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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811349/brain-macrophages-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-antiretroviral-suppressed-macaques-a-functional-latent-reservoir
#1
Claudia R Avalos, Celina M Abreu, Suzanne E Queen, Ming Li, Sarah Price, Erin N Shirk, Elizabeth L Engle, Ellen Forsyth, Brandon T Bullock, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Ashley T Haase, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements, Lucio Gama
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810166/humanized-mouse-models-of-latent-hiv-infection
#2
REVIEW
Maud Deruaz, Andrew M Tager
Antiretroviral therapy can efficiently control HIV viral replication, resulting in low viral loads and sustained CD4(+) T cell counts in HIV-infected persons. However, fast viral rebound occurs in most infected persons when therapy is interrupted. The principal component of persistent infection is a latent but replication-competent HIV reservoir. The long half-life of this reservoir is a major barrier to cure, and its elimination is the target of important research efforts. Animal models that can recapitulate this aspect of human infection are needed to examine the HIV reservoir in tissues in vivo, and to test eradication strategies...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806949/case-report-of-ocular-kaposi-s-sarcoma
#3
Jing Yang, Xiao-Fang Yin, Yong-Ping Li, Shi-You Zhou
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is generally considered a neoplastic disorder of vascular origin and occurs in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or who have received immunosuppressive treatments after an organ transplant (Soulier et al., Blood 86(4):1276-80, 1995; Viejo-Borbolla and Schulz, AIDS Rev 5(4):222-9, 2003; Schulz, J Antimicrob Chemother 45(Suppl T3):15-27, 2000; Aversa et al. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 53(3):253-65, 2005; Mbulaiteye and Engels, Int J Cancer 119(11):2685-91, 2006; Tessari et al...
August 14, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794022/potent-in-vivo-nk-cell-mediated-elimination-of-hiv-1-infected-cells-mobilized-by-a-gp120-bispecific-and-hexavalent-broadly-neutralizing-fusion-protein
#4
Ariola Bardhi, Yanling Wu, Weizao Chen, Zhongyu Zhu, Jian Hua Zheng, Hing Wong, Emily Jeng, Jennifer Jones, Christina Ochsenbauer, John C Kappes, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Tianlei Ying, Harris Goldstein
Antibodies bound to HIV-1 envelope protein expressed by infected cells mobilize antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to eliminate the HIV-1-infected cells and thereby suppress HIV-1 infection and delay disease progression. Studies treating HIV-1-infected individuals with latency reactivation agents to reduce their latent HIV-1 reservoirs indicated that their HIV-1-specific immune responses were insufficient to effectively eliminate the reactivated latent HIV-1-infected T cells. Mobilization of ADCC may facilitate elimination of reactivated latent HIV-1-infected cells to deplete the HIV-1 reservoir and contribute to functional HIV-1 cure...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782605/drug-adherence-and-efficacy-of-smear-microscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-after-2-months-of-medication-in-north-western-tanzania
#5
Benson R Kidenya, Stephen E Mshana, Lisa Gerwing-Adima, Jeremiah Kidola, Christa Kasang
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at assessing the Tuberculosis (TB) medication adherence level and the efficacy of smear microscopy in the diagnosing pulmonary TB at month 2. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the four sites located in the Northern-western Tanzania. New smear positive, pulmonary TB patients were followed up and their adherence to TB medication assessed after 2 months of the treatment. In addition, the acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy was performed after 2 and 5 months of the treatment...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782474/the-relevance-of-post-transcriptional-mechanisms-in-hiv-latency-reversal
#6
Ambra Sarracino, Alessandro Marcello
BACKGROUND: Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus has become a curable disease, which could not be cured because the virus persists in the face of an efficacious drug treatment. Current efforts for the rescue of replication-competent virus from cellular reservoirs are limited to drugs targeting transcriptional reactivation of the dormant virus and clinical trials so far are disappointing. One explanation could be that post-transcriptional pathways are not optimal thus impeding full reactivation of the virus, which is required for purging the cellular reservoirs...
