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Neonatal review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166295/nursing-care-of-infants-with-a-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt
#1
Rachel A Joseph, Michaela R Killian, Emily E Brady
BACKGROUND: Infants with congenital or posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus may require a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt to divert the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, thus preventing increase in intracranial pressure. Knowledge on various aspects of caring for a child with a VP shunt will enable new and experienced nurses to better care for these infants and equip parents for ongoing care at home. PURPOSE: To review the nurses' role in care of infants with hydrocephalus, care after VP shunt placement, prevention of complications, and parental preparation for home care...
November 20, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166294/roles-and-experiences-of-parents-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis-an-international-survey-of-parental-perspectives-of-communication-in-the-nicu
#2
Samir K Gadepalli, Jennifer Canvasser, Yael Eskenazi, Megan Quinn, Jae H Kim, Sheila M Gephart
BACKGROUND: Although partnering with parents is important to improving neonatal outcomes, no studies have investigated what parents are taught, remember, or experience when their child is afflicted with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). PURPOSE: To characterize parental perceptions of communication and support they were given about NEC. METHODS: An online survey was developed, reviewed for face validity, and then administered to parents whose child had experienced NEC...
November 20, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165765/hypothermia-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-hie
#3
G Liu, Z-G Li, J-S Gao
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) significantly affects neurodevelopment in infants and is also considered as an important cause of neonatal deaths worldwide. Medical research is being focused worldwide for the development of therapeutic avenues but it is still managed by supportive care. The latest studies in the above field have shown the efficacy of prolonged cooling of neonate's head or whole body at the age of 18 months (approx.) in providing relief from the pathological state of HIE. Moreover, hypothermia is the first reported therapeutic modality that proved beneficial for HIE young patients...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165683/systematic-review-occupational-illness-in-the-waste-and-recycling-sector
#4
C J M Poole, S Basu
Background: The waste and recycling sector is a growing part of industry. Whether health surveillance is indicated and how it should be undertaken is unclear. Aims: To undertake a review of the literature to identify hazards to health, biological effects and occupational illnesses for workers in the sector. Methods: A systematic review of the published literature and two UK databases. Results: Rates of fatal, non-fatal injuries and self-reported work-related illness were found to be higher in the waste and recycling sector than in UK industry as a whole...
November 20, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165607/an-evidence-based-approach-to-pre-pregnancy-counselling-for-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Y K Onno Teng, Edwin O W Bredewold, Ton J Rabelink, Tom W J Huizinga, H C Jeroen Eikenboom, Maarten Limper, Ruth D E Fritsch-Stork, Kitty W M Bloemenkamp, Marieke Sueters
Patients with SLE are often young females of childbearing age and a pregnancy wish in this patient group is common. However, SLE patients are at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes that require adequate guidance. It is widely acknowledged that pre-pregnancy counselling is the pivotal first step in the management of SLE patients with a wish to become pregnant. Next, management of these patients is usually multidisciplinary and often requires specific expertise from the different physicians involved. Very recently a EULAR recommendation was published emphasizing the need for adequate preconception counselling and risk stratification...
November 20, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165580/role-of-anaerobic-blood-cultures-in-neonatal-bacteremia
#6
Nathan Messbarger, Kari Neemann
Background: Evaluation for neonatal sepsis routinely includes performing both aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures despite our lack of knowledge of the true incidence of anaerobic bacteremia in this age group and the consequences of not performing these paired cultures. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all blood cultures performed for neonates in a children's hospital. Clinically significant pathogens were defined as microorganisms that rarely are considered to be contaminants, that were recovered from multiple blood cultures or sites, or were considered significant according to the patient's attending physician...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164811/congenital-heart-defects-in-ivf-icsi-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Veronica Giorgione, Fabio Parazzini, Vlasta Fesslova, Sonia Cipriani, Massimo Candiani, Annalisa Inversetti, Cristina Sigismondi, Francesca Tiberio, Paolo Cavoretto
OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus in current practice guidelines whether IVF/ICSI conception represents an indication for performing a fetal echocardiogram. The aim of the study is to assess whether CHD occurs more often with the use of in-vitro-fertilization (IVF)/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) techniques as compared to spontaneous pregnancies. METHODS: A systematic search for studies in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus from inception to September 2017 was conducted...
