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Neonatal review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320134/post-hemorrhagic-hydrocephalus-recent-advances-and-new-therapeutic-insights
#1
REVIEW
Qianwei Chen, Zhou Feng, Qiang Tan, Jing Guo, Jun Tang, Liang Tan, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen
Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), also referred to as progressive ventricular dilatation, is caused by disturbances in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption following hemorrhage in the brain. As one of the most serious complications of neonatal/adult intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and traumatic brain injury (TBI), PHH is associated with increased morbidity and disability of these events. Common sequelae of PHH include neurocognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and growth impairment...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319507/recombinant-factor-viia-is-associated-with-increased-thrombotic-complications-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-patients
#2
Laura Downey, Morgan L Brown, David Faraoni, David Zurakowski, James A DiNardo
BACKGROUND: Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is routinely used as an off-label hemostatic agent in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Despite evidence that rFVIIa use is associated with an increased incidence of thrombotic complications in adult cardiac surgery, the safety of rFVIIa as a rescue hemostatic agent in the pediatric cardiac surgical population is less definitively delineated. In this retrospective study, we used propensity score matching to compare the incidence of thrombotic complications between children treated with rFVIIa and their matched controls...
March 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319487/videolaryngoscopy-in-neonates-infants-and-children
#3
Onur Balaban, Joseph D Tobias
Airway management is vital during anesthetic care and during resuscitative efforts in the PICU, the emergency department, and the delivery room. Given specific anatomic and physiologic differences, neonates and infants may be more prone to complications during airway management. Videolaryngoscopy may offer an alternative to or advantages over direct laryngoscopy in specific clinical scenarios. The following article reviews some of the basic types of videolaryngoscopy and discusses their potential applications in the pediatric population...
March 17, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315852/characteristics-and-management-of-mirror-syndrome-a-systematic-review-1956-2016
#4
Sabah Allarakia, Hassan A Khayat, Moyassar M Karami, Abdulaziz M Aldakhil, Ahmed M Kashi, Abdulrahman H Algain, Mohammad A Khan, Loai S Alghifees, Raed E Alsulami
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical features of mirror syndrome and to correlate the effects of different treatments with the fetal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Online search up to May 2016 was conducted in the PubMed, Embase (Ovid platform) and clinicalTrials.gov without restrictions of language, date or journal. Only papers providing both fetal and maternal presentations and outcomes were included. RESULTS: The study included 74 papers (n=111), with an additional two patients diagnosed at our center (n=113)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315352/bilirubin-and-brain-a-pharmacological-approach
#5
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso
For many decades, the world scientific literature has accounted for a number of works on the biological effects of bilirubin-IXalpha (BR). The first studies focused on the neurotoxic effects of the excessive production of BR, in particular regarding both physiological neonatal jaundice and the more severe ones, typically as consequences of severe hemolysis or other underlying diseases. Only since 1987, has significant evidence, however, underlined the neuroprotective role of BR linked to the scavenging effect of free radicals as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and its congeners...
March 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314945/precision-diabetes-learning-from-monogenic-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Andrew T Hattersley, Kashyap A Patel
The precision medicine approach of tailoring treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient or subgroup has been a great success in monogenic diabetes subtypes, MODY and neonatal diabetes. This review examines what has led to the success of a precision medicine approach in monogenic diabetes (precision diabetes) and outlines possible implications for type 2 diabetes. For monogenic diabetes, the molecular genetics can define discrete aetiological subtypes that have profound implications on diabetes treatment and can predict future development of associated clinical features, allowing early preventative or supportive treatment...
March 17, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306563/antimicrobial-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-neonates-burden-of-disease-and-challenges-in-treatment
#7
Laura Folgori, Julia Bielicki, Paul T Heath, Mike Sharland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the main challenges of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the neonatal population with a special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: MDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been reported as responsible for neonatal ICU outbreaks...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304416/gynecologic-malignancies-in-pregnancy-balancing-fetal-risks-with-oncologic-safety
#8
Christina N Cordeiro, Mary L Gemignani
Importance: Cancer occurs in 0.05% to 0.1% of all pregnancies. Despite literature reporting good oncologic and fetal outcomes in women treated for cancer during pregnancy, as many as 44% of gynecologists would offer termination, and 37% would not administer chemotherapy or radiotherapy in pregnancy. Objectives: The aims of this study were to summarize current recommendations for the treatment of cervical and ovarian cancers in pregnancy and to review updates on existing knowledge regarding the safety of surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments in pregnancy, including both oncologic and fetal outcomes...