August 3, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782335/elimination-of-hcv-as-a-public-health-concern-among-people-who-inject-drugs-by-2030-what-will-it-take-to-get-there
#7
REVIEW
Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Sébastien Morin, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Marina B Klein
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there is a considerable burden of HCV and HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) and transmission of both infections continues. Needle and syringe programme (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) coverage remains low, despite evidence demonstrating their prevention benefit. Direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAA) with HCV cure >95% among PWID provide an opportunity to reverse rising trends in HCV-related morbidity and mortality and reduce incidence...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774417/treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-with-combination-therapy-now-and-in-the-future
#8
REVIEW
Joel S Emery, Jordan J Feld
Chronic Hepatitis B continues as a significant public health problem despite the availability of safe and effective antivirals and a highly effective protective vaccine. Current therapy, however rarely leads to cure and lifelong therapy is often required, contributing to poor uptake and ongoing morbidity. New insights into the hepatitis B viral life cycle and the host immune response have expanded the potential targets for drug therapies with interesting antiviral candidates and novel immunotherapeutic approaches in early stage development...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762183/novel-nanoformulation-to-mitigate-co-effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-hiv-1-infection-towards-the-treatment-of-neuroaids
#9
Rahul Dev Jayant, Venkata S R Atluri, Sneham Tiwari, Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Ajeet Kaushik, Adriana Yndart, Madhavan Nair
Drug abuse (e.g., methamphetamine-Meth or cocaine-Coc) is one of the major risk factors for becoming infected with HIV-1, and studies show that in combination, drug abuse and HIV-1 lead to significantly greater damage to CNS. To overcome these issues, we have developed a novel nanoformulation (NF) for drug-abusing population infected with HIV-1. In this work, a novel approach was developed for the co-encapsulation of Nelfinavir (Nel) and Rimcazole (Rico) using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled magnetic nanoformulation for the cure of neuroAIDS...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759895/assessing-acceptability-and-feasibility-of-provider-initiated-hiv-testing-and-counseling-in-ghana
#10
Zachary Tabb, Kathleen Moriarty, Madeleine W Schrier, Ebenezer Amekah, Timothy P Flanigan, Margaret Lartey
t In Ghana, HIV voluntary counseling and testing remains poorly utilized. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended opt-out, provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC) in order to increase utilization and earlier intervention. Yet implementation challenges remain in resource-scarce settings. This study sought to better understand the dynamics of providing PITC at Apam Catholic Hospital, a district referral hospital in Ghana. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare providers and patients exploring attitudes regarding PITC, community stigma, and HIV knowledge...
August 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759651/rare-hiv-1-transmitted-founder-lineages-identified-by-deep-viral-sequencing-contribute-to-rapid-shifts-in-dominant-quasispecies-during-acute-and-early-infection
#11
Gustavo H Kijak, Eric Sanders-Buell, Agnes-Laurence Chenine, Michael A Eller, Nilu Goonetilleke, Rasmi Thomas, Sivan Leviyang, Elizabeth A Harbolick, Meera Bose, Phuc Pham, Celina Oropeza, Kultida Poltavee, Anne Marie O'Sullivan, Erik Billings, Melanie Merbah, Margaret C Costanzo, Joanna A Warren, Bonnie Slike, Hui Li, Kristina K Peachman, Will Fischer, Feng Gao, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Leigh A Eller, Robert J O'Connell, Samuel Sinei, Lucas Maganga, Hannah Kibuuka, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Mangala Rao, Mary A Marovich, Shelly J Krebs, Morgane Rolland, Bette T Korber, George M Shaw, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Jerome H Kim
In order to inform the rational design of HIV-1 preventive and cure interventions it is critical to understand the events occurring during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). Using viral deep sequencing on six participants from the early capture acute infection RV217 cohort, we have studied HIV-1 evolution in plasma collected twice weekly during the first weeks following the advent of viremia. The analysis of infections established by multiple transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses revealed novel viral profiles that included: a) the low-level persistence of minor T/F variants, b) the rapid replacement of the major T/F by a minor T/F, and c) an initial expansion of the minor T/F followed by a quick collapse of the same minor T/F to low frequency...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757894/hiv-1-latent-reservoir-size-matters
#12
Flavia Hodel, Marion Patxot, Tiia Snäkä, Angela Ciuffi
More than 35 million people remain infected with HIV-1. Upon antiretroviral therapy cessation, HIV-1-positive individuals systematically fail to achieve sustained virological remission, revealing the presence of a reservoir. This reservoir takes into account anatomical sanctuaries where HIV-1 continues to replicate, and latently infected cells also known as the latent reservoir (LR). A better understanding of the nature and features of the LR and its quantification are crucial to evaluate the efficiency of therapeutic strategies aiming at purging HIV-1...
December 2016: Future Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755872/new-approaches-for-the-enhancement-of-chimeric-antigen-receptors-for-the-treatment-of-hiv
#13
REVIEW
Mayra A Carrillo, Anjie Zhen, Jerome A Zack, Scott G Kitchen
HIV infection continues to be a life-long chronic disease in spite of the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in controlling viral replication and preventing disease progression. However, because of the high cost of treatment, severe side effects, and inefficiency in curing the disease with ART, there is a call for alternative therapies that will provide a functional cure for HIV. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital in the control and clearance of viral infections and therefore immune-based therapies have attempted to engineer HIV-specific CTLs that would be able to clear the infection from the body...
