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Premotor-motor circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198754/divergent-connectivity-of-homologous-command-like-neurons-mediates-segment-specific-touch-responses-in-drosophila
#1
Suguru Takagi, Benjamin Thomas Cocanougher, Sawako Niki, Dohjin Miyamoto, Hiroshi Kohsaka, Hokto Kazama, Richard Doty Fetter, James William Truman, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona, Akinao Nose
Animals adaptively respond to a tactile stimulus by choosing an ethologically relevant behavior depending on the location of the stimuli. Here, we investigate how somatosensory inputs on different body segments are linked to distinct motor outputs in Drosophila larvae. Larvae escape by backward locomotion when touched on the head, while they crawl forward when touched on the tail. We identify a class of segmentally repeated second-order somatosensory interneurons, that we named Wave, whose activation in anterior and posterior segments elicit backward and forward locomotion, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069594/columnar-intrinsic-cues-shape-premotor-input-specificity-in-locomotor-circuits
#2
Myungin Baek, Chiara Pivetta, Jeh-Ping Liu, Silvia Arber, Jeremy S Dasen
Control of movement relies on the ability of circuits within the spinal cord to establish connections with specific subtypes of motor neuron (MN). Although the pattern of output from locomotor networks can be influenced by MN position and identity, whether MNs exert an instructive role in shaping synaptic specificity within the spinal cord is unclear. We show that Hox transcription-factor-dependent programs in MNs are essential in establishing the central pattern of connectivity within the ventral spinal cord...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062887/neuronal-intrinsic-physiology-changes-during-development-of-a-learned-behavior
#3
Matthew T Ross, Diana Flores, Richard Bertram, Frank Johnson, Richard L Hyson
Juvenile male zebra finches learn their songs over distinct auditory and sensorimotor stages, the former requiring exposure to an adult tutor song pattern. The cortical premotor nucleus HVC (acronym is name) plays a necessary role in both learning stages, as well as the production of adult song. Consistent with neural network models where synaptic plasticity mediates developmental forms of learning, exposure to tutor song drives changes in the turnover, density, and morphology of HVC synapses during vocal development...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968878/severity-of-writer-s-cramp-is-related-to-faulty-motor-preparation
#4
Asha Kishore, Traian Popa, Praveen James, Syam Krishnan, Sunitha Robert, Sabine Meunier
We characterized, in 37 writer's cramp (WC) patients and 14 healthy volunteers (HV), the buildup of motor representations contralateral ("intended") and ispsilateral ("unintended") to the movement to be produced and the excitability changes in left primary motor cortex during the early reaction time (RT) of a pre-cued reaching movement to pick up a pen with either hand to write. We also tested the excitability of interhemispheric pathways from right dorsal premotor and motor cortices to left motor cortex. During early RT (1) the motor cortex excitability of unintended muscle representations did not decrease in patients as in HV and (2) the connection from the contralateral dorsal premotor cortex to the "intended" motor representation did not function in patients...
September 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968387/dopamine-negatively-modulates-the-nca-ion-channels-in-c-elegans
#5
Irini Topalidou, Kirsten Cooper, Laura Pereira, Michael Ailion
The NALCN/NCA ion channel is a cation channel related to voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. NALCN has been reported to be a sodium leak channel with a conserved role in establishing neuronal resting membrane potential, but its precise cellular role and regulation are unclear. The Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of NALCN, NCA-1 and NCA-2, act in premotor interneurons to regulate motor circuit activity that sustains locomotion. Recently we found that NCA-1 and NCA-2 are activated by a signal transduction pathway acting downstream of the heterotrimeric G protein Gq and the small GTPase Rho...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942925/deconstruction-of-corticospinal-circuits-for-goal-directed-motor-skills
#6
Xuhua Wang, Yuanyuan Liu, Xinjian Li, Zicong Zhang, Hengfu Yang, Yu Zhang, Philip R Williams, Noaf S A Alwahab, Kush Kapur, Bin Yu, Yiming Zhang, Mengying Chen, Haixia Ding, Charles R Gerfen, Kuan Hong Wang, Zhigang He
Corticospinal neurons (CSNs) represent the direct cortical outputs to the spinal cord and play important roles in motor control across different species. However, their organizational principle remains unclear. By using a retrograde labeling system, we defined the requirement of CSNs in the execution of a skilled forelimb food-pellet retrieval task in mice. In vivo imaging of CSN activity during performance revealed the sequential activation of topographically ordered functional ensembles with moderate local mixing...
