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Premotor-motor circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228579/network-wide-oscillations-in-the-parkinsonian-state-alterations-in-neuronal-activities-occur-in-the-premotor-cortex-in-parkinsonian-non-human-primates
#1
Jing Wang, Luke A Johnson, Alicia L Jensen, Kenneth B Baker, Jerrold L Vitek
A number of studies suggest that Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with alterations of neuronal activity patterns in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. There are limited electrophysiological data, however, describing how premotor cortex, which is involved in movement and decision making, is likely impacted in PD. In this study, spontaneous local field potential (LFP) and single unit neuronal activity were recorded in the dorsal premotor area of non-human primates in both the naïve and parkinsonian state using the MPTP model of parkinsonism...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#2
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219984/motor-neurons-tune-premotor-activity-in-a-vertebrate-central-pattern-generator
#3
Kristy J Lawton, Wick M Perry, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
Central patterns generators (CPGs) are neural circuits that drive rhythmic motor output without sensory feedback. Vertebrate CPGs are generally believed to operate in a top-down manner in which premotor interneurons activate motor neurons that in turn drive muscles. In contrast, the frog (Xenopus laevis) vocal CPG contains a functionally unexplored neuronal projection from the motor nucleus to the premotor nucleus, indicating a recurrent pathway that may contribute to rhythm generation. In this study we characterized the function of this bottom-up connection...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219983/neural-representation-and-causal-models-in-motor-cortex
#4
Kris S Chaisanguanthum, Helen H Shen, Philip N Sabes
Dorsal premotor (PMd) and primary motor (M1) cortex play a central role in mapping sensation to movement. Many studies of these areas have focused on correlation-based tuning curves relating neural activity to task or movement parameters, but the link between tuning and movement generation is unclear. We recorded motor preparatory activity from populations of neurons in PMd/M1 as macaque monkeys performed a visually guided reaching task and show that tuning curves for sensory inputs (reach target direction) and motor outputs (initial movement direction) are not typically aligned...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216318/circuit-homology-between-decussating-pathways-in-the-ciona-larval-cns-and-the-vertebrate-startle-response-pathway
#5
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Comparing synaptic circuits and networks between brains of different animal groups helps us derive an understanding of how nervous systems might have evolved. The circuits of the startle response pathway in the brains of tailed vertebrates are known from electrophysiological studies on the giant reticulospinal Mauthner cells (M-cells). To identify morphological counterparts in chordate tunicates, a sister group of vertebrates [1, 2], we have compiled a densely reconstructed connectome (defined in [3]) for the CNS in the tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis (L...
February 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191872/spatiotemporal-correlation-of-spinal-network-dynamics-underlying-spasms-in-chronic-spinalized-mice
#6
Carmelo Bellardita, Vittorio Caggiano, Roberto Leiras, Vanessa Caldeira, Andrea Fuchs, Julien Bouvier, Peter Löw, Ole Kiehn
Spasms after spinal cord injury (SCI) are debilitating involuntary muscle contractions that have been associated with increased motor neuron excitability and decreased inhibition. However, whether spasms involve activation of premotor spinal excitatory neuronal circuits is unknown. Here we use mouse genetics, electrophysiology, imaging and optogenetics to directly target major classes of spinal interneurons as well as motor neurons during spasms in a mouse model of chronic SCI. We find that assemblies of excitatory spinal interneurons are recruited by sensory input into functional circuits to generate persistent neural activity, which interacts with both the graded expression of plateau potentials in motor neurons to generate spasms, and inhibitory interneurons to curtail them...