March 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304253/ventricular-parasystole-in-a-neonatal-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#9
Dalis E Collins, Brandy L Dozier, Jeffrey J Stanton, Lois Ma Colgin, Rhonda MacAllister
A 6-d-old Indian-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with bradycardia shortly after sedation with ketamine. No other cardiac abnormalities were apparent. Approximately 2 wk after the initial presentation, the macaque was again bradycardic and exhibited a regularly irregular arrhythmia on a prestudy examination. ECG, echocardiography, blood pressure measurement, SpO2 assessment, and a CBC analysis were performed. The echocardiogram and bloodwork were normal, but the infant was hypotensive at the time of echocardiogram...
December 1, 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302741/cardiac-regeneration-lessons-from-development
#10
Francisco X Galdos, Yuxuan Guo, Sharon L Paige, Nathan J VanDusen, Sean M Wu, William T Pu
Palliative surgery for congenital heart disease has allowed patients with previously lethal heart malformations to survive and, in most cases, to thrive. However, these procedures often place pressure and volume loads on the heart, and over time, these chronic loads can cause heart failure. Current therapeutic options for initial surgery and chronic heart failure that results from failed palliation are limited, in part, by the mammalian heart's low inherent capacity to form new cardiomyocytes. Surmounting the heart regeneration barrier would transform the treatment of congenital, as well as acquired, heart disease and likewise would enable development of personalized, in vitro cardiac disease models...
March 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301886/geburtshilfe-hypertensive-erkrankungen-in-der-schwangerschaft
#11
Bigna S Buddeberg, Thierry Girard
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the most common complications in pregnancy. They are associated with a high maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. 99 % of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries, but we should not forget that even in highly developed countries mothers still die from the complications of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. This term encompasses chronic hypertension as well as pregnancy specific disorders such as gestational hypertension and preeclampsia...
March 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299191/cytomegalovirus-in-pregnancy-and-the-neonate
#12
REVIEW
Vincent C Emery, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a leading cause of disability in children. Understanding the pathogenesis of infection from the mother via the placenta to the neonate is crucial if we are to produce new interventions and provide supportive mechanisms to improve the outcome of congenitally infected children. In recent years, some major goals have been achieved, including the diagnosis of primary maternal CMV infection in pregnant women by using the anti-CMV IgG avidity test and the diagnosis and prognosis of foetal CMV infection by using polymerase chain reaction real-time tests to detect and quantify the virus in amniotic fluid...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298198/maternal-and-neonatal-service-usage-and-determinants-in-fragile-and-conflict-affected-situations-a-systematic-review-of-asia-and-the-middle-east
#13
Saji S Gopalan, Ashis Das, Natasha Howard
BACKGROUND: Fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS) in Asia and the Middle-East contribute significantly to global maternal and neonatal deaths. This systematic review explored maternal and neonatal health (MNH) services usage and determinants in FCS in Asia and the Middle-East to inform policy on health service provision in these challenging settings. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using a standardised protocol. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and selected development agency websites were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria...
