational newborn pig PA/HIE model. MAIN METHODS: Phosphorylated and total levels of Akt and ERK were determined by Western blotting in brain samples obtained from untreated naive, time control, and PA/HIE animals at 24-48h survival (n=3-3-6,respectively)...
November 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136240/postmortem-autopsy-confirmation-of-antemortem-f-18-fddnp-pet-scans-in-a-football-player-with-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#2
Bennet Omalu, Gary W Small, Julian Bailes, Linda M Ercoli, David A Merrill, Koon-Pong Wong, Sung-Cheng Huang, Nagichettiar Satyamurthy, Jennifer L Hammers, John Lee, Robert P Fitzsimmons, Jorge R Barrio
Currently, only presumptive diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) can be made in living patients. We present a modality that may be instrumental to the definitive diagnosis of CTE in living patients based on brain autopsy confirmation of [F-18]FDDNP-PET findings in an American football player with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP-PET imaging was performed 52 mo before the subject's death. Relative distribution volume parametric images and binding values were determined for cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
November 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131884/seizures-and-encephalitis-in-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-igg-disease-vs-aquaporin-4-igg-disease
#3
Shahd H M Hamid, Dan Whittam, Mariyam Saviour, Amal Alorainy, Kerry Mutch, Samantha Linaker, Tom Solomon, Maneesh Bhojak, Mark Woodhall, Patrick Waters, Richard Appleton, Martin Duddy, Anu Jacob
Importance: Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG (MOG-IgG) are increasingly detected in patients with non-multiple sclerosis-related demyelination, some of whom manifest a neuromyelitis optica (NMO) phenotype. Cortical involvement, encephalopathy, and seizures are rare in aquaporin 4 antibody (AQP4-IgG)-related NMO in the white European population. However, the authors encountered several patients with seizures associated with MOG-IgG disease. Objective: To compare incidence of seizures and encephalitis-like presentation, or both between AQP4-IgG-positive and MOG-IgG-positive patients...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042902/unusual-case-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-antibody-glomerulonephritis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Boram Cha, Dae Young Kim, Hyunil Jang, Seun Deuk Hwang, Huck Jei Choi, Moon-Jae Kim
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by a clinical and radiological entity with the sudden onset of seizures, headache, altered consciousness, and visual disturbances in patients with the findings of reversible vasogenic subcortical edema without infarction. Hypertension, renal disease, and autoimmune disease are co-morbid conditions of PRES. Nevertheless, there have only been a few case reports of PRES in a patient with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN)...
September 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040524/potentiation-of-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-ameliorates-aggression-in-mice-with-stxbp1-haploinsufficiency
#5
Hiroyuki Miyamoto, Atsushi Shimohata, Manabu Abe, Teruo Abe, Emi Mazaki, Kenji Amano, Toshimitsu Suzuki, Tetsuya Tatsukawa, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Kenji Sakimura, Kazuhiro Yamakawa
Genetic studies point to a major role of de novo mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders of intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and epileptic encephalopathy. The STXBP1 gene encodes the syntaxin-binding protein 1 (Munc18-1) that critically controls synaptic vesicle exocytosis and synaptic transmission. This gene harbors a high frequency of de novo mutations, which may play roles in these neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the system and behavioral-level pathophysiological changes caused by these genetic defects remain poorly understood...
