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HIV cure

Branimir Gjurašin, Snježana Židovec Lepej, Michelle J Cole, Rachel Pitt, Josip Begovac
We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lymphogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and proctitis in Croatia in 2014. Infection with a variant L2b genovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in a cervical lymph node aspirate. A prolonged course of doxycycline was required to cure the infection.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Clarence S Yah, Geoffrey S Simate, Percy Hlangothi, Benesh M Somai
Objective: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Xiaoyan Pan, Jian Lin, Xiaoyun Zeng, Wenjuan Li, Wenjiao Wu, Wan Zhen Lu, Jing Liu, Shuwen Liu
The persistent inflammation aggravated by a disordered immune response is considered to be the major cause of CD4+ T cell depletion in lymphoid tissue, which impels the progression of AIDS. Here, we report that heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) works as an innate repressor of HIV-induced inflammation. The activation of HSF1 was found to accompany inflammation during HIV infection. Further research uncovered that HSF1 activation inhibited HIV-induced inflammation. In addition, HSF1 overexpression suppressed the inflammatory response induced by HIV, while HSF1 deficiency exacerbated that inflammation...
January 31, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Saverio G Parisi, Samantha Andreis, Carlo Mengoli, Nicola Menegotto, Silvia Cavinato, Renzo Scaggiante, Massimo Andreoni, Giorgio Palù, Monica Basso, Anna Maria Cattelan
Soluble CD163, soluble CD14 and cellular HIV-1-DNA levels reflect two different aspects of HIV infection: immune activation and the reservoir of infected cells. The aim of this study was to describe their relationships in a cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected patients successfully treated for both HCV and HIV infections. Fifty-five patients were recruited and studied prior to the start of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) (T0), at week 12 of DAA treatment (T1) and 24 weeks after T0 (T2). The subjects were classified as having undetectable plasma HIV viraemia (UV) or low-level viraemia (LLV) in the 18 months before T2...
March 9, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Harshana S De Silva Feelixge, Daniel Stone, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Martine Aubert, Keith R Jerome
Chronic viral infections remain a major public health issue affecting millions of people worldwide. Highly active antiviral treatments have significantly improved prognosis and infection-related morbidity and mortality, but have failed to eliminate persistent viral forms. Therefore, new strategies to either eradicate or control these viral reservoirs are paramount to allow patients to stop antiretroviral therapy and realize a cure. Viral genome disruption based on gene editing by programmable endonucleases is one promising curative gene therapy approach...
March 9, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Jeffy George, Joseph J Mattapallil
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) establishes life-long latency in infected individuals. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a significant impact on the course of HIV infection leading to a better long-term outcome, the pool of latent reservoir remains substantial even under HAART. Numerous approaches have been under development with the goal of eradicating the latent HIV reservoir though with limited success. Approaches that combine immune-mediated control of HIV to activate both the innate and the adaptive immune system under suppressive therapy along with "shock and kill" drugs may lead to a better control of the reactivated virus...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ketema Tafess, Teresa Kisi Beyen, Adugna Abera, Geremew Tasew, Shimelis Mekit, Solomon Sisay, Legesse Tadesse, Gilman K H Siu
Background: Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) has been one of the major strategies to combat the epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) globally. This study aimed to evaluate TB treatment outcomes between September 2004 and July 2014 under the DOTS program at one of the largest public hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective data of TB patients registered at Asella Teaching Hospital between September 2004 and July 2014 were obtained from hospital registry...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Jesús Rodríguez-Muñoz, Santiago Moreno
The disadvantages of the long-term administration of antiretroviral therapy as well as the huge number of affected persons have placed the cure of HIV as a primary goal of Public Health. HIV may persist in the organism by at least four mechanisms: a latently infected cellular reservoir, the persistent replication of HIV in spite of ART, anatomic sanctuaries, and the immune dysfunction. Several strategies directed against these mechanisms have been developed. With all this, a complete eradication of HIV has been achieved in a patient using the transplantation of haemopoietic stem cells that were resistant to HIV-infection, and there are examples of functional cure either spontaneously (elite controllers) or after antiretroviral therapy (post-treatment controllers)...
March 3, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Gladys Kigozi, Michelle Engelbrecht, Christo Heunis, André Janse van Rensburg
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the World Health Organization launched guidelines for systematically investigating contacts of persons with infectious tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries. As such, it is necessary to understand factors that would influence successful scale-up. This study targeted household contacts of newly-diagnosed infectious TB patients in the Mangaung Metropolitan district to explore factors associated with non-attendance of clinical evaluation. METHOD: In September-October 2016, a pilot study of household contacts was conducted...
March 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Eileen P Scully
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women...
March 5, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Thor A Wagner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A therapy that might cure HIV is a very important goal for the 30-40 million people living with HIV. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells have recently had remarkable success against certain leukemias, and there are reasons to believe they could be successful for HIV. This manuscript summarizes the published research on HIV CAR T cells and reviews the current anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Research on anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptor T cells has been going on for at least the last 25 years...