October 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916788/a-v0-core-neuronal-circuit-for-inspiration
#7
Jinjin Wu, Paolo Capelli, Julien Bouvier, Martyn Goulding, Silvia Arber, Gilles Fortin
Breathing in mammals relies on permanent rhythmic and bilaterally synchronized contractions of inspiratory pump muscles. These motor drives emerge from interactions between critical sets of brainstem neurons whose origins and synaptic ordered organization remain obscure. Here, we show, using a virus-based transsynaptic tracing strategy from the diaphragm muscle in the mouse, that the principal inspiratory premotor neurons share V0 identity with, and are connected by, neurons of the preBötzinger complex that paces inspiration...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843993/circuits-in-the-rodent-brainstem-that-control-whisking-in-concert-with-other-orofacial-motor-actions
#8
REVIEW
Lauren E McElvain, Beth Friedman, Harvey J Karten, Karel Svoboda, Fan Wang, Martin Deschênes, David Kleinfeld
The world view of rodents is largely determined by sensation on two length scales. One is within the animal's peri-personal space. Sensorimotor control on this scale involves active movements of the nose, tongue, head, and vibrissa, along with sniffing to determine olfactory clues. The second scale involves the detection of more distant space through vision and audition; these detection processes also impact repositioning of the head, eyes, and ears. Here we focus on orofacial motor actions, primarily vibrissa-based touch but including nose twitching, head bobbing, and licking, that control sensation at short, peri-personal distances...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774738/divergent-structural-responses-to-pharmacological-interventions-in-orbitofronto-striato-thalamic-and-premotor-circuits-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Qiming Lv, Zhen Wang, Chencheng Zhang, Qing Fan, Qing Zhao, Kristina Zeljic, Bomin Sun, Zeping Xiao, Zheng Wang
Prior efforts to dissect etiological and pharmacological modulations in brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often undermined by methodological and sampling constraints, yielding conflicting conclusions and no reliable neuromarkers. Here we evaluated alteration of regional gray matter volume including effect size (Cohen's d value) in 95 drug-naïve patients (age range: 18-55) compared to 95 healthy subjects (age: 18-63), then examined pharmacological effects in 65 medicated (age: 18-57) and 73 medication-free patients (age: 18-61)...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752330/cortico-thalamic-disconnection-in-a-patient-with-supernumerary-phantom-limb
#10
Clémence Bourlon, Marika Urbanski, Romain Quentin, Christophe Duret, Eric Bardinet, Paolo Bartolomeo, Alexia Bourgeois
Supernumerary phantom limb (SPL) designates the experience of an illusory additional limb occurring after brain damage. Functional neuroimaging during SPL movements documented increased response in the ipsilesional supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex (PMC), thalamus and caudate. This suggested that motor circuits are important for bodily related cognition, but anatomical evidence is sparse. Here, we tested this hypothesis by studying an extremely rare patient with chronic SPL, still present 3 years after a vascular stroke affecting cortical and subcortical right-hemisphere structures...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748312/the-extended-object-grasping-network
#11
REVIEW
Marzio Gerbella, Stefano Rozzi, Giacomo Rizzolatti
Grasping is the most important skilled motor act of primates. It is based on a series of sensorimotor transformations through which the affordances of the objects to be grasped are transformed into appropriate hand movements. It is generally accepted that a circuit formed by inferior parietal areas AIP and PFG and ventral premotor area F5 represents the core circuit for sensorimotor transformations for grasping. However, selection and control of appropriate grip should also depend on higher-order information, such as the meaning of the object to be grasped, and the overarching goal of the action in which grasping is embedded...
July 26, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735100/attention-modulates-specific-motor-cortical-circuits-recruited-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#12
J L Mirdamadi, L Y Suzuki, S K Meehan
Skilled performance and acquisition is dependent upon afferent input to motor cortex. The present study used short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) to probe how manipulation of sensory afference by attention affects different circuits projecting to pyramidal tract neurons in motor cortex. SAI was assessed in the first dorsal interosseous muscle while participants performed a low or high attention-demanding visual detection task. SAI was evoked by preceding a suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulus with electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist...