October 11, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966876/the-inter-rater-variability-of-clinical-assessment-in-post-anoxic-myoclonus
#6
Jonathan C van Zijl, Martijn Beudel, Jan-Willem J Elting, Bauke M de Jong, Joukje van der Naalt, Walter M van den Bergh, Andrea O Rossetti, Marina A J Tijssen, Janneke Horn
BACKGROUND: Acute post-anoxic myoclonus (PAM) can be divided into an unfavorable (generalized/subcortical) and more favorable ((multi)focal/cortical) outcome group that could support prognostication in post-anoxic encephalopathy; however, the inter-rater variability of clinically assessing these PAM subtypes is unknown. METHODS: We prospectively examined PAM patients using a standardized video protocol. Videos were rated by three neurologists who classified PAM phenotype (generalized/(multi)focal), stimulus sensitivity, localization (proximal/distal/both), and severity (Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale (UMRS))...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936822/-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-triggerred-by-alcohol-withdrawal
#7
Tuğçe Mengi, Yaprak Seçil, Aysel Çoban, Yeşim Beckmann
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological entity characterized by headache, altered mental status, epileptic seizures, visual disturbances and typically transient changes in posterior cerebral circulation areas. In this article, we present a case of alcohol withdrawal accompanied by PRES. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with visual hallucinations and meaningless speech...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924555/early-changes-in-brain-structure-correlate-with-language-outcomes-in-children-with-neonatal-encephalopathy
#8
Kevin A Shapiro, Hosung Kim, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Elizabeth E Rogers, Dawn Gano, Donna M Ferriero, A James Barkovich, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Hannah C Glass, Duan Xu
Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912425/predictive-models-of-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-for-cirrhotic-patients-based-on-large-scale-brain-intrinsic-connectivity-networks
#9
Yun Jiao, Xun-Heng Wang, Rong Chen, Tian-Yu Tang, Xi-Qi Zhu, Gao-Jun Teng
We aimed to find the most representative connectivity patterns for minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) using large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) and machine learning methods. Resting-state fMRI was administered to 33 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 43 cirrhotic patients without MHE (NMHE). The connectivity maps of 20 ICNs for each participant were obtained by dual regression. A Bayesian machine learning technique, called Graphical Model-based Multivariate Analysis, was applied to determine ICN regions that characterized group differences...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868030/association-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-and-transient-apical-ballooning-syndrome-takotsubo-first-case-report-of-a-man-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Stephan Grimaldi, Emilie Doche, Caroline Rey, Nadia Laksiri, Salah Boussen, Jacques Quilici, Emmanuelle Robinet, Fabien Devemy, Jean Pelletier
INTRODUCTION: An association of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and takotsubo is rare. We present the first case of a male patient. CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old man presented to the hospital in a persistent comatose state following a generalized tonic-clonic seizure with high blood pressure. The electrocardiogram revealed transient left bundle branch block. Troponin and BNP were elevated. Cardiac ultrasound showed large apical akinesia with altered left ventricular ejection fraction, and the left ventriculogram showed characteristic regional wall motion abnormalities involving the mid and apical segments...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856805/reactive-astrocyte-cox2-pge2-production-inhibits-oligodendrocyte-maturation-in-neonatal-white-matter-injury
#11
Lawrence R Shiow, Geraldine Favrais, Lucas Schirmer, Anne-Laure Schang, Sara Cipriani, Christian Andres, Jaclyn N Wright, Hiroko Nobuta, Bobbi Fleiss, Pierre Gressens, David H Rowitch
Inflammation is a major risk factor for neonatal white matter injury (NWMI), which is associated with later development of cerebral palsy. Although recent studies have demonstrated maturation arrest of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in NWMI, the identity of inflammatory mediators with direct effects on OPCs has been unclear. Here, we investigated downstream effects of pro-inflammatory IL-1β to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in white matter. First, we assessed COX2 expression in human fetal brain and term neonatal brain affected by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
August 30, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852582/term-neonate-with-atypical-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-presentation-a-case-report
#12
Nick Townley, Emily McNellis, Venkatesh Sampath
We describe a case of atypical hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in a neonate following a normal pregnancy and delivery who was found to have an umbilical vein thrombosis. The infant arrived to our center with continuous bicycling movement of her lower extremities. She had a continuous electroencephalogram that showed burst suppression and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed diffusely abnormal cerebral cortical/subcortical diffusion restriction which may be secondary hypoxic-ischemic injury. Interestingly, a pathology report noted a focal umbilical vein thrombosis appearing to have compressed an umbilical artery with associated arterial dissection and hematoma...
July 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826581/uncommon-causes-of-cerebral-microbleeds
#13
REVIEW
Nariman Noorbakhsh-Sabet, Varun Chandi Pulakanti, Ramin Zand
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are small and round perivascular hemosiderin depositions detectable by gradient echo sequences or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Cerebral microbleeds are common among patients with hypertension, cerebral ischemia, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In this article, we describe uncommon causes of CMBs. METHODS: We searched Pubmed with the keyword CMBs for relevant studies and looked for different uncommon causes of CMBs. RESULTS: CMBs have several uncommon etiologies including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, infective endocarditis, brain radiation therapy, cocaine abuse, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, traumatic brain injury, intravascular lymphomatosis or proliferating angio-endotheliomatosis, moyamoya disease, sickle cell anemia/β-thalassemia, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy subcortical infarcts, and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), genetic syndromes, or obstructive sleep apnea...
