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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473920/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-pres
#1
Sreenivasa Rao Sudulagunta, Mahesh Babu Sodalagunta, Monica Kumbhat, Aravinda Settikere Nataraju
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by a headache, seizures, altered mental status and visual loss and characterized by white matter vasogenic edema affecting the posterior occipital and parietal lobes of the brain predominantly. This clinical syndrome is increasingly recognized due to improvement and availability of brain imaging specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 35-year-old female with the history of unsafe abortion and massive blood transfusion 10 days ago was brought to the emergency room with three episodes of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, urinary incontinence and altered sensorium since 3 hours...
April 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465499/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-after-orthotopic-heart-transplantation-a-case-report
#2
Rigoberto Ramirez, Preetham Reddy Muskula, Mark P Everley
BACKGROUND Calcineurin inhibitor-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is well described in liver and kidney transplant patients, but there is a paucity of data in heart transplant patients. PRES syndrome in the setting of heart transplantation can occur as early as 5 days following transplantation. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old woman who had recently undergone orthotopic heart transplantation developed headaches, visual disturbances, and generalized tonic clonic seizures 5 days after initiating anti-rejection therapy (tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and prednisone)...
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441824/-clinical-and-neuroimaging-features-of-acute-encephalopathy-after-status-epilepticus-in-dravet-syndrome
#3
X J Tian, Y H Zhang, A J Liu, X L Yang, Q Zeng, Z X Yang, J T Ye, X Y Liu, Y W Jiang, X R Wu
Objective: To investigate the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of acute encephalopathy (AE) after status epilepticus (SE) of patients with Dravet syndrome (DS). Method: The clinical data of DS patients who had AE (coma ≥24 h) after SE were retrospectively collected from February 2005 to August 2016 in Peking University First Hospital and SCN1A gene tests were performed.The clinical and neuroimaging features were summarized. Result: Twenty-two patients (9 males and 13 females) with AE were collected among 412 DS patients during follow-up...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427358/cortical-laminar-necrosis-in-dengue-encephalitis-a-case-report
#4
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Imran Rizvi, Rajan Ingole, Amita Jain, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Dhruv Batra
BACKGROUND: Dengue encephalitis is a rare neurological manifestation of dengue fever. Its clinical presentation is similar to other viral encephalitides and encephalopathy. No single specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging of dengue encephalitis has yet been documented. They are highly variable and atypical. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year boy presented with fever, the headache and altered sensorium of 12-day duration. On neurological examination, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 10 (E3M4V3)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423465/febrile-status-epilepticus-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#5
Kazuhiro Uda, Katsuhiko Kitazawa
BACKGROUND: Febrile status epilepticus can have neurological sequelae. The type of sequelae, however, may depend on the etiology, including infections by viral agents such as the influenza virus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood suggests a similar role for this pathogen. The aim of this study was to characterize febrile status epilepticus associated with RSV infection, and to determine whether this type of infection is a risk factor for neurological sequelae with febrile status epilepticus...
April 19, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413125/transient-dysautonomia-in-an-acute-phase-of-encephalopathy-with-biphasic-seizures-and-late-reduced-diffusion
#6
Yuko Ichimiya, Noriyuki Kaku, Yasunari Sakai, Fumiya Yamashita, Wakato Matsuoka, Mamoru Muraoka, Satoshi Akamine, Soichi Mizuguchi, Michiko Torio, Yoshitomo Motomura, Yuichiro Hirata, Yoshito Ishizaki, Masafumi Sanefuji, Hiroyuki Torisu, Hidetoshi Takada, Yoshihiko Maehara, Shouichi Ohga
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a dysautonomic condition that is associated with various types of acquired brain injuries. Traumatic brain lesions have been documented as the leading cause of PSH. However, detailed clinical features of pediatric PSH caused by intrinsic brain lesions remain to be elusive. We present a 3-year-old boy, who had been diagnosed as having cerebral palsy, developmental delay and epilepsy after perinatal hypoxia-induced brain injury. He developed status epilepticus with fever on the third day of respiratory infection...
