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Premotor-motor circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379873/a-common-function-of-basal-ganglia-cortical-circuits-subserving-speed-in-both-motor-and-cognitive-domains
#1
Takashi Hanakawa, Andrew M Goldfine, Mark Hallett
Distinct regions of the frontal cortex connect with their basal ganglia and thalamic counterparts, constituting largely segregated basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (BTC) circuits. However, any common role of the BTC circuits in different behavioral domains remains unclear. Indeed, whether dysfunctional motor and cognitive BTC circuits are responsible for motor slowing and cognitive slowing, respectively, in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a matter of debate. Here, we used an effortful behavioral paradigm in which the effects of task rate on accuracy were tested in movement, imagery, and calculation tasks in humans...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378293/nmda-receptors-in-the-avian-amygdala-and-the-premotor-arcopallium-mediate-distinct-aspects-of-appetitive-extinction-learning
#2
Meng Gao, Daniel Lengersdorf, C Stüttgen Maik, Onur Güntürkün
Extinction learning is an essential mechanism that enables constant adaptation to ever-changing environmental conditions. The underlying neural circuit is mostly studied with rodent models using auditory cued fear conditioning. In order to uncover the variant and the invariant neural properties of extinction learning, we adopted pigeons as an animal model in an appetitive sign-tracking paradigm. The animals firstly learned to respond to two conditioned stimuli in two different contexts (CS-1 in context A and CS-2 in context B), before conditioned responses to the stimuli were extinguished in the opposite contexts (CS-1 in context B and CS-2 in context A)...
January 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374242/population-coding-of-grasp-and-laterality-related-information-in-the-macaque-fronto-parietal-network
#3
Jonathan A Michaels, Hansjörg Scherberger
Preparing and executing grasping movements demands the coordination of sensory information across multiple scales. The position of an object, required hand shape, and which of our hands to extend must all be coordinated in parallel. The network formed by the macaque anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and hand area (F5) of the ventral premotor cortex is essential in the generation of grasping movements. Yet, the role of this circuit in hand selection is unclear. We recorded from 1342 single- and multi-units in AIP and F5 of two macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) during a delayed grasping task in which monkeys were instructed by a visual cue to perform power or precision grips on a handle presented in five different orientations with either the left or right hand, as instructed by an auditory tone...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360035/excitatory-motor-neurons-are-local-oscillators-for-backward-locomotion
#4
Shangbang Gao, Sihui Asuka Guan, Anthony D Fouad, Jun Meng, Taizo Kawano, Yung-Chi Huang, Yi Li, Salvador Alcaire, Wesley Hung, Yangning Lu, Yingchuan Billy Qi, Yishi Jin, Mark Alkema, Christopher Fang-Yen, Mei Zhen
Cell- or network-driven oscillators underlie motor rhythmicity. The identity of C. elegans oscillators remains unknown. Through cell ablation, electrophysiology, and calcium imaging, we show: (1) forward and backward locomotion is driven by different oscillators; (2) the cholinergic and excitatory A-class motor neurons exhibit intrinsic and oscillatory activity that is sufficient to drive backward locomotion in the absence of premotor interneurons; (3) the UNC-2 P/Q/N high-voltage-activated calcium current underlies A motor neuron's oscillation; (4) descending premotor interneurons AVA, via an evolutionarily conserved, mixed gap junction and chemical synapse configuration, exert state-dependent inhibition and potentiation of A motor neuron's intrinsic activity to regulate backward locomotion...
January 23, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329743/gaba-and-glutamate-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-1-h-mr-spectroscopy-study-at-7t
#5
E Mark Mahone, Nicolaas A Puts, Richard A E Edden, Matthew Ryan, Harvey S Singer
Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by presence of chronic, fluctuating motor and phonic tics. The underlying neurobiological basis for these movements is hypothesized to involve cortical-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) pathways. Two major neurotransmitters within these circuits are γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Seventy-five participants (32 with TS, 43 controls) ages 5-12 years completed 1 H MRS at 7T. GABA and glutamate were measured in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), premotor cortex (PMC), and striatum, and metabolites quantified using LCModel...
March 30, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243119/action-observation-or-imitation-of-virtual-hand-movement-affect-differently-regions-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-and-the-default-mode-network
#6
Nabila Brihmat, Mohamed Tarri, Yann Quidé, Ketty Anglio, Bernard Pavard, Evelyne Castel-Lacanal, David Gasq, Xavier De Boissezon, Philippe Marque, Isabelle Loubinoux
Virtual reality (VR)-based paradigms use visual stimuli that can modulate visuo-motor networks leading to the stimulation of brain circuits. The aims of this study were to compare the changes in blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal when watching and imitating moving real (RH) and virtual hands (VH) in 11 healthy participants (HP). No differences were found between the observation of RH or VH making this VR-based experiment a promising tool for rehabilitation protocols. VH-imitation involved more the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) as part of the mirror neuron system (MNS) compared to execution and VH-observation conditions...