October 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799704/the-nature-consequences-and-management-of-neurological-disorders-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
REVIEW
Bahman Jabbari, Nosratola D Vaziri
Perhaps no other organ in the body is affected as often and in as many ways as the brain is in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several factors contribute to the neurological disorders in CKD including accumulation of uremic toxins, metabolic and hemodynamic disorders, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired blood brain barrier among others. The neurological disorders in CKD involve both peripheral and central nervous system. The peripheral neurological symptoms of CKD are due to somatic and cranial peripheral neuropathies as well as a myopathy...
August 11, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789642/uremic-encephalopathy-with-isolated-brainstem-involvement-revealed-by-magnetic-resonance-image-a-case-report
#15
Li-Jing Jia, Zhen-Zhen Qu, Xue-Qian Zhang, Yu-Juan Tian, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: Uremic Encephalopathy (UE) is a neurological complication associated with acute or chronic renal failure. Imaging findings of UE may present involvement of the basal ganglia, cortical or subcortical regions, and white matter. We report a rare case of UE caused by neurogenic bladder with isolated brainstem involvement revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Immediate therapy resulted in full recovery of neurological signs and changes on MRI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old Han Chinese woman with a history of chronic renal failure caused by neurogenic bladder...
August 8, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780827/-imaging-diagnosis-of-95-cases-of-moderate-and-severe-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#16
N N Hao, C Tian, K X Lian, T Han, S Jin
Objective: To explore the difference of radiological imaging features of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning (DECMP) and acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) , and the correlation between the imaging findings and clinical prognosis of the disease. Methods: The correlation between imaging findings and clinical manifestations and prognosis of 95 patients with moderate and severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning were retrospectively analyzed. In the above 95 cases, there were 62 cases of ACMP and 33 cases of DEACMP...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772198/cerebral-regional-oxygen-saturation-trends-in-infants-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#17
Siddharth V Jain, Lindsay Pagano, Maria Gillam-Krakauer, James C Slaughter, Sumit Pruthi, Barbara Engelhardt
BACKGROUND: Neurological outcomes in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) continue to be sub-optimal despite therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy provides real-time regional oxygen saturation (CrSO2) that may be a marker of adverse MRI findings and neurodevelopmental outcomes. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the value of CrSO2 monitoring in infants with HIE undergoing TH. STUDY DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: In this prospective study, CrSO2 was continuously recorded in 21 infants with HIE admitted for TH...
October 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762286/childhood-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-associated-with-isolated-focal-cortical-dysplasia-and-a-novel-tsc1-germline-mutation
#18
Hannes Hoelz, Eva Coppenrath, Konstanze Hoertnagel, Timo Roser, Moritz Tacke, Lucia Gerstl, Ingo Borggraefe
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant inheritable neurocutaneous disease due to mutations within the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Many patients present with West syndrome, a severe epilepsy syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, an interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern termed hypsarrhythmia (continuous slow activity with an amplitude higher than 300 µV and multiregional spikes/polyspikes/sharp waves) and developmental regression. In this study, we report on a previously healthy patient with positive family history of epilepsy with new-onset epileptic encephalopathy at the age of 9 years...
March 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667481/disrupted-topological-organization-of-brain-structural-network-associated-with-prior-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhotic-patients
#19
Hua-Jun Chen, Hai-Bin Shi, Long-Feng Jiang, Lan Li, Rong Chen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate structural brain connectome alterations in cirrhotic patients with prior overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE). METHODS: Seventeen cirrhotic patients with prior OHE (prior-OHE), 18 cirrhotic patients without prior OHE (non-prior-OHE) and 18 healthy controls (HC) underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Neurocognitive functioning was assessed with Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES). Using a probabilistic fibre tracking approach, we depicted the whole-brain structural network as a connectivity matrix of 90 regions (derived from the Automated Anatomic Labeling atlas)...
June 30, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634886/subcortical-brain-atrophy-in-gulf-war-illness
#20
Peka Christova, Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. Although brain dysfunction in GWI has been well documented (EBioMedicine 12:127-32, 2016), abnormalities in brain structure have been debated. Here we report a substantial (~10%) subcortical brain atrophy in GWI comprising mainly the brainstem, cerebellum and thalamus, and, to a lesser extent, basal ganglia, amygdala and diencephalon...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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