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C Laird Birmingham, Shelley Sidhu, John Anderson
PURPOSE: To determine whether the fear response is the same in AN as in controls. METHOD: We recorded the EEG in 10 participants with a history of AN and in 10 controls during a fear stimulus. The response of the brain was recorded using EEG LORETA. The recording was analyzed for a marked increase in activity in the amygdala, uncus, insula, and anterior cingulate from 300 to 500 ms following the stimulus. RESULTS: The order or response of the amygdala, uncus, insula, and anterior cingulate was not significantly different in AN and controls...
March 14, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Chengxiang Tang, Yao Xiong, Hongyan Wu, Judy Xu
BACKGROUND: This study adapts the ICECAP measure for Adults (ICECAP-A) to assess its capacity to measure the quality of life in China for economic evaluation. METHODS: Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to translate the ICECAP-A measure for wellbeing, established by the University of Birmingham, UK, to the Chinese cultural context. A focus group discussion solved the appropriateness and wording of the ICECAP attributes in Chinese; and a randomly selected sample of 1000 adults aged over 18 years were online surveyed...
March 12, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Deepa Rao, Christopher G Kemp, David Huh, Paul E Nevin, Janet Turan, Susan E Cohn, Jane M Simoni, Michele Andrasik, Yamile Molina, Michael J Mugavero, Audrey L French
INTRODUCTION: African American women encounter disproportionately high rates of HIVrelated morbidity and mortality which is partially mediated through stigma and its effect on HIV treatment adherence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the UNITY peer support workshop on HIV-related stigma among African American women living with HIV, compared to a time and attention control group. METHODS: African American women living with HIV were randomized to the UNITY workshop or a breast cancer education control group...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
S Lindsay Wood, John Owen, Sheri M Jenkins, Lorie M Harper
INTRODUCTION:  Although guidelines recommend repeat ultrasound in the setting of an incomplete fetal anatomic survey, the clinical utility of this practice has not been established. As such, we aimed to assess the yield of repeat ultrasound for anomaly detection following an incomplete survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This is a retrospective cohort study of all singletons who underwent a midtrimester anatomic ultrasound at University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) from 2006 to 2014...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Brant M Wagener, Parker J Hu, Joo-Yeun Oh, Cilina A Evans, Jillian R Richter, Jaideep Honavar, Angela P Brandon, Judy Creighton, Shannon W Stephens, Charity Morgan, Randal O Dull, Marisa B Marques, Jeffrey D Kerby, Jean-Francois Pittet, Rakesh P Patel
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of death and disability in patients aged 1-46 y. Severely injured patients experience considerable blood loss and hemorrhagic shock requiring treatment with massive transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs). Preclinical and retrospective human studies in trauma patients have suggested that poorer therapeutic efficacy, increased severity of organ injury, and increased bacterial infection are associated with transfusion of large volumes of stored RBCs, although the mechanisms are not fully understood...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Cliodna A M McNulty, Donna M Lecky, Li Xu-McCrae, Deborah Nakiboneka-Ssenabulya, Keun-Taik Chung, Tom Nichols, Helen Lucy Thomas, Mike Thomas, Adela Alvarez-Buylla, Kim Turner, Sahida Shabir, Susan Manzoor, Stephen Smith, Linda Crocker, Peter M Hawkey
Background: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) are increasing in prevalence worldwide and are more difficult to treat than non-ESBLPE. Their prevalence in the UK general population is unknown, as the only previous UK ESBLPE faecal colonization study involved patients with diarrhoea. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of CTX-M ESBLPE faecal colonization in the general adult population of England in 2014, and investigate risk factors. Methods: A stratified random sample of 58 337 registered patients from 16 general practices within four areas of England were invited to participate by returning faeces specimens and self-completed questionnaires...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
M Mervan Çakar, Juan Mangas-Sanchez, William R Birmingham, Nicholas J Turner, Barış Binay
Over the next decades, with the growing concern of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels, the importance of investigating new approaches for its reduction becomes crutial. Reclamation of CO2 for conversion into biofuels represents an alternative and attractive production method that has been studied in recent years, now with enzymatic methods gaining more attention. Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyse the conversion of formate into CO2 and have been extensively used for cofactor recycling in chemoenzymatic processes...