November 22, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164335/clinical-characteristics-of-acute-pancreatitis-in-pregnancy-experience-based-on-121-cases
#8
Lingyu Luo, Hao Zen, Hongrong Xu, Yin Zhu, Pi Liu, Liang Xia, Wenhua He, Nonghua Lv
PURPOSE: Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy (APIP) is a rare condition; however, it markedly affects maternal and fetal health. This study aimed to describe the types, clinical characteristics, mortality, and the safety and necessity of gestation termination of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy (APIP). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 121 APIP cases in the Gastroenterology Department of The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. APIP diagnosis were based on 2012 Atlanta Criteria...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164142/pathogenesis-molecular-genetics-and-genomics-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-the-etiologic-agent-of-johne-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Govardhan Rathnaiah, Denise K Zinniel, John P Bannantine, Judith R Stabel, Yrjö T Gröhn, Michael T Collins, Raúl G Barletta
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in ruminants causing chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, and muscular wasting. Neonates and young animals are infected primarily by the fecal-oral route. MAP attaches to, translocates via the intestinal mucosa, and is phagocytosed by macrophages. The ensuing host cellular immune response leads to granulomatous enteritis characterized by a thick and corrugated intestinal wall. We review various tissue culture systems, ileal loops, and mice, goats, and cattle used to study MAP pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164086/a-novel-missense-mutation-of-the-nsd1-gene-associated-with-overgrowth-in-three-generations-of-an-italian-family-case-report-differential-diagnosis-and-review-of-mutations-of-nsd1-gene-in-familial-sotos-syndrome
#10
Gianluigi Laccetta, Francesca Moscuzza, Angela Michelucci, Andrea Guzzetta, Sara Lunardi, Francesca Lorenzoni, Paolo Ghirri
Sotos syndrome (SoS) is characterized by overgrowth of prenatal onset, learning disability, and characteristic facial appearance; it is usually due to haploinsufficiency of NSD1 gene at chromosome 5q35. An Italian child was born at 37 weeks of gestation (weight 2,910 g, 25th-50th centiles; length 50 cm, 75th centile; head circumference 36 cm, 97th centile) showing cryptorchidism on the right side, hypertelorism, dolichocephaly, broad and prominent forehead, and narrow jaw; the pregnancy was worsened by maternal preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and his mother had a previous history of four early miscarriages...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164084/pretreatment-with-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-protects-the-neonatal-brain-against-the-effects-of-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#11
Tammy Z Movsas, Rebecca L Weiner, M Banks Greenberg, David M Holtzman, Rafael Galindo
Introduction: Though the human fetus is exposed to placentally derived human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) throughout gestation, the role of hCG on the fetal brain is unknown. Review of the available literature appears to indicate that groups of women with higher mean levels of hCG during pregnancy tend to have offspring with lower cerebral palsy (CP) risk. Given that newborn cerebral injury often precedes the development of CP, we aimed to determine whether hCG may protect against the neurodegenerative effects of neonatal brain injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163461/factors-affecting-the-fcrn-mediated-transplacental-transfer-of-antibodies-and-implications-for-vaccination-in-pregnancy
#12
REVIEW
Christopher R Wilcox, Beth Holder, Christine E Jones
At birth, neonates are particularly vulnerable to infection and transplacental transfer of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from mother to fetus provides crucial protection in the first weeks of life. Transcytosis of IgG occurs via binding with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in the placental synctiotrophoblast. As maternal vaccination becomes an increasingly important strategy for the protection of young infants, improving our understanding of transplacental transfer and the factors that may affect this will become increasingly important, especially in low-income countries where the burden of morbidity and mortality is highest...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163151/ongoing-initiatives-to-improve-the-quality-and-efficiency-of-medicine-use-within-the-public-healthcare-system-in-south-africa-a-preliminary-study
#13
Johanna C Meyer, Natalie Schellack, Jacobus Stokes, Ruth Lancaster, Helecine Zeeman, Douglas Defty, Brian Godman, Gavin Steel
Introduction: South Africa has an appreciable burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases as well as high maternal, neonatal, and child morbidity. In recent years there have been significant strides with improving the public health system, and addressing current inequalities, with the right to health a constitutional provision in South Africa. Initiatives include the introduction of National Health Insurance, programmes to enhance access to medicines for patients with chronic diseases, as well as activities to improve care in hospitals, including improving pharmacovigilance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160643/antithrombotic-treatment-in-neonates-and-children
#14
Cornelia H van Ommen
