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Premotor-motor circuits

E Mark Mahone, Deana Crocetti, Laura Tochen, Tina Kline, Stewart H Mostofsky, Harvey S Singer
BACKGROUND: Complex motor stereotypies in children are repetitive rhythmic movements that have a predictable pattern and location, seem purposeful, but serve no obvious function, tend to be prolonged, and stop with distraction, e.g., arm or hand flapping, waving. They occur in both "primary" (otherwise typically developing) and secondary conditions. These movements are best defined as habitual behaviors and therefore pathophysiologically hypothesized to reside in premotor to posterior putamen circuits...
September 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
K E Cullen
The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Andreas A Kardamakis, Juan Pérez-Fernández, Sten Grillner
Animals integrate the different senses to facilitate event-detection for navigation in their environment. In vertebrates, the optic tectum (superior colliculus) commands gaze shifts by synaptic integration of different sensory modalities. Recent works suggest that tectum can elaborate gaze reorientation commands on its own, rather than merely acting as a relay from upstream/forebrain circuits to downstream premotor centers. We show that tectal circuits can perform multisensory computations independently and, hence, configure final motor commands...
2016: ELife
Livia Casarelli, Maurizio Minnei, Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Marco Armando, Maria Pontillo, Stefano Vicari, Augusto Pasini
22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder, resulting from a hemizygous microdeletion on the long arm of chromosome 22. In 22q11DS, the phenotypic expression is highly variable. Approximately one-third of all individuals with 22q11DS develop schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder. Among the genes in the deleted region, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has a particular relevance for psychiatric disorders: lower COMT enzymatic activity decreases the clearance of dopamine (DA), yielding higher levels of catecholamines in the central nervous system...
October 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
Eri Hasegawa, James W Truman, Akinao Nose
We use Drosophila larval locomotion as a model to elucidate the working principles of motor circuits. Larval locomotion is generated by rhythmic and sequential contractions of body-wall muscles from the posterior to anterior segments, which in turn are regulated by motor neurons present in the corresponding neuromeres. Motor neurons are known to receive both excitatory and inhibitory inputs, combined action of which likely regulates patterned motor activity during locomotion. Although recent studies identified candidate inhibitory premotor interneurons, the identity of premotor interneurons that provide excitatory drive to motor neurons during locomotion remains unknown...
2016: Scientific Reports
Stefan Schaffelhofer, Hansjörg Scherberger
Grasping requires translating object geometries into appropriate hand shapes. How the brain computes these transformations is currently unclear. We investigated three key areas of the macaque cortical grasping circuit with microelectrode arrays and found cooperative but anatomically separated visual and motor processes. The parietal area AIP operated primarily in a visual mode. Its neuronal population revealed a specialization for shape processing, even for abstract geometries, and processed object features ultimately important for grasping...
July 26, 2016: ELife
Maarten F Zwart, Stefan R Pulver, James W Truman, Akira Fushiki, Richard D Fetter, Albert Cardona, Matthias Landgraf
Locomotor systems generate diverse motor patterns to produce the movements underlying behavior, requiring that motor neurons be recruited at various phases of the locomotor cycle. Reciprocal inhibition produces alternating motor patterns; however, the mechanisms that generate other phasic relationships between intrasegmental motor pools are unknown. Here, we investigate one such motor pattern in the Drosophila larva, using a multidisciplinary approach including electrophysiology and ssTEM-based circuit reconstruction...
August 3, 2016: Neuron
Ettore A Accolla, Maria Herrojo Ruiz, Andreas Horn, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Bogdan Draganski, Andrea A Kühn
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Given the frequent occurrence of stimulation-induced affective and cognitive adverse effects, a better understanding about the role of the subthalamic nucleus in non-motor functions is needed. The main goal of this study is to characterize anatomical circuits modulated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation, and infer about the inner organization of the nucleus in terms of motor and non-motor areas...
September 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Hanbing Song, John A Hayes, Nikolas C Vann, Xueying Wang, M Drew LaMar, Christopher A Del Negro
UNLABELLED: Breathing in mammals depends on rhythms that originate from the preBötzinger complex (preBötC) of the ventral medulla and a network of brainstem and spinal premotor neurons. The rhythm-generating core of the preBötC, as well as some premotor circuits, consist of interneurons derived from Dbx1-expressing precursors (Dbx1 neurons), but the structure and function of these networks remain incompletely understood. We previously developed a cell-specific detection and laser ablation system to interrogate respiratory network structure and function in a slice model of breathing that retains the preBötC, the respiratory-related hypoglossal (XII) motor nucleus and XII premotor circuits...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alison Harris, Seung-Lark Lim
UNLABELLED: Although physical effort can impose significant costs on decision-making, when and how effort cost information is incorporated into choice remains contested, reflecting a larger debate over the role of sensorimotor networks in specifying behavior. Serial information processing models, in which motor circuits simply implement the output of cognitive systems, hypothesize that effort cost factors into decisions relatively late, via integration with stimulus values into net (combined) value signals in dorsomedial frontal cortex (dmFC)...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Elise Houdayer, Marco Cursi, Arturo Nuara, Sonia Zanini, Roberto Gatti, Giancarlo Comi, Letizia Leocani
The neuronal mechanisms involved in brain plasticity after skilled motor learning are not completely understood. We aimed to study the short-term effects of keyboard training in music-naive subjects on the motor/premotor cortex activity and interhemispheric interactions, using electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Twelve subjects (experimental group) underwent, before and after a two week-piano training: (1) hand-motor function tests: Jamar, grip and nine-hole peg tests; (2) electroencephalography, evaluating the mu rhythm task-related desynchronization (TRD) during keyboard performance; and (3) TMS, targeting bilateral abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM), to obtain duration and area of ipsilateral silent period (ISP) during simultaneous tonic contraction of APB and ADM...
