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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103248/effect-of-the-latent-reservoir-on-the-evolution-of-hiv-at-the-within-and-between-host-levels
#1
Hilje M Doekes, Christophe Fraser, Katrina A Lythgoe
The existence of long-lived reservoirs of latently infected CD4+ T cells is the major barrier to curing HIV, and has been extensively studied in this light. However, the effect of these reservoirs on the evolutionary dynamics of the virus has received little attention. Here, we present a within-host quasispecies model that incorporates a long-lived reservoir, which we then nest into an epidemiological model of HIV dynamics. For biologically plausible parameter values, we find that the presence of a latent reservoir can severely delay evolutionary dynamics within a single host, with longer delays associated with larger relative reservoir sizes and/or homeostatic proliferation of cells within the reservoir...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100833/follicular-cd8-t-cells-accumulate-in-hiv-infection-and-can-kill-infected-cells-in-vitro-via-bispecific-antibodies
#2
Constantinos Petrovas, Sara Ferrando-Martinez, Michael Y Gerner, Joseph P Casazza, Amarendra Pegu, Claire Deleage, Arik Cooper, Jason Hataye, Sarah Andrews, David Ambrozak, Perla M Del Río Estrada, Eli Boritz, Robert Paris, Eirini Moysi, Kristin L Boswell, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Ilias Vagios, Manuel Leal, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Amaranta Rivero, Luz Alicia Gonzalez-Hernandez, Adrian B McDermott, Susan Moir, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Fernando Docobo, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Daniel C Douek, Michael R Betts, Jacob D Estes, Ronald N Germain, John R Mascola, Richard A Koup
Cytolytic CD8 T cells play a crucial role in the control and elimination of virus-infected cells and are a major focus of HIV cure efforts. However, it has been shown that HIV-specific CD8 T cells are infrequently found within germinal centers (GCs), a predominant site of active and latent HIV infection. We demonstrate that HIV infection induces marked changes in the phenotype, frequency, and localization of CD8 T cells within the lymph node (LN). Significantly increased frequencies of CD8 T cells in the B cell follicles and GCs were found in LNs from treated and untreated HIV-infected individuals...
January 18, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096698/burkitt-lymphoma-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-management-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Massimo Dozzo, Francesca Carobolante, Pietro Maria Donisi, Annamaria Scattolin, Elena Maino, Rosaria Sancetta, Piera Viero, Renato Bassan
About one-half of all Burkitt lymphoma (BL) patients are younger than 40 years, and one-third belong to the adolescent and young adult (AYA) subset, defined by an age between 15 and 25-40 years, based on selection criteria used in different reports. BL is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm displaying highly characteristic clinico-diagnostic features, the biologic hallmark of which is a translocation involving immunoglobulin and c-MYC genes. It presents as sporadic, endemic, or epidemic disease. Endemicity is pathogenetically linked to an imbalance of the immune system which occurs in African children infected by malaria parasites and Epstein-Barr virus, while the epidemic form strictly follows the pattern of infection by HIV...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094770/rapamycin-mediated-mtor-inhibition-uncouples-hiv-1-latency-reversal-from-cytokine-associated-toxicity
#4
Alyssa R Martin, Ross A Pollack, Adam Capoferri, Richard F Ambinder, Christine M Durand, Robert F Siliciano
Current strategies for HIV-1 eradication require the reactivation of latent HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4s). Global T cell activation is a well-characterized means of inducing HIV-1 transcription, but is considered too toxic for clinical applications. Here, we have explored a strategy that involves a combination of immune activation and the immunosuppressive mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. In purified rCD4s from HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy, rapamycin treatment downregulated markers of toxicity, including proinflammatory cytokine release and cellular proliferation that were induced after potent T cell activation using αCD3/αCD28 antibodies...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094666/stage-iv-advanced-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-with-achieving-cure-by-using-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-alone-a-case-report
#5
Do Hyoung Lim, Ji-Young Rhee, Keon Woo Park
After the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there has been a decrease in the incidence of lymphoma among the HIV-infected population and also significantly improved survival rates. We describe a remarkable case of an HIV-infected patient with advanced stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), completely regressed with the use of HAART alone. He remained disease-free for 6 years and he achieved cure without chemotherapy. Although several cases of low-grade lymphoma with complete regression were reported, we could not find any case of stage IV high-grade malignant lymphoma with HAART alone in complete remission for over 5 years from our review of the literature...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088870/fatal-relapse-of-myelodysplastic-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-hiv-hepatitis-c-coinfection-treated-with-simeprevir-sofosbuvir
#6
Efemena Michael Diejomaoh, Joseph Clayton Gathe, Carl Craig Mayberry, John Benjamin Clemmons, Bernie Miguel, Alan Glombicki, Benjamin Daquioag