March 5, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Dori Pekmezi, Cole Ainsworth, Taylor Holly, Victoria Williams, Tanya Benitez, Kaiying Wang, Laura Q Rogers, Bess Marcus, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
Telephone-delivered interventions do not require frequent clinic visits, literacy, or costly technology and thus may represent promising approaches to promoting physical activity in the Deep South, a largely rural U.S. region, with generally lower physical activity, income, and education levels. Building on past Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system-based HIV studies and extensive formative research (11 focus groups on physical activity intervention needs/preferences in the Deep South), the resulting IVR-supported physical activity intervention is now being tested in a randomized controlled trial with a waitlist control...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Vineeta Shobha, Saba Fathima, Ravi Prakash
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis is one of the forms of idiopathic systemic vasculitis. There is very scanty data available on GPA in Asian and Indian population. We studied data of 60 patients from southern India, diagnosed with GPA to describe the physical characteristics, the treatment, and outcome. Patients who fulfilled any two of the four criteria proposed by the American College of Rheumatology, and those with clinical features of GPA with ANCA positivity and histopathological confirmation, were included in the study...
February 28, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Evangelos Kontopantelis, Richard John Stevens, Peter J Helms, Duncan Edwards, Tim Doran, Darren M Ashcroft
OBJECTIVES: UK primary care databases (PCDs) are used by researchers worldwide to inform clinical practice. These databases have been primarily tied to single clinical computer systems, but little is known about the adoption of these systems by primary care practices or their geographical representativeness. We explore the spatial distribution of clinical computing systems and discuss the implications for the longevity and regional representativeness of these resources. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
February 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Stephen Ali, Abdulla Ibrahim
Hand surgery constitutes an important part of plastic surgery and orthopedic training curricula. Although the value of simulation-based training is being increasingly recognized, attendance at such courses may be limited owing to cost, availability, and non-learner-centered schedules.The Birmingham and Coventry hand and forearm cadaveric dissection course is a 1-day course with a loose agenda that offers an inexpensive and learner-centered approach toward surgical access, dissection, and soft tissue coverage in the upper limb...
February 28, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Nicola J Adderley, Sue Mallett, Tom Marshall, Sandip Ghosh, Gerry Rayman, Srikanth Bellary, Jamie Coleman, Funke Akiboye, Konstantinos A Toulis, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar
AIM: To temporally and externally validate our previously developed prediction model, which used data from University Hospitals Birmingham to identify inpatients with diabetes at high risk of adverse outcome, in order to demonstrate its applicability to other hospital populations within the UK. METHODS: Temporal validation was performed using data from University Hospitals Birmingham and external validation was performed using data from both the Heart of England Foundation Trust and Ipswich Hospital...
February 27, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Kevin D Cofer, Robert H Hollis, Lauren Goss, Melanie S Morris, John R Porterfield, Daniel I Chu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether burnout was associated with emotional intelligence and job performance in surgical residents. DESIGN: General surgery residents at a single institution were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and trait EI questionnaire (TEIQ-SF). Burnout was defined as scoring in 2 of the 3 following domains; Emotional Exhaustion (high), Depersonalization (high), and Personal Accomplishment (low). Job performance was evaluated using faculty evaluations of clinical competency-based surgical milestones and standardized test scores including the American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE) and the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 3...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Prasanna Sritharan, Yi-Chung Lin, Sara E Richardson, Kay M Crossley, Trevor B Birmingham, Marcus G Pandy
This study quantified the contributions by muscular, gravitational and inertial forces to the ground reaction force (GRF) and external knee adduction moment (EKAM) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients and controls walking at similar speeds. Gait data for 39 varus mal-aligned medial knee OA patients and 15 controls were input into musculoskeletal models to calculate the contributions of individual muscles and gravity to the fore-aft (progression), vertical (support), and mediolateral (balance) GRF, and the EKAM...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Francesca Marcon, Andrea Anja Schlegel, David Bartlett, Marit Kalisvaart, Dawn Bishop, Hynek Mergental, Keith Roberts, Darius Mirza, John Isaac, Paolo Muiesan, Thamara Perera
BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, up to 20% of liver graft offers are not utilized for transplantation and the reasons for graft refusal are multi-factorial and not consistent amongst transplant units. METHODS: Liver grafts previously declined by other transplant centers in UK but transplanted in our unit in Birmingham between 2011 and 2015 were analyzed. According to the indicated reason for previous declines, liver grafts were categorized into 3 refusal groups: "quality", "logistics" and "other reasons"...