February 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159910/temperature-manipulation-in-songbird-brain-implicates-the-premotor-nucleus-hvc-in-birdsong-syntax
#7
Yisi S Zhang, Jason D Wittenbach, Dezhe Z Jin, Alexay A Kozhevnikov
: Variable motor sequences of animals are often structured and can be described by probabilistic transition rules between action elements. Examples include the songs of many songbird species such as the Bengalese finch, which consist of stereotypical syllables sequenced according to probabilistic rules (song syntax). The neural mechanisms behind such rules are poorly understood. Here we investigate where the song syntax is encoded in the brain of the Bengalese finch by rapidly and reversibly manipulating the temperature in the song production pathway...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108414/the-macaque-lateral-grasping-network-a-neural-substrate-for-generating-purposeful-hand-actions
#8
REVIEW
Elena Borra, Marzio Gerbella, Stefano Rozzi, Giuseppe Luppino
In primates, neural mechanisms for controlling skilled hand actions primarily rely on sensorimotor transformations. These transformations are mediated by circuits linking specific inferior parietal with ventral premotor areas in which sensory coding of objects' features automatically triggers appropriate hand motor programs. Recently, connectional studies in macaques showed that these parietal and premotor areas are nodes of a large-scale cortical network, designated as "lateral grasping network," including specific temporal and prefrontal sectors involved in object recognition and executive functions, respectively...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077513/cognitive-control-structures-in-the-imitation-learning-of-spatial-sequences-and-rhythms-an-fmri-study
#9
Katrin Sakreida, Satomi Higuchi, Cinzia Di Dio, Michael Ziessler, Martine Turgeon, Neil Roberts, Stefan Vogt
Imitation learning involves the acquisition of novel motor patterns based on action observation (AO). We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the imitation learning of spatial sequences and rhythms during AO, motor imagery (MI), and imitative execution in nonmusicians and musicians. While both tasks engaged the fronto-parietal mirror circuit, the spatial sequence task recruited posterior parietal and dorsal premotor regions more strongly. The rhythm task involved an additional network for auditory working memory...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065829/medullary-reticular-neurons-mediate-neuropeptide-y-induced-metabolic-inhibition-and-mastication
#10
Yoshiko Nakamura, Yuchio Yanagawa, Shaun F Morrison, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) elicits hunger responses to increase the chances of surviving starvation: an inhibition of metabolism and an increase in feeding. Here we elucidate a key central circuit mechanism through which hypothalamic NPY signals drive these hunger responses. GABAergic neurons in the intermediate and parvicellular reticular nuclei (IRt/PCRt) of the medulla oblongata, which are activated by NPY-triggered neural signaling from the hypothalamus, potentially through the nucleus tractus solitarius, mediate the NPY-induced inhibition of metabolic thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) via their innervation of BAT sympathetic premotor neurons...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042027/distant-heterotopic-callosal-connections-to-premotor-cortex-in-non-human-primates
#11
F Lanz, V Moret, R Ambett, C Cappe, E M Rouiller, G Loquet
Cortico-cortical connectivity has become a major focus of neuroscience in the last decade but most of the connectivity studies focused on intrahemispheric circuits. Little has been reported about information acquired and processed in the premotor cortex and its functional connection with its homotopic counterpart in the opposite hemisphere via the corpus callosum. In non-human primates (macaques) lateralization is not well documented and its exact role is still unknown. The present study confirms in two macaques the existence of homotopic contralateral projections and completes the picture by further exploring heterotopic (non-motor) callosal projections...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031992/striatal-morphology-correlates-with-frontostriatal-electrophysiological-motor-processing-in-huntington-s-disease-an-image-hd-study
#12
Lauren M Turner, David Jakabek, Fiona A Wilkes, Rodney J Croft, Andrew Churchyard, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Jeffrey C L Looi, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Deborah Apthorp
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) causes progressive atrophy to the striatum, a critical node in frontostriatal circuitry. Maintenance of motor function is dependent on functional connectivity of these premotor, motor, and dorsolateral frontostriatal circuits, and structural integrity of the striatum itself. We aimed to investigate whether size and shape of the striatum as a measure of frontostriatal circuit structural integrity was correlated with functional frontostriatal electrophysiological neural premotor processing (contingent negative variation, CNV), to better understand motoric structure-function relationships in early HD...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007991/genetic-inactivation-of-glutamate-neurons-in-the-rat-sublaterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus-recapitulates-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#13
Sara Valencia Garcia, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Michael Lazarus, Daniela Grassi, Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Patrice Fort
Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by the enactment of violent dreams during paradoxical (REM) sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. Accumulating clinical and experimental data suggest that REM sleep behaviour disorder might be due to the neurodegeneration of glutamate neurons involved in paradoxical sleep and located within the pontine sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The purpose of the present work was thus to functionally determine first, the role of glutamate sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons in paradoxical sleep and second, whether their genetic inactivation is sufficient for recapitulating REM sleep behaviour disorder in rats...