Registrational studies and observational cohorts clearly suggest sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in HIV-/hepatitis C-coinfected patients are similar to monoinfected patients when utilizing interferon-free regimens, and this can be accomplished with agents that are well tolerated with minimal adverse events. These randomized trials that led to the approval of several of our new direct-acting antiviral agents, however, specifically excluded patients who had significant comorbidities and none to our knowledge accepted patients with a history of cancer...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079543/a-novel-anti-hiv-immunotherapy-to-cure-hiv
#7
Ali Ahmad, Charles R Rinaldo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079256/characterization-of-chronic-hcv-infection-in-northwest-spain-impact-of-the-treatment-strategic-plan-of-the-spanish-national-health-service-on-hcv-cure
#8
Marta Grandal, Berta Pernas, Ana Mariño, Hortensia Álvarez, Andrés Tabernilla, Ángeles Castro-Iglesias, Álvaro Mena, Manuel Delgado, Sonia Pértega, Eva Poveda
The aim of the study was to characterize HCV infection in Northwest Spain and assess the impact of the Spanish Strategic Plan to cure HCV infection. Overall, 387 patients were included (60.9% HIV/HCV coinfected and 28.2% cirrhotic). Of these, 72.9% of patients that were recognized as priority for HCV treatment according to the Spanish Strategic Plan (≥F2, transplant or extrahepatic manifestations), initiated treatment during 2015. Globally, SVR12 was achieved in 96.5% of patients. The implementation of the Spanish Strategic Plan has been critical to advance in HCV cure, but 27...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077644/ultrasensitive-hiv-1-p24-detects-single-infected-cells-and-differences-in-reservoir-induction-by-latency-reversal-agents
#9
Caroline Pereira Bittencourt Passaes, Timothée Bruel, Jérémie Decalf, Annie David, Mathieu Angin, Valerie Monceaux, Michaela Muller-Trutwin, Nicolas Noel, Katia Bourdic, Olivier Lambotte, Matthew L Albert, Darragh Duffy, Olivier Schwartz, Asier Sáez-Cirión
: The existence of HIV reservoirs in infected individuals under cART represents a major obstacle towards cure. Viral reservoirs are assessed by quantification of HIV nucleic acids, which does not discriminate between infectious and defective viruses, or by viral outgrowth assays, which requires large number of cells and long-term cultures. Here, we used an ultrasensitive p24 digital assay, which we report to be 1000 fold more sensitive than classical ELISA in the quantification of HIV-1 Gag p24 production in HIV-infected individuals samples...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069134/the-multifaceted-contributions-of-chromatin-to-hiv-1-integration-transcription-and-latency
#10
E De Crignis, T Mahmoudi
The capacity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) to establish latent infections constitutes a major barrier to the development of a cure for HIV-1. In latent infection, replication competent HIV-1 provirus is integrated within the host genome but remains silent, masking the infected cells from the activity of the host immune response. Despite the progress in elucidating the molecular players that regulate HIV-1 gene expression, the mechanisms driving the establishment and maintenance of latency are still not fully understood...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067535/long-term-survival-of-aids-patients-treated-with-only-traditional-chinese-medicine
#11
Yifei Wang, Fujun Jin, Qiaoli Wang, Zucai Suo
Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) has been used in Chinese society for more than 5,000 years to treat diseases from inflammation to cancer. Here, we report the case of nine living AIDS patients in the age range of 51 to 67 who were treated with either a unique formula of TCM alone from 2001 to 2009 or the TCM from 2001 to 2006 and then switched to occasional antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly, the viral loads of eight patients were at undetectable levels on June 28, 2016 while the remaining patient had a low viral load of 29 copies/ml...
January 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066878/safety-and-effectiveness-of-sodium-stibogluconate-and-paromomycin-combination-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-eastern-africa-results-from-a-pharmacovigilance-programme
#12
Robert Kimutai, Ahmed M Musa, Simon Njoroge, Raymond Omollo, Fabiana Alves, Asrat Hailu, Eltahir A G Khalil, Ermias Diro, Peninah Soipei, Brima Musa, Khalid Salman, Koert Ritmeijer, Francois Chappuis, Juma Rashid, Rezika Mohammed, Asfaw Jameneh, Eyasu Makonnen, Joseph Olobo, Lawrence Okello, Patrick Sagaki, Nathalie Strub, Sally Ellis, Jorge Alvar, Manica Balasegaram, Emilie Alirol, Monique Wasunna
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, WHO recommended a new first-line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Eastern Africa. The new treatment, a combination of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and IM paromomycin (PM) was an improvement over SSG monotherapy, the previous first-line VL treatment in the region. To monitor the new treatment's safety and effectiveness in routine clinical practice a pharmacovigilance (PV) programme was developed. METHODS: A prospective PV cohort was developed...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062651/an-activist-s-argument-that-participant-values-should-guide-risk-benefit-ratio-calculations-in-hiv-cure-research
#13
David Evans
The patient empowerment movement, spurred by AIDS activism in the 1980s, quickly evolved to encompass how study participants are considered and treated in clinical research. Initially, people fearing death of AIDS sought early access to experimental medications that had not undergone rigorous testing in hopes of extending their lives. Thirty years on, scientists are asking a different set of ethical questions about clinical research, this time in the pursuit of either a sterilising cure or long-term remission for HIV...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060545/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-adenovirus-35-tb-vaccine-candidate-in-adults-with-active-or-previous-tb-a-randomized-trial
#14