2016: PloS One
Markus Boeckle, Marlene Schrimpf, Gregor Liegl, Christoph Pieh
Somatoform disorders (SD) are common medical disorders with prevalence rates between 3.5% and 18.4%, depending on country and medical setting. SD as outlined in the ICD-10 exhibits various biological, social, and psychological pathogenic factors. Little is known about the neural correlates of SD. The aims of this meta-analysis are to identify neuronal areas that are involved in SD and consistently differ between patients and healthy controls. We conducted a systematic literature research on neuroimaging studies of SD...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Masato Inoue, Motoaki Uchimura, Shigeru Kitazawa
Reaching movements are subject to adaptation in response to errors induced by prisms or external perturbations. Motor cortical circuits have been hypothesized to provide execution errors that drive adaptation, but human imaging studies to date have reported that execution errors are encoded in parietal association areas. Thus, little evidence has been uncovered that supports the motor hypothesis. Here, we show that both primary motor and premotor cortices encode information on end-point errors in reaching. We further show that post-movement microstimulation to these regions caused trial-by-trial increases in errors, which subsided exponentially when the stimulation was terminated...
June 1, 2016: Neuron
Mohsen Omrani, Chantelle D Murnaghan, J Andrew Pruszynski, Stephen H Scott
Corrective responses to limb disturbances are surprisingly complex, but the neural basis of these goal-directed responses is poorly understood. Here we show that somatosensory feedback is transmitted to many sensory and motor cortical regions within 25 ms of a mechanical disturbance applied to the monkey's arm. When limb feedback was salient to an ongoing motor action (task engagement), neurons in parietal area 5 immediately (~25 ms) increased their response to limb disturbances, whereas neurons in other regions did not alter their response until 15 to 40 ms later...
2016: ELife
Karlo J Lizarraga, Alessandra Gorgulho, Wei Chen, Antonio A De Salles
Positron emission tomography measures the activity of radioactively labeled compounds which distribute and accumulate in central nervous system regions in proportion to their metabolic rate or blood flow. Specific circuits such as the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection can be studied with ligands that bind to the pre-synaptic dopamine transporter or post-synaptic dopamine receptors (D1 and D2). Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) measures the activity of similar tracers labeled with heavy radioactive species such as technetium and iodine...
March 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Ashwini Oswal, Martijn Beudel, Ludvic Zrinzo, Patricia Limousin, Marwan Hariz, Tom Foltynie, Vladimir Litvak, Peter Brown
Chronic dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease leads to progressive motor and cognitive impairment, which is associated with the emergence of characteristic patterns of synchronous oscillatory activity within cortico-basal-ganglia circuits. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, but its influence on synchronous activity in cortico-basal-ganglia loops remains to be fully characterized. Here, we demonstrate that deep brain stimulation selectively suppresses certain spatially and spectrally segregated resting state subthalamic nucleus-cortical networks...
May 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, David J Arpin, Tony W Wilson
In humans, there is a strong beta (15-30 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) that begins before movement, which has been tentatively linked to motor planning operations. The dynamics of this response are strongly modulated by whether a pending movement is cued and the inherent parameters of the cue. However, previous studies have focused on the information content of cues and not on parameters such as the timing of the cue relative to other events. Variations in such timing are critical, as they directly impact the amount of time that participants have to plan pending movements...
July 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Felipe S Salinas, Crystal Franklin, Shalini Narayana, C Ákos Szabó, Peter T Fox
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has the potential to treat brain disorders by modulating the activity of disease-specific brain networks, yet the rTMS frequencies used are delivered in a binary fashion - excitatory (>1 Hz) and inhibitory (≤1 Hz). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effective connectivity of the motor network at different rTMS stimulation rates during positron-emission tomography (PET) and confirm that not all excitatory rTMS frequencies act on the motor network in the same manner...
May 2016: Brain Stimulation
Hande C Piristine, Tenzin Choetzo, Sharon M H Gobes
Sensory feedback is essential for acquiring and maintaining complex motor behaviors, including birdsong. In zebra finches, auditory feedback reaches the song control circuits primarily through the nucleus interfacialis nidopalii (Nif), which provides excitatory input to HVC (proper name) - a premotor region essential for the production of learned vocalizations. Despite being one of the major inputs to the song control pathway, the role of Nif in generating zebra finch vocalizations is not well understood. To address this, we transiently inactivated Nif in late juvenile songbirds...
February 22, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Jill Campbell Stewart, Pritha Dewanjee, Umar Shariff, Steven C Cramer
Compensatory activation in dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) during movement execution has often been reported after stroke. However, the role of PMd in the planning of skilled movement after stroke has not been well studied. The current study investigated the behavioral and neural response to the addition of action selection (AS) demands, a motor planning process that engages PMd in controls, to movement after stroke. Ten individuals with chronic, left hemisphere stroke and 16 age-matched controls made a joystick movement with the right hand under two conditions...
May 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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