December 21, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751663/anomalous-putamen-volume-in-children-with-complex-motor-stereotypies
#14
E Mark Mahone, Deana Crocetti, Laura Tochen, Tina Kline, Stewart H Mostofsky, Harvey S Singer
BACKGROUND: Complex motor stereotypies in children are repetitive rhythmic movements that have a predictable pattern and location, seem purposeful, but serve no obvious function, tend to be prolonged, and stop with distraction, e.g., arm or hand flapping, waving. They occur in both "primary" (otherwise typically developing) and secondary conditions. These movements are best defined as habitual behaviors and therefore pathophysiologically hypothesized to reside in premotor to posterior putamen circuits...
December 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638060/physiology-of-central-pathways
#15
REVIEW
K E Cullen
The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635636/spatiotemporal-interplay-between-multisensory-excitation-and-recruited-inhibition-in-the-lamprey-optic-tectum
#16
Andreas A Kardamakis, Juan Pérez-Fernández, Sten Grillner
Animals integrate the different senses to facilitate event-detection for navigation in their environment. In vertebrates, the optic tectum (superior colliculus) commands gaze shifts by synaptic integration of different sensory modalities. Recent works suggest that tectum can elaborate gaze reorientation commands on its own, rather than merely acting as a relay from upstream/forebrain circuits to downstream premotor centers. We show that tectal circuits can perform multisensory computations independently and, hence, configure final motor commands...
September 16, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548835/dopamine-dysfunction-in-22q11-deletion-syndrome-possible-cause-of-motor-symptoms
#17
Livia Casarelli, Maurizio Minnei, Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Marco Armando, Maria Pontillo, Stefano Vicari, Augusto Pasini
22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder, resulting from a hemizygous microdeletion on the long arm of chromosome 22. In 22q11DS, the phenotypic expression is highly variable. Approximately one-third of all individuals with 22q11DS develop schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder. Among the genes in the deleted region, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has a particular relevance for psychiatric disorders: lower COMT enzymatic activity decreases the clearance of dopamine (DA), yielding higher levels of catecholamines in the central nervous system...
October 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470675/identification-of-excitatory-premotor-interneurons-which-regulate-local-muscle-contraction-during-drosophila-larval-locomotion
#18
Eri Hasegawa, James W Truman, Akinao Nose
We use Drosophila larval locomotion as a model to elucidate the working principles of motor circuits. Larval locomotion is generated by rhythmic and sequential contractions of body-wall muscles from the posterior to anterior segments, which in turn are regulated by motor neurons present in the corresponding neuromeres. Motor neurons are known to receive both excitatory and inhibitory inputs, combined action of which likely regulates patterned motor activity during locomotion. Although recent studies identified candidate inhibitory premotor interneurons, the identity of premotor interneurons that provide excitatory drive to motor neurons during locomotion remains unknown...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458796/object-vision-to-hand-action-in-macaque-parietal-premotor-and-motor-cortices
#19
Stefan Schaffelhofer, Hansjörg Scherberger
Grasping requires translating object geometries into appropriate hand shapes. How the brain computes these transformations is currently unclear. We investigated three key areas of the macaque cortical grasping circuit with microelectrode arrays and found cooperative but anatomically separated visual and motor processes. The parietal area AIP operated primarily in a visual mode. Its neuronal population revealed a specialization for shape processing, even for abstract geometries, and processed object features ultimately important for grasping...
July 26, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427461/selective-inhibition-mediates-the-sequential-recruitment-of-motor-pools
#20
Maarten F Zwart, Stefan R Pulver, James W Truman, Akira Fushiki, Richard D Fetter, Albert Cardona, Matthias Landgraf
Locomotor systems generate diverse motor patterns to produce the movements underlying behavior, requiring that motor neurons be recruited at various phases of the locomotor cycle. Reciprocal inhibition produces alternating motor patterns; however, the mechanisms that generate other phasic relationships between intrasegmental motor pools are unknown. Here, we investigate one such motor pattern in the Drosophila larva, using a multidisciplinary approach including electrophysiology and ssTEM-based circuit reconstruction...
August 3, 2016: Neuron
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