Richard N van Zyl-Smit, Aliasgar Esmail, Mary E Bateman, Rodney Dawson, Jonathan Goldin, Eva van Rikxoort, Macaya Douoguih, Maria Grazia Pau, Jerald C Sadoff, J Bruce McClain, Margaret Ann Snowden, Jacqueline Benko, David A Hokey, Kathryn Tucker Rutkowski, Andrew Graves, Barbara Shepherd, Sadritdin Ishmukhamedov, Benjamin M N Kagina, Brian Abel, Willem A Hanekom, Thomas J Scriba, Eric D Bateman
RATIONALE: Administration of tuberculosis vaccines in participants with previous or current pulmonary tuberculosis may have the potential for causing harmful post-vaccination immunological (Koch-type) reactions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of three dose levels of the AERAS-402 live, replication-deficient adenovirus 35-vectored tuberculosis candidate vaccine, containing three mycobacterial antigens, in individuals with current or previous pulmonary tuberculosis...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060012/post-treatment-control-or-treated-controllers-viral-remission-in-treated-and-untreated-primary-hiv-infection
#15
Genevieve E Martin, Morgane Gossez, James P Williams, Wolfgang Stöhr, Jodi Meyerowitz, Ellen M Leitman, Philip Goulder, Kholoud Porter, Sarah Fidler, John Frater
OBJECTIVE(S): An HIV cure will impose aviraemia which is sustained following the withdrawal of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Understanding the efficacy of novel interventions aimed at curing HIV requires characterisation of both natural viral control and the effect of ART on viral control after treatment interruption. DESIGN: Analysis of transient viral control in recent seroconverters in the SPARTAC trial. METHODS: We compared untreated and treated HIV seroconverters (n = 292) and identified periods of control (plasma VL<400 copies/mL for ≥16 weeks off therapy) in 7...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059958/future-technologies-for-monitoring-hiv-drug-resistance-and-cure
#16
Urvi M Parikh, Kevin McCormick, Gert van Zyl, John W Mellors
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sensitive, scalable and affordable assays are critically needed for monitoring the success of interventions for preventing, treating and attempting to cure HIV infection. This review evaluates current and emerging technologies that are applicable for both surveillance of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and characterization of HIV reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and are obstacles to curing HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to be adapted into high-throughput, cost-efficient approaches for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring during continued scale-up of antiretroviral therapy and rollout of preexposure prophylaxis...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057074/how-acceptable-is-it-for-hiv-positive-african-caribbean-and-black-women-to-provide-breast-milk-fluid-samples-for-research-purposes
#17
L Kapiriri, W Tharao, M Muchenje, I M Khatundi, F Ongoiba
BACKGROUND: The African, Caribbean and Black communities have been found to be reluctant to participate in health research in North America. This is partly attributed to historical experiences as well as their cultural beliefs. Cultural beliefs about the uses of breast milk/fluids could further hinder the participation of African, Caribbean, and Black communities in research involving the collection of breast milk/fluids samples. METHODS: We conducted 17 in-depth interviews and three group interviews (n = 10) with HIV+ African, Caribbean and Black women living in Ontario, Canada to explore their cultural beliefs about breast milk/fluids and their acceptance of participating in research that involves the provision of breast fluid samples...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056848/high-prevalence-and-low-cure-rate-of-tuberculosis-among-patients-with-hiv-in-xinjiang-china
#18
Rena Maimaiti, Yuexin Zhang, Kejun Pan, Peierdun Mijiti, Maimaitiali Wubili, Maimaitijiang Musa, Rune Andersson
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and HIV co-epidemics are problems in many parts of the world. Xinjiang is a high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence area in China. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and cure rate of tuberculosis among HIV positive patients in Xinjiang. METHODS: In a retrospective study between 2006 and 2011, clinical and laboratory data on 333 patients with HIV and tuberculosis were compared to 2668 patients with HIV only. There were 31 HIV positive patients with no data on tuberculosis...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056752/inhibiting-the-secretion-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-to-treat-hepatitis-b-infection-a-review
#19
Simon D Baugh
Chronic Hepatitis B is a major global health issue, and has no known cure. Currently there are over 240 million people infected with the disease, and it leads to the death of over 686,000 people each year. A total of seven treatments which help to control the disease are currently available: interferon-based treatments (pegasys, and interferon alpha), and nucleoside and nucleotide analogs (Viread, Baraclude, Tyzeka, Hepsera, Epivir-HBV), but all require continuing treatment to maintain control of the disease...
January 4, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051925/a-social-work-plan-to-promote-hiv-testing-a-social-marketing-approach
#20
J P Morgan-Siebe
Many people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) do not know that they are infected. It is important for infected persons to get tested for HIV in order to be diagnosed and medically treated. HIV has no known cure, but it can be controlled and sometimes prevented with proper medical care. The social work profession has ideal positioning to be extraordinarily helpful in work that promotes HIV testing, leading to reducing then eliminating new HIV diagnoses. Social marketing interventions, along with audience segmenting are explained...
January 4, 2017: Social Work in Health Care
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