September 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687313/two-different-mirror-neuron-networks-the-sensorimotor-hand-and-limbic-face-pathways
#13
REVIEW
P F Ferrari, M Gerbella, G Coudé, S Rozzi
The vast majority of functional studies investigating mirror neurons (MNs) explored their properties in relation to hand actions, and very few investigated how MNs respond to mouth actions or communicative gestures. Since hand and mouth MNs were recorded in two partially overlapping sectors of the ventral precentral cortex of the macaque monkey, there is a general assumption that they share a same neuroanatomical network, with the parietal cortex as a main source of visual information. In the current review, we challenge this perspective and describe the connectivity pattern of mouth MN sector...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617829/rhythmic-syllable-related-activity-in-a-songbird-motor-thalamic-nucleus-necessary-for-learned-vocalizations
#14
Husain H Danish, Dmitriy Aronov, Michale S Fee
Birdsong is a complex behavior that exhibits hierarchical organization. While the representation of singing behavior and its hierarchical organization has been studied in some detail in avian cortical premotor circuits, our understanding of the role of the thalamus in adult birdsong is incomplete. Using a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological studies, we seek to expand on earlier work showing that the thalamic nucleus Uvaeformis (Uva) is necessary for the production of stereotyped, adult song in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521132/linking-neurons-to-network-function-and-behavior-by-two-photon-holographic-optogenetics-and-volumetric-imaging
#15
Marco Dal Maschio, Joseph C Donovan, Thomas O Helmbrecht, Herwig Baier
We introduce a flexible method for high-resolution interrogation of circuit function, which combines simultaneous 3D two-photon stimulation of multiple targeted neurons, volumetric functional imaging, and quantitative behavioral tracking. This integrated approach was applied to dissect how an ensemble of premotor neurons in the larval zebrafish brain drives a basic motor program, the bending of the tail. We developed an iterative photostimulation strategy to identify minimal subsets of channelrhodopsin (ChR2)-expressing neurons that are sufficient to initiate tail movements...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334082/decoding-grasping-movements-from-the-parieto-frontal-reaching-circuit-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#16
Koen Nelissen, Prosper Agbesi Fiave, Wim Vanduffel
Prehension movements typically include a reaching phase, guiding the hand toward the object, and a grip phase, shaping the hand around it. The dominant view posits that these components rely upon largely independent parieto-frontal circuits: a dorso-medial circuit involved in reaching and a dorso-lateral circuit involved in grasping. However, mounting evidence suggests a more complex arrangement, with dorso-medial areas contributing to both reaching and grasping. To investigate the role of the dorso-medial reaching circuit in grasping, we trained monkeys to reach-and-grasp different objects in the dark and determined if hand configurations could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses obtained from the reaching and grasping circuits...
February 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317880/antidromic-rectifying-gap-junctions-amplify-chemical-transmission-at-functionally-mixed-electrical-chemical-synapses
#17
Ping Liu, Bojun Chen, Roger Mailler, Zhao-Wen Wang
Neurons communicate through chemical synapses and electrical synapses (gap junctions). Although these two types of synapses often coexist between neurons, little is known about whether they interact, and whether any interactions between them are important to controlling synaptic strength and circuit functions. By studying chemical and electrical synapses between premotor interneurons (AVA) and downstream motor neurons (A-MNs) in the Caenorhabditis elegans escape circuit, we found that disrupting either the chemical or electrical synapses causes defective escape response...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228579/network-wide-oscillations-in-the-parkinsonian-state-alterations-in-neuronal-activities-occur-in-the-premotor-cortex-in-parkinsonian-nonhuman-primates
#18
Jing Wang, Luke A Johnson, Alicia L Jensen, Kenneth B Baker, Gregory F Molnar, Matthew D Johnson, Jerrold L Vitek
A number of studies suggest that Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with alterations of neuronal activity patterns in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. There are limited electrophysiological data, however, describing how the premotor cortex, which is involved in movement and decision-making, is likely impacted in PD. In this study, spontaneous local field potential (LFP) and single unit neuronal activity were recorded in the dorsal premotor area of nonhuman primates in both the naïve and parkinsonian state using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of parkinsonism...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#19
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219984/motor-neurons-tune-premotor-activity-in-a-vertebrate-central-pattern-generator
#20
Kristy J Lawton, Wick M Perry, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
Central patterns generators (CPGs) are neural circuits that drive rhythmic motor output without sensory feedback. Vertebrate CPGs are generally believed to operate in a top-down manner in which premotor interneurons activate motor neurons that in turn drive muscles. In contrast, the frog (Xenopus laevis) vocal CPG contains a functionally unexplored neuronal projection from the motor nucleus to the premotor nucleus, indicating a recurrent pathway that may contribute to rhythm generation. In this study, we characterized the function of this bottom-up connection...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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