April 13, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361069/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-associated-with-left-horizontal-gaze-palsy
#7
Amer Hawatmeh, Sarah Studyvin, Moh'd Al-Halawani, Sawsan Amireh, Mohammad Thawabi
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by rapid onset of symptoms including headache, seizures, altered consciousness, and visual disturbance, as well as radiologic findings of focal reversible vasogenic edema. Multiple visual disturbances have been described in PRES, such as hemianopia, visual neglect, auras, visual hallucinations, and cortical blindness. However, horizontal gaze palsy has not been previously reported. We report a 72-year-old female who presented with blurred vision, severe headache, lethargy, and later developed seizures...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346953/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-state-of-the-art-review
#8
Mario Mastrangelo
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy usually with onset between 1 and 8 years of age. Functional neuroimaging studies recently introduced the concept of Lennox-Gastaut as "secondary network epilepsy" resulting from dysfunctions of a complex system involving both cortical and subcortical structures (default-mode network, corticoreticular connections, and thalamus). These dysfunctions are produced by different disorders including hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathies, meningoencephalitis, cortical malformations, neurocutaneous disorders, or tumors...
March 27, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316319/epileptic-spasms-in-paediatric-post-traumatic-epilepsy-at-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#9
Jun T Park, Harry T Chugani
To recognize epileptic spasms (ES) as a seizure type after traumatic brain injury (TBI), accidental or non-accidental, in infants and children. In the process, we aim to gain some insight into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in ES. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed at the Children's Hospital of Michigan from 2002 to 2012. Electronic charts of 321 patients were reviewed for evidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Various clinical variables were collected including age at TBI, mechanism of trauma, severity of brain injury, electroencephalography/neuroimaging data, and seizure semiology...
March 17, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254201/unusual-association-of-scn2a-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-severe-cortical-dysplasia-detected-by-prenatal-mri
#10
Silvia Bernardo, Enrica Marchionni, Sabrina Prudente, Paola De Liso, Alberto Spalice, Antonella Giancotti, Lucia Manganaro, Antonio Pizzuti
We present an atypical association of SCN2A epileptic encephalopathy with severe cortical dysplasia. SCN2A mutations are associated with epileptic syndromes from benign to extremely severe in absence of such macroscopic brain findings. Prenatal MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in a 32 weeks fetus, with US (Ultrasonography) diagnosis of isolated ventriculomegaly showed CNS (Central Nervous System) dysplasia characterized by lack of differentiation between cortical and subcortical layers, pachygyria and corpus callosum dysgenesis...
May 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238523/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-pres-with-sub-arachnoid-haemorrhage-after-bevacizumab-and-5-fu
#11
Jennifer Massey
PRES is a neurological syndrome characterised by reversible subcortical vasogenic brain oedema in patients with acute neurological signs and symptoms. It occurs in the context of fluctuations in blood pressure, renal failure, autoimmune disorders, eclamptic syndromes and with use of cytotoxic drugs. We present the case of a 60year old female with advanced bowel cancer who was admitted with seizures and sub-arachnoid haemorrhage, with radiographic features of PRES, shortly after receiving bevacizumab (Avastin), a VEGF-inhibitor...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202821/-pres-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome
#12
Kouichirou Okamoto, Kunio Motohashi, Hidemoto Fujiwara, Tomohiko Ishihara, Itaru Ninomiya, Osamu Onodera, Yukihiko Fujii
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is suggested in patients with acute neurological symptoms in the appropriate clinical context, including acute hypertension, blood pressure fluctuations, renal failure, blood transfusion, immunosuppression, autoimmune disorders, and eclampsia. PRES is a clinical syndrome, and refers to a disorder with reversible subcortical vasogenic brain edema caused by endothelial dysfunction, predominantly involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions. Although the clinical course and prognosis are favorable in most cases, intracranial hemorrhage and/or restricted diffusion similar to acute infarction could be seen in some lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190492/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-assessed-by-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-in-dogs-with-congenital-portosystemic-shunt-and-hepatic-encephalopathy
#13
Matan Or, Kathelijne Peremans, Valentine Martlé, Eva Vandermeulen, Tim Bosmans, Nausikaa Devriendt, Hilde de Rooster
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in eight dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) was compared with rCBF in eight healthy control dogs using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a (99m)technetium-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) tracer. SPECT scans were abnormal in all PSS dogs. Compared to the control group, rCBF in PSS dogs was significantly decreased in the temporal lobes and increased in the subcortical (thalamic and striatal) area...