Despite the increasing incidence of venous thromboembolic disease in pediatric patients, it remains a rare complication in childhood. Particularly neonates and adolescents are at risk for development of venous thrombosis. Spontaneous thrombotic events are sporadic, the majority of children have multiple co-existing risk factors, including central venous catheter, asphyxia, congenital heart disease, infection, malignancy, surgery and hypovolemia. Most thrombi are diagnosed by ultrasonography. Recommendations for management of pediatric thrombosis are typically extrapolated from adult studies, despite many differences between adults and children, including developmental hemostasis...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160642/neonatal-bacterial-meningitis-a-systematic-review-of-european-available-data
#15
Antonio DI Mauro, Francesca Cortese, Nicola Laforgia, Beatrice Pantaleo, Rachele Giuliani, Donato Bonifazi, Marco M Ciccone, Paola Giordano
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in neonatal intensive care and the improvements in surveillance, prevention and vaccination programs, neonatal meningitis still represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants, with the highest mortality in the newborn population. AIM: To summarize current knowledge about this topic with particular attention to management of neonatal meningitis in order to provide a useful tool for clinicians. METHODS: We reviewed the existent literature from five European Countries (France, German, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom) on the effectiveness of treatments for bacterial meningitis in newborns taking into consideration the antibiotic resistance phenomenon...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160640/thoracoscopic-repair-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-review-of-the-results
#16
Catarina Barroso, Jorge Correia-Pinto
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains one of the major challenges in neonatal surgery. Survival rate has increased in the last decades mainly due to perinatal care and surgical technique improvements. Classically, a laparotomy has been performed after cardiovascular and respiratory stabilization. Introduction of thoracoscopy in the repair of CDH brought the known advantages of reduced postoperative pain and better cosmesis. However, its safety and effectiveness have been questioned in the last few years...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160639/predictors-of-mortality-in-neonates-with-giant-omphaloceles
#17
Amulya K Saxena, Maja Raicevic
INTRODUCTION: This analysis was performed a review of giant-omphaloceles to determine the predictors of mortality. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Pubmed® and KoBson databases were searched for terms "giant" "omphalocele" and "mortality". Primary end points included mortality correlation with gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), eviscerated organs, associated anomalies and management. To calculate mean and median values IBM SPSS version 23.0 was used. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: After de-duplication and review search revealed 42 articles of which 23 met our inclusion criteria with 396 giant-omphaloceles for this analysis...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160638/tissue-repair-in-neonatal-and-pediatric-surgery-analysis-on-infections-in-surgically-implanted-natural-biomaterials
#18
Amulya K Saxena, Piotr Soltysiak
INTRODUCTION: Over the past 4 decades commercially available natural and synthetic biomaterials have been employed for various reconstructive procedures in the pediatric population. The aim of this study was to identify the types of commercially available natural biomaterials and their areas of application in the pediatric age group. Furthermore, to perform an analysis to identify areas of application and types of biomaterials those have increased susceptibility to infections in the pediatric population...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160115/linking-participatory-action-research-on-health-systems-to-justice-in-global-health-a-case-study-of-the-maternal-and-neonatal-implementation-for-equitable-health-systems-project-in-rural-uganda
#19
Bridget Pratt, Adnan A Hyder
An ethical framework called "research for health justice" provides initial guidance on how to link health systems research in low- and middle-income countries to health equity. To further develop the largely conceptual framework, we tested its guidance against the experience of the Maternal and Neonatal Implementation for Equitable Health Systems (Manifest) project, which was performed in rural Uganda by researchers from Makerere University. We conducted 21 in-depth interviews with investigators and research implementers, directly observed study sites, and reviewed study-related documents...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159860/assessment-of-sedation-level-prior-to-neonatal-intubation-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Ellen H M de Kort, Nienke M Halbmeijer, Irwin K M Reiss, Sinno H P Simons
BACKGROUND: Adequate premedication before neonatal endotracheal intubation reduces pain, stress, and adverse physiological responses, diminishes duration and number of attempts at intubation, and prevents traumatic airway injury. Therefore, intubation should not be started until an adequate level of sedation is reached. It is not clear how this should be measured in the clinical situation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to provide a systematic review of the usability and validity of scoring systems or other objective parameters to evaluate the level of sedation before intubation in neonates...
November 20, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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