December 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235480/vocal-learning-promotes-patterned-inhibitory-connectivity
#7
Mark N Miller, Chung Yan J Cheung, Michael S Brainard
Skill learning is instantiated by changes to functional connectivity within premotor circuits, but whether the specificity of learning depends on structured changes to inhibitory circuitry remains unclear. We used slice electrophysiology to measure connectivity changes associated with song learning in the avian analog of primary motor cortex (robust nucleus of the arcopallium, RA) in Bengalese Finches. Before song learning, fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) densely innervated glutamatergic projection neurons (PNs) with apparently random connectivity...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224727/high-resolution-cbv-fmri-allows-mapping-of-laminar-activity-and-connectivity-of-cortical-input-and-output-in-human-m1
#8
Laurentius Huber, Daniel A Handwerker, David C Jangraw, Gang Chen, Andrew Hall, Carsten Stüber, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Dimo Ivanov, Sean Marrett, Maria Guidi, Jozien Goense, Benedikt A Poser, Peter A Bandettini
Layer-dependent fMRI allows measurements of information flow in cortical circuits, as afferent and efferent connections terminate in different cortical layers. However, it is unknown to what level human fMRI is specific and sensitive enough to reveal directional functional activity across layers. To answer this question, we developed acquisition and analysis methods for blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) and cerebral-blood-volume (CBV)-based laminar fMRI and used these to discriminate four different tasks in the human motor cortex (M1)...
December 20, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198754/divergent-connectivity-of-homologous-command-like-neurons-mediates-segment-specific-touch-responses-in-drosophila
#9
Suguru Takagi, Benjamin Thomas Cocanougher, Sawako Niki, Dohjin Miyamoto, Hiroshi Kohsaka, Hokto Kazama, Richard Doty Fetter, James William Truman, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona, Akinao Nose
Animals adaptively respond to a tactile stimulus by choosing an ethologically relevant behavior depending on the location of the stimuli. Here, we investigate how somatosensory inputs on different body segments are linked to distinct motor outputs in Drosophila larvae. Larvae escape by backward locomotion when touched on the head, while they crawl forward when touched on the tail. We identify a class of segmentally repeated second-order somatosensory interneurons, that we named Wave, whose activation in anterior and posterior segments elicit backward and forward locomotion, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069594/columnar-intrinsic-cues-shape-premotor-input-specificity-in-locomotor-circuits
#10
Myungin Baek, Chiara Pivetta, Jeh-Ping Liu, Silvia Arber, Jeremy S Dasen
Control of movement relies on the ability of circuits within the spinal cord to establish connections with specific subtypes of motor neuron (MN). Although the pattern of output from locomotor networks can be influenced by MN position and identity, whether MNs exert an instructive role in shaping synaptic specificity within the spinal cord is unclear. We show that Hox transcription-factor-dependent programs in MNs are essential in establishing the central pattern of connectivity within the ventral spinal cord...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062887/neuronal-intrinsic-physiology-changes-during-development-of-a-learned-behavior
#11
Matthew T Ross, Diana Flores, Richard Bertram, Frank Johnson, Richard L Hyson
Juvenile male zebra finches learn their songs over distinct auditory and sensorimotor stages, the former requiring exposure to an adult tutor song pattern. The cortical premotor nucleus HVC (acronym is name) plays a necessary role in both learning stages, as well as the production of adult song. Consistent with neural network models where synaptic plasticity mediates developmental forms of learning, exposure to tutor song drives changes in the turnover, density, and morphology of HVC synapses during vocal development...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968878/severity-of-writer-s-cramp-is-related-to-faulty-motor-preparation
#12
Asha Kishore, Traian Popa, Praveen James, Syam Krishnan, Sunitha Robert, Sabine Meunier
We characterized, in 37 writer's cramp (WC) patients and 14 healthy volunteers (HV), the buildup of motor representations contralateral ("intended") and ispsilateral ("unintended") to the movement to be produced and the excitability changes in left primary motor cortex during the early reaction time (RT) of a pre-cued reaching movement to pick up a pen with either hand to write. We also tested the excitability of interhemispheric pathways from right dorsal premotor and motor cortices to left motor cortex. During early RT (1) the motor cortex excitability of unintended muscle representations did not decrease in patients as in HV and (2) the connection from the contralateral dorsal premotor cortex to the "intended" motor representation did not function in patients...
