Read by QxMD icon Read

Subcortical and encephalopathy

Vítor Magno Pereira, Luís Marote Correia, Tiago Rodrigues, Gorete Serrão Faria
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a neurological syndrome characterized by headache, confusion, visual disturbances and seizures associated with identifiable areas of cerebral edema on imaging studies. The authors report the case of a man, 33 years-old, leukodermic with a history of chronic alcohol and tobacco consumption, who is admitted to the emergency department for epigastric pain radiating to the back and vomiting with about six hours of evolution and an intense holocranial headache for two hours...
September 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
S Viswanathan, N Botross, B N Rusli, A Riad
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Eva Niyibizi, Guillaume Elyes Kembi, Claude Lae, Rodrigue Pignel, Tornike Sologashvili
BACKGROUND: The current case describes a rare diagnosis of iatrogenic air emboli after elective cardiopulmonary bypass that was successfully treated with delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy, with good clinical evolution in spite of rare complications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35 years old male was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for post-operative management after being placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for an elective ventricular septal defect closure and aortic valvuloplasty...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Junichiro Ohira, Nobuyuki Mori, Shunsuke Kajikawa, Takeshi Nakamura, Tetsuya Arisato, Makio Takahashi
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) typically affects the posterior subcortical white matter. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with atypical PRES, who had malignant hypertension and renal dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive vasogenic edema in the deep white matter including the temporal pole, as well as in the brainstem and cerebellum. Antihypertensive therapy and hemodialysis contributed to both clinical and radiological improvement. Involvement of the deep white matter including the temporal pole, which is rarely affected in an ischemic stroke, should be recognized as a potential sign of PRES...
2016: Internal Medicine
Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Lei Wu, Di Jin, Xuan Sun, Liang Liang, Deihui Huang, Zhao Dong, Shengyuan Yu
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a thiamine deficiency-related condition, in which lesions are usually present in the periventricular and subcortical areas of the brain. However, lesions have also been found in atypical areas, such as the cerebral cortex. The present study summarizes the clinical outcomes and radiological features of WE with cortical impairment. We report two cases of cortical involvement in patients with WE, and review 22 similar cases from other reports. Among all 24 cases, 4 patients had a confirmed history of chronic daily alcohol abuse, and 19 of them had an identified causes of thiamine deficiency...
October 12, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Abdelrahim Abdrabou Sadek, Mostafa Ashry Mohamed, Ashraf Abou-Taleb, Marwa Ibrahim Mohammed
INTRODUCTION: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated disease of the brain. Although it occurs in all ages, most reported cases are in children and adolescents. The aims of this study were to study the clinical pattern and outcome of ADEM in children in a tertiary center in Upper Egypt and to determine the effect of combined use of steroids and IVIg on outcome. METHODS: This observational study was carried out from January 2014 through December 2014 in the Pediatric Department of Sohag University Hospital (Egypt)...
July 2016: Electronic Physician
Maria Gabriella Vita, Dorina Tiple, Alessandra Bizzarro, Anna Ladogana, Elisa Colaizzo, Sabina Capellari, Marcello Rossi, Piero Parchi, Carlo Masullo, Maurizio Pocchiari
We report a case of rapidly evolving neurological disease in a patient with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma. The coexistence of severe multiple pathologies in a single patient strengthens the need to perform accurate clinical differential diagnoses in rapidly progressive dementias.
September 16, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Nicolae Sarbu, Robert Y Shih, Robert V Jones, Iren Horkayne-Szakaly, Laura Oleaga, James G Smirniotopoulos
White matter diseases include a wide spectrum of disorders that have in common impairment of normal myelination, either by secondary destruction of previously myelinated structures (demyelinating processes) or by primary abnormalities of myelin formation (dysmyelinating processes). The pathogenesis of many white matter diseases remains poorly understood. Demyelinating disorders are the object of this review and will be further divided into autoimmune, infectious, vascular, and toxic-metabolic processes. Autoimmune processes include multiple sclerosis and related diseases: tumefactive demyelinating lesions, Balo concentric sclerosis, Marburg and Schilder variants, neuromyelitis optica (Devic disease), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy (Hurst disease)...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Qi-Yu Bo, Xiu-He Zhao, Xue Yang, Sheng-Jun Wang
Late onset postpartum eclampsia (LPE) is defined by its onset at >48 h after delivery. Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome (RPES) associated with LPE is uncommon, with the majority of RPES cases having a late postpartum onset within 4 weeks after childbirth. The present study reported the case of a 15-year old female presenting with convulsions that began 5 weeks after delivery. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain revealed multiple lesions in the cortex, subcortical region and deep white matter of the bilateral cerebellum, and occipital, frontal and parietal lobes...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Takuya Matsuda, Shuichi Shimakawa, Hiromitsu Toshikawa, Mari Hatanaka, Miho Fukui, Atsushi Mori, Hiroshi Tamai
We report a 13-month-old girl who developed acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) with transient reduced diffusion in the hippocampus and anterior commissure on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which was performed on the first day after febrile status epilepticus (FSE) as the initial neurological symptom of AESD. DWI just after late seizures showed high signal intensity lesions in both left hippocampus and anterior commissure, and left extratemporal and occipital subcortical white matter...