March 15, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297592/a-systematized-review-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-pregnant-women-balancing-between-risks-of-untreated-illness-and-risks-of-drug-related-adverse-effects
#14
Sarah Tosato, Umberto Albert, Simona Tomassi, Felice Iasevoli, Claudia Carmassi, Silvia Ferrari, Maria Giulia Nanni, Alessandra Nivoli, Umberto Volpe, Anna Rita Atti, Andrea Fiorillo
OBJECTIVE: To summarize risks related to (1) illness and (2) second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment in pregnant women and their offspring. Concerning illness-related risks, we focused on bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, psychiatric disorders for which SGAs are preferentially prescribed. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were searched from the date of the first available article to October 2015 using the following key terms: pregnancy OR gestation OR bipolar disorder OR schizophrenia...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296740/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-communicating-bronchopulmonary-foregut-malformation-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Hongxia Ren, Liqiong Duan, Baohong Zhao, Xiaoxia Wu, Hongyi Zhang, Caixia Liu
RATIONALE: Communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (CBPFM) is a rare congenital malformation involving both the digestive and respiratory systems. To our best knowledge, most cases of CBPFM reported in the literature were in infancy or adulthood and CBPFM in infantile is even rarer with a high case-fatality rate partly due to misdiagnosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We presented 2 cases of neonatal CBPFM. A 11-hour male newborn was admitted because of moaning for 7 hours, and a 1-day male newborn was referred to us with profuse foams, choking on breast-milk feeding and facial cyanosis...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296338/effect-of-endocrine-disruptors-on-male-reproduction-in-humans-why-the-evidence-is-still-lacking
#16
D Bliatka, S Lymperi, G Mastorakos, D G Goulis
The so-called "endocrine disruption hypothesis" suggests that exposures to endocrine disruption (EDs) during fetal, neonatal and adult life may interfere with the development of reproductive organs and alter semen quality and reproductive hormone production. Even though animal studies provide substantial evidence of adverse effects of EDs on male reproductive system, epidemiological studies in humans arrive at conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature to locate methodological characteristics of the studies that struggle the formation of an association between EDs and human male reproduction...
March 10, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295792/biventricular-impact-of-mild-to-moderate-pulmonary-valve-stenosis-in-fetal-life
#17
L Guirado, F Crispi, N Masoller, M Bennasar, E Marimon, J Carretero, E Gratacós, J M Martínez, M K Friedberg, O Gómez
OBJECTIVES: to define the pattern of fetal echocardiographic changes associated with isolated pulmonary valve stenosis (PS) and to correlate the echocardiographic findings with the neonatal outcome and the need of postnatal pulmonary valvuloplasty within the first 12 months of life. METHODS: a prospective cohort study was designed on 16 fetuses with isolated PS and 48 controls matched by gestational age at scan (+/- 2 weeks). Fetal standard ultrasound and comprehensive echocardiography, which included cardiovascular morphometric parameters, systolic and diastolic functional and timing-measurements, were performed in all cases...
March 10, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295722/cerclage-for-short-cervix-on-ultrasound-in-singleton-gestations-without-prior-spontaneous-preterm-birth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-trials-using-individual-patient-level-data
#18
REVIEW
Vincenzo Berghella, Andrea Ciardulli, Orion A Rust, Meekai To, Katsufumi Otsuki, Sietske Althuisius, Kypros Nicolaides, Amanda Roman, Gabriele Saccone
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantify the efficacy of cervical cerclage in preventing preterm birth (PTB) in asymptomatic singleton pregnancies with a mid-trimester short transvaginal ultrasound cervical length (TVU CL) and without prior spontaneous PTB. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from inception of each database until February 2017. No language restrictions were applied. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of asymptomatic singleton pregnancies without prior spontaneous PTB screened with TVU CL, found to have a midtrimester short CL <25 mm, and then randomized to management with either cerclage (i...
March 10, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295150/cause-of-and-factors-associated-with-stillbirth-a-systematic-review-of-classification-systems
#19
Mamuda Aminu, Sarah Bar-Zeev, Nynke van den Broek
INTRODUCTION: An estimated 2.6 million stillbirths occur worldwide each year. A standardised classification system setting out possible cause of death and contributing factors is useful to help obtain comparative data across different settings. We undertook a systematic review of stillbirth classification systems to highlight their strengths and weaknesses for practitioners and policymakers MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic search and review of the literature undertaken to identify classification systems used to aggregate information for stillbirth and perinatal deaths...
March 10, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293976/evolution-of-hybrid-interventions-for-congenital-heart-disease
#20
Hitesh Agrawal, Wail Alkashkari, Damien Kenny
Surgical and transcatheter interventions have seen a tremendous evolution in last three decades. Hybrid technology combines the achievements of both disciplines to bring substantial hemodynamic benefit to patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) in a minimally invasive manner. This collaboration between surgeons and interventionalists will continue to grow as the technology evolves to meet the demands of CHD patients, potentially avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass and vascular access complications as well as optimizing immediate technical outcomes with exit angiography...
March 15, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
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