March 3, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Helen R Fryer, Steven M Wolinsky, Angela R McLean
Although antiretroviral drug therapy suppresses human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) to undetectable levels in the blood of treated individuals, reservoirs of replication competent HIV-1 endure. Upon cessation of antiretroviral therapy, the reservoir usually allows outgrowth of virus and approaches to targeting the reservoir have had limited success. Ongoing cycles of viral replication in regions with low drug penetration contribute to this persistence. Here, we use a mathematical model to illustrate a new approach to eliminating the part of the reservoir attributable to persistent replication in drug sanctuaries...
March 2, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Hanh Thi Pham, Thibault Mesplède
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. In developed countries, antiretroviral therapy has extended its reach from treatment of people living with HIV-1 to post-exposure prophylaxis, treatment as prevention, and, more recently, pre-exposure prophylaxis. These healthcare strategies offer the epidemiological tools to curve the epidemic in rich settings and will be concomitantly implemented in developing countries. One of the remaining challenges is to identify an efficacious curative strategy...
2018: Drugs in Context
Chen Huan, Zhaolong Li, Shanshan Ning, Hong Wang, Xiao-Fang Yu, Wenyan Zhang
The HIV-1 reservoir is a major obstacle to complete eradication of the virus. Although many proteins and RNAs have been characterized as regulators in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis and latency, only a few long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be closely associated with HIV-1 replication and latency. Here, we demonstrated that lncRNA uc002yug.2 plays a key role in HIV-1 viral replication and latency. uc002yug.2 potentially enhances HIV-1 viral replication, LTR activity as well as the activation of latent HIV-1 in both cell lines and CD4+ T cells from patients...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
José M Benito, María C Ortiz, Agathe León, Luis A Sarabia, José M Ligos, María Montoya, Marcial Garcia, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Rosario Palacios, Alfonso Cabello, Clara Restrepo, Carmen Rodriguez, Jorge Del Romero, Manuel Leal, María A Muñoz-Fernández, José Alcamí, Felipe García, Miguel Górgolas, Norma Rallón
BACKGROUND: Despite long-lasting HIV replication control, a significant proportion of elite controller (EC) patients may experience CD4 T-cell loss. Discovering perturbations in immunological parameters could help our understanding of the mechanisms that may be operating in those patients experiencing loss of immunological control. METHODS: A case-control study was performed to evaluate if alterations in different T-cell homeostatic parameters can predict CD4 T-cell loss in ECs by comparing data from EC patients showing significant CD4 decline (cases) and EC patients showing stable CD4 counts (controls)...
February 28, 2018: BMC Medicine
J Jaiswal, S N Singer, M Griffin Tomas, H-M Lekas
BACKGROUND: HIV-related "conspiracy beliefs" include ideas about the genocidal origin of HIV to target minority people, and the notion that a cure for HIV is being deliberately withheld. Previous literature suggests that these beliefs may negatively affect engagement in HIV care and ART adherence, but little is known about how people who are disengaged from care may think about these ideas. METHODS: Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with low-income Black and Latinx people living with HIV in NYC who were currently disengaged from, or recently re-engaged in, HIV care...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Jihane N Benhammou, Tien S Dong, Folasade P May, Jenna Kawamoto, Ram Dixit, Samuel Jackson, Vivek Dixit, Debika Bhattacharya, Steven B Han, Joseph R Pisegna
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. HCV cure has been linked to improved patient outcomes. In the era of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), HCV cure has become the goal, as defined by sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after completion of therapy. Historically, African-Americans have had lower SVR12 rates compared to White people in the interferon era, which had been attributed to the high prevalence of non-CC interleukin 28B (IL28B) type. Less is known about the association between race/ethnicity and SVR12 in DAA-treated era...
April 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Zheng Wang, Evelyn E Gurule, Timothy P Brennan, Jeffrey M Gerold, Kyungyoon J Kwon, Nina N Hosmane, Mithra R Kumar, Subul A Beg, Adam A Capoferri, Stuart C Ray, Ya-Chi Ho, Alison L Hill, Janet D Siliciano, Robert F Siliciano
The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells is a major barrier to cure. Several lines of evidence suggest that the latent reservoir is maintained through cellular proliferation. Analysis of this proliferative process is complicated by the fact that most infected cells carry defective proviruses. Additional complications are that stimuli that drive T cell proliferation can also induce virus production from latently infected cells and productively infected cells have a short in vivo half-life. In this ex vivo study, we show that latently infected cells containing replication-competent HIV-1 can proliferate in response to T cell receptor agonists or cytokines that are known to induce homeostatic proliferation and that this can occur without virus production...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Seble Worku, Awoke Derbie, Daniel Mekonnen, Fantahun Biadglegne
BACKGROUND: Data regarding tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes, proportion of TB/HIV co-infection and associated factors have been released at different TB treatment facilities in Ethiopia and elsewhere in the world as part of the auditing and surveillance service. However, these data are missing for the TB clinic offering directly observed treatment short-course (DOTs) at Debre Tabor General Hospital (DTGH). METHODS: The authors analysed the records of 985 TB patients registered at the DTGH from September 2008 to December 2016...
February 26, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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