November 2016: Brain & Development
Tekwani Parmanand H
Marchiafava-Bignami disease is a rare toxic encephalopathy seen mostly in chronic alcoholics due to progressive demyelination and necrosis of the corpus callosum. It may involve adjacent white matter and subcortical regions. We present here the magnetic resonance imaging findings of Machiafava-Bignami disease in a chronic alcoholic patient. In 1903, Italian pathologists Marchiafava and Bignami described 3 alcoholic men who died after having seizures and coma. All 3 patients were chronic alcoholics and had consumed considerable amounts of red wine...
September 2016: Radiology case reports
Hafez Mohammad Ammar Abdullah, Waqas Ullah, Ejaz Ahmad, Faiz Anwer
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological condition that occurs secondary to a variety of causes like autoimmune diseases, uncontrolled hypertension and immunosuppressive agents. We report an unusual association of PRES and malignant hypertension secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in a young woman, presenting with sudden loss of vision and seizures. She had uncontrolled hypertension and a Glasgow Coma Scale of 6/15. Brain MRI revealed high signals in cortical and subcortical white matter and some involvement of the periventricular areas...
August 17, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Vuk Palibrk, Rajikala Suganthan, Katja Scheffler, Wei Wang, Magnar Bjørås, Stig Ove Bøe
Regulation of innate immune responses and activation of tissue regenerative processes are key elements in the pathophysiology of brain injuries. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene was originally identified on a breakpoint of chromosomal translocation t(15;17) associated with acute PML. We have studied the role of PML protein during acute and regenerative phases after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in brains of neonatal mice. We found that PML prevents tissue loss and apoptotic cell death selectively in subcortical regions of the brain at early stages after damage...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
Keita Kuya, Shinya Fujii, Fuminori Miyoshi, Koyo Ohno, Yuki Shinohara, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Toshihide Ogawa
A 1-year-old boy was admitted because of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). A secondary cluster of seizures was seen on day 5 after onset, and the patient eventually displayed developmental delay. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormal findings on day 1 after onset, but showed reduced diffusion in the subcortical regions of bilateral frontal lobes on day 5 after onset. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) was diagnosed. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) revealed reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) in bilateral frontal lobes on day 1 after onset and showed increased CBF in the corresponding region in the subacute phase...
January 2017: Brain & Development
Armine Darbinyan, Eugene O Major, Susan Morgello, Steven Holland, Caroline Ryschkewitsch, Maria Chiara Monaco, Thomas P Naidich, Joshua Bederson, Joanna Malaczynska, Fei Ye, Ronald Gordon, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Mary Fowkes, Nadejda M Tsankova
Human BK polyomavirus (BKV) is reactivated under conditions of immunosuppression leading most commonly to nephropathy or cystitis; its tropism for the brain is rare and poorly understood. We present a unique case of BKV-associated encephalopathy in a man with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency (HED-ID) due to IKK-gamma (NEMO) mutation, who developed progressive neurological symptoms. Brain biopsy demonstrated polyomavirus infection of gray and white matter, with predominant involvement of cortex and distinct neuronal tropism, in addition to limited demyelination and oligodendroglial inclusions...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Marta Drake-Pérez, Enrique Marco de Lucas, John Lyo, José L Fernández-Torre
PURPOSE: To describe the neuroimaging findings in subacute encephalopathy with seizures in alcoholics (SESA syndrome). METHODS: We reviewed all cases reported previously, as well as 4 patients diagnosed in our center. We included a total of 8 patients. All subjects had clinical and EEG findings compatible with SESA syndrome and at least one MRI study that did not show other underlying condition that could be responsible for the clinical presentation. RESULTS: Initial MRI studies revealed the following features: cortical-subcortical areas of increased T2/FLAIR signal and restricted diffusion (6 patients), hyperperfusion (3 patients), atrophy (5 patients), chronic microvascular ischemic changes (4 patients)...
August 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Takamasa Nanba, Hiroshi Kashimura, Hiroaki Saura, Masaru Takeda
Although posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, to our knowledge, rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm following PRES has not been reported. We describe a patient with atypical PRES involving the brainstem, thalamus, and periventricular white matter without cortical or subcortical edema of the parietooccipital lobe on magnetic resonance imaging, with rupture of a concomitant cerebral aneurysm. Preexisting extremely high blood pressure may trigger atypical PRES, and failure to lower blood pressure may lead to a concomitant aneurysm rupture...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Vanessa Ginet, Yohan van de Looij, Volodymyr Petrenko, Audrey Toulotte, Jozsef Kiss, Petra S Hüppi, Stéphane V Sizonenko
Lactoferrin (Lf), component of maternal milk, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Neuroprotective effects of Lf on the immature brain have been recently shown in rodent models of intrauterine growth restriction and cerebral hypoxia/ischemia. Here we postulated that Lf could also have beneficial effects on preterm inflammatory brain injury. Lf was supplemented in maternal food during lactation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected in subcortical white matter of rat pups at postnatal day 3 (P3)...
May 2016: BioFactors
Rhea Yan Ying Tan, Hugh Stephen Markus
BACKGROUND: Migraine is common in Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) but its treatment responses are not well described, and its relationship to stroke risk unknown. Encephalopathy is a less common presentation; it has been suggested it is related to migraine. We characterised migraine patterns and treatment responses in CADASIL, and examined associations between migraine and both stroke risk and encephalopathy. METHODS: 300 symptomatic CADASIL patients were prospectively recruited from a national referral clinic over a nineteen year period, from 1996 to 2015...
2016: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"