September 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968387/dopamine-negatively-modulates-the-nca-ion-channels-in-c-elegans
#13
Irini Topalidou, Kirsten Cooper, Laura Pereira, Michael Ailion
The NALCN/NCA ion channel is a cation channel related to voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. NALCN has been reported to be a sodium leak channel with a conserved role in establishing neuronal resting membrane potential, but its precise cellular role and regulation are unclear. The Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs of NALCN, NCA-1 and NCA-2, act in premotor interneurons to regulate motor circuit activity that sustains locomotion. Recently we found that NCA-1 and NCA-2 are activated by a signal transduction pathway acting downstream of the heterotrimeric G protein Gq and the small GTPase Rho...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942925/deconstruction-of-corticospinal-circuits-for-goal-directed-motor-skills
#14
Xuhua Wang, Yuanyuan Liu, Xinjian Li, Zicong Zhang, Hengfu Yang, Yu Zhang, Philip R Williams, Noaf S A Alwahab, Kush Kapur, Bin Yu, Yiming Zhang, Mengying Chen, Haixia Ding, Charles R Gerfen, Kuan Hong Wang, Zhigang He
Corticospinal neurons (CSNs) represent the direct cortical outputs to the spinal cord and play important roles in motor control across different species. However, their organizational principle remains unclear. By using a retrograde labeling system, we defined the requirement of CSNs in the execution of a skilled forelimb food-pellet retrieval task in mice. In vivo imaging of CSN activity during performance revealed the sequential activation of topographically ordered functional ensembles with moderate local mixing...
October 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916788/a-v0-core-neuronal-circuit-for-inspiration
#15
Jinjin Wu, Paolo Capelli, Julien Bouvier, Martyn Goulding, Silvia Arber, Gilles Fortin
Breathing in mammals relies on permanent rhythmic and bilaterally synchronized contractions of inspiratory pump muscles. These motor drives emerge from interactions between critical sets of brainstem neurons whose origins and synaptic ordered organization remain obscure. Here, we show, using a virus-based transsynaptic tracing strategy from the diaphragm muscle in the mouse, that the principal inspiratory premotor neurons share V0 identity with, and are connected by, neurons of the preBötzinger complex that paces inspiration...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843993/circuits-in-the-rodent-brainstem-that-control-whisking-in-concert-with-other-orofacial-motor-actions
#16
REVIEW
Lauren E McElvain, Beth Friedman, Harvey J Karten, Karel Svoboda, Fan Wang, Martin Deschênes, David Kleinfeld
The world view of rodents is largely determined by sensation on two length scales. One is within the animal's peri-personal space. Sensorimotor control on this scale involves active movements of the nose, tongue, head, and vibrissa, along with sniffing to determine olfactory clues. The second scale involves the detection of more distant space through vision and audition; these detection processes also impact repositioning of the head, eyes, and ears. Here we focus on orofacial motor actions, primarily vibrissa-based touch but including nose twitching, head bobbing, and licking, that control sensation at short, peri-personal distances...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774738/divergent-structural-responses-to-pharmacological-interventions-in-orbitofronto-striato-thalamic-and-premotor-circuits-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Qiming Lv, Zhen Wang, Chencheng Zhang, Qing Fan, Qing Zhao, Kristina Zeljic, Bomin Sun, Zeping Xiao, Zheng Wang
Prior efforts to dissect etiological and pharmacological modulations in brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often undermined by methodological and sampling constraints, yielding conflicting conclusions and no reliable neuromarkers. Here we evaluated alteration of regional gray matter volume including effect size (Cohen's d value) in 95 drug-naïve patients (age range: 18-55) compared to 95 healthy subjects (age: 18-63), then examined pharmacological effects in 65 medicated (age: 18-57) and 73 medication-free patients (age: 18-61)...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752330/cortico-thalamic-disconnection-in-a-patient-with-supernumerary-phantom-limb
#18
Clémence Bourlon, Marika Urbanski, Romain Quentin, Christophe Duret, Eric Bardinet, Paolo Bartolomeo, Alexia Bourgeois
Supernumerary phantom limb (SPL) designates the experience of an illusory additional limb occurring after brain damage. Functional neuroimaging during SPL movements documented increased response in the ipsilesional supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor cortex (PMC), thalamus and caudate. This suggested that motor circuits are important for bodily related cognition, but anatomical evidence is sparse. Here, we tested this hypothesis by studying an extremely rare patient with chronic SPL, still present 3 years after a vascular stroke affecting cortical and subcortical right-hemisphere structures...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748312/the-extended-object-grasping-network
#19
REVIEW
Marzio Gerbella, Stefano Rozzi, Giacomo Rizzolatti
Grasping is the most important skilled motor act of primates. It is based on a series of sensorimotor transformations through which the affordances of the objects to be grasped are transformed into appropriate hand movements. It is generally accepted that a circuit formed by inferior parietal areas AIP and PFG and ventral premotor area F5 represents the core circuit for sensorimotor transformations for grasping. However, selection and control of appropriate grip should also depend on higher-order information, such as the meaning of the object to be grasped, and the overarching goal of the action in which grasping is embedded...
July 26, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735100/attention-modulates-specific-motor-cortical-circuits-recruited-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#20
J L Mirdamadi, L Y Suzuki, S K Meehan
Skilled performance and acquisition is dependent upon afferent input to motor cortex. The present study used short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) to probe how manipulation of sensory afference by attention affects different circuits projecting to pyramidal tract neurons in motor cortex. SAI was assessed in the first dorsal interosseous muscle while participants performed a low or high attention-demanding visual detection task. SAI was evoked by preceding a suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulus with electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist...
September 17, 2017: Neuroscience
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