July 14, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752134/hiv-infection-of-macrophages-implications-for-pathogenesis-and-cure
#14
Kiera L Clayton, J Victor Garcia, Janice E Clements, Bruce D Walker
Although CD4(+) T cells represent the major reservoir of persistent HIV and SIV infection, accumulating evidence suggests that macrophages also contribute. However, investigations of the role of macrophages are often underrepresented at HIV pathogenesis and cure meetings. This was the impetus for a scientific workshop dedicated to this area of study, held in Cambridge, MA in January 2017. The workshop brought together experts in the fields of HIV/SIV immunology and virology, macrophage biology and immunology, and animal models of HIV/SIV infection to discuss the role of macrophages as a physiologically relevant viral reservoir, and the implications of macrophage infection for HIV pathogenesis and strategies for cure...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751153/ccr5-edited-gene-therapies-for-hiv-cure-closing-the-door-to-viral-entry
#15
REVIEW
Kevin G Haworth, Christopher W Peterson, Hans-Peter Kiem
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was first reported and characterized more than three decades ago. Once thought of as a death sentence, HIV infection has become a chronically manageable disease. However, it is estimated that a staggering 0.8% of the world's population is infected with HIV, with more than 1 million deaths reported in 2015 alone. Despite the development of effective anti-retroviral drugs, a permanent cure has only been documented in one patient to date. In 2007, an HIV-positive patient received a bone marrow transplant to treat his leukemia from an individual who was homozygous for a mutation in the CCR5 gene...
July 24, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746819/humanized-mouse-models-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#16
Matthew D Marsden, Jerome A Zack
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. No effective vaccine is available to prevent HIV transmission, and although antiretroviral therapy can prevent disease progression, it does not cure HIV infection. Substantial effort is therefore currently directed toward basic research on HIV pathogenesis and persistence and developing methods to stop the spread of the HIV epidemic and cure those individuals already infected with HIV. Humanized mice are versatile tools for the study ofHIVand its interaction with the human immune system...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737496/claims-of-a-cure-for-hiv-come-under-fire
#17
Talha Burki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736389/hiv-testing-experiences-and-their-implications-for-patient-engagement-with-hiv-care-and-treatment-on-the-eve-of-test-and-treat-findings-from-a-multicountry-qualitative-study
#18
Alison Wringe, Mosa Moshabela, Constance Nyamukapa, Dominic Bukenya, Ken Ondenge, William Ddaaki, Joyce Wamoyi, Janet Seeley, Kathryn Church, Basia Zaba, Victoria Hosegood, Oliver Bonnington, Morten Skovdal, Jenny Renju
OBJECTIVE: In view of expanding 'test and treat' initiatives, we sought to elicit how the experience of HIV testing influenced subsequent engagement in HIV care among people diagnosed with HIV. METHODS: As part of a multisite qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews in Uganda, South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe with 5-10 health workers and 28-59 people living with HIV, per country. Topic guides covered patient and provider experiences of HIV testing and treatment services...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729655/a-crispr-cas9-guidance-rna-screen-platform-for-hiv-provirus-disruption-and-hiv-aids-gene-therapy-in-astrocytes
#19
Zaohua Huang, Madahavan Nair
HIV/AIDS remains a major health threat despite significant advances in the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The major reason is the inability of existing treatments to eradicate the multiple HIV reservoirs in the human body, including astrocytes in the human brain. CRISPR/Cas9 system is an emerging gene-editing technique with the potential to eliminate or disrupt HIV provirus in HIV reservoir cells, which may lead to a complete cure of HIV/AIDS. The key components of CRISPR/Cas9 are guide RNAs (gRNAs) which determine specific sequence targeting of DNAs...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719012/the-impact-of-immunoglobulin-in-acute-hiv-infection-on-the-hiv-reservoir-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
J Tiraboschi, S Ray, K Patel, A Teague, M Pace, P Phalora, N Robinson, E Hopkins, J Meyerowitz, Y Wang, J Cason, S Kaye, J Sanderson, P Klenerman, S Fidler, J Frater, J Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV infection (AHI) restricts the HIV reservoir, but additional interventions are necessary to induce a cure. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is not HIV-specific but is safe and temporarily reduces the HIV reservoir in chronic HIV infection. We present a randomized controlled trial to investigate whether IVIG plus ART in AHI reduces the HIV reservoir and immune activation compared with ART alone. METHODS: Ten men with AHI (Fiebig II-IV) initiated ART (tenofovir, entricitabine, ritonavir boosted darunavir and raltegravir) at HIV-1 diagnosis and were randomized to ART alone or ART plus 5 days of IVIG, once virally suppressed (week 19)...
July 18, 2017: HIV Medicine
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