February 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157751/inherited-and-uncommon-causes-of-stroke
#14
REVIEW
Jennifer Juhl Majersik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article is a practical guide to identifying uncommon causes of stroke and offers guidance for evaluation and management, even when large controlled trials are lacking in these rarer forms of stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Fabry disease causes early-onset stroke, particularly of the vertebrobasilar system; enzyme replacement therapy should be considered in affected patients. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis, causes migraines, early-onset lacunar strokes, and dementia...
February 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131186/neuroimaging-features-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-pictorial-review
#15
REVIEW
Morgan Ollivier, Anne Bertrand, Frédéric Clarençon, Sophie Gerber, Sandrine Deltour, Fanny Domont, Stéphanie Trunet, Didier Dormont, Delphine Leclercq
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a radioclinical entity associating nonspecific neurological symptoms (headache, seizures, impairment of alertness, visual disturbances…) occurring in evocative clinical condition (hypertension, eclampsia, immunosuppressor agents, systemic lupus erythematosus…). In the acute stage, the typical imaging finding is a vasogenic edema predominant in the subcortical parietal-occipital white matter. The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate the different neuroimaging features of PRES and present key radiological elements to assert diagnosis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121634/fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-correlation-of-histopathology-and-mri-in-prion-disease
#16
Karin P Mente, James K O'Donnell, Stephen E Jones, Mark L Cohen, Nicolas R Thompson, Alberto Bizzi, Pierluigi Gambetti, Jiri G Safar, Brian S Appleby
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and other prion diseases are rapidly progressive spongiform encephalopathies that are invariably fatal. Clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities may suggest prion disease, but a definitive diagnosis can only be made by means of neuropathologic examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is not routinely used to evaluate patients with suspected prion disease. This study includes 11 cases of definite prion disease in which FDG-PET scans were obtained...
January 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060696/acute-pancreatitis-and-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-case-report
#17
Vítor Magno Pereira, Luís Marote Correia, Tiago Rodrigues, Gorete Serrão Faria
The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a neurological syndrome characterized by headache, confusion, visual disturbances and seizures associated with identifiable areas of cerebral edema on imaging studies. The authors report the case of a man, 33 years-old, leukodermic with a history of chronic alcohol and tobacco consumption, who is admitted to the emergency department for epigastric pain radiating to the back and vomiting with about six hours of evolution and an intense holocranial headache for two hours...
September 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919476/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-complicating-dengue-infection-with-neuroimaging-mimicking-multiple-sclerosis-a-report-of-two-cases
#18
S Viswanathan, N Botross, B N Rusli, A Riad
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919270/delayed-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-air-emboli-after-open-heart-surgery-case-report-and-review-of-a-success-story
#19
REVIEW
Eva Niyibizi, Guillaume Elyes Kembi, Claude Lae, Rodrigue Pignel, Tornike Sologashvili
BACKGROUND: The current case describes a rare diagnosis of iatrogenic air emboli after elective cardiopulmonary bypass that was successfully treated with delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy, with good clinical evolution in spite of rare complications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35 years old male was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for post-operative management after being placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for an elective ventricular septal defect closure and aortic valvuloplasty...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904123/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-with-extensive-deep-white-matter-lesions-including-the-temporal-pole
#20
Junichiro Ohira, Nobuyuki Mori, Shunsuke Kajikawa, Takeshi Nakamura, Tetsuya Arisato, Makio Takahashi
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) typically affects the posterior subcortical white matter. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with atypical PRES, who had malignant hypertension and renal dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive vasogenic edema in the deep white matter including the temporal pole, as well as in the brainstem and cerebellum. Antihypertensive therapy and hemodialysis contributed to both clinical and radiological improvement. Involvement of the deep white matter including the temporal pole, which is rarely affected in an ischemic stroke, should be recognized as a potential sign of PRES...
2016: Internal Medicine
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