February 22, 2018: Transplantation
Chin Hee Mun, Juyoung Yoo, Seung Min Jung, Jason Jungsik Song, Yong-Beom Park, Sang-Won Lee
OBJECTIVES: We estimated the cumulative patient survival rates, the causes of death and the initial predictors of death in Korean patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and eosinophilic GPA (EGPA). METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 153 patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). We collected clinical and laboratory data including ANCA, Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS), five factor score (FFS) (2009), comorbidities, medications and prognosis (death and relapse)...
February 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Guangjian Liu, Jinhai Chen
This study investigated the risk factors of peritonitis during early peritoneal dialysis for renal failure in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis (AASV). This study enrolled hospitalized AASV patients with renal failure who underwent peritoneal dialysis at the Department of Nephrology of our hospital between 2008 and 2015. The primary aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis to characterize peritonitis during the early period (≤ 8 weeks) of dialysis, and to compare the differences in initial clinical manifestations, vasculitis activity, immunosuppressive therapies prior to the renal replacement therapy, and prognosis between patients with or without peritonitis...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Stephen P McAdoo, Nicholas Medjeral-Thomas, Seerapani Gopaluni, Anisha Tanna, Nicholas Mansfield, Jack Galliford, Megan Griffith, Jeremy Levy, Thomas D Cairns, David Jayne, Alan D Salama, Charles D Pusey
Background: Current guidelines advise that rituximab or cyclophosphamide should be used for the treatment of organ-threatening disease in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), although few studies have examined the efficacy and safety of these agents in combination. Methods: We conducted a single-centre cohort study of 66 patients treated with a combination of oral corticosteroids, rituximab and low-dose pulsed intravenous cyclophosphamide followed by a maintenance regimen of azathioprine and tapered steroid for the treatment of biopsy-proven renal involvement in AAV...
February 14, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Anthony B Longhini, Eric C Cheon, John Hajduk, Robin Bowman, Patrick K Birmingham
Neuraxial anesthesia has been demonstrated to be safe and effective for children undergoing subumbilical surgery. There is limited evidence regarding the safety of neuraxial anesthesia in pediatric patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. We evaluated a series of 25 patients with indwelling ventriculoperitoneal shunts for complications within 30 days of any procedure performed with a neuraxial technique. One patient required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt revision 5 days after a lumbar catheter placement. The neurosurgeon determined the revision to be likely unrelated to the patient's lumbar catheter...
February 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Dongxin Zhao, Mehmet G Badur, Jens Luebeck, Jose H Magaña, Amanda Birmingham, Roman Sasik, Christopher S Ahn, Trey Ideker, Christian M Metallo, Prashant Mali
The metabolic pathways fueling tumor growth have been well characterized, but the specific impact of transforming events on network topology and enzyme essentiality remains poorly understood. To this end, we performed combinatorial CRISPR-Cas9 screens on a set of 51 carbohydrate metabolism genes that represent glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). This high-throughput methodology enabled systems-level interrogation of metabolic gene dispensability, interactions, and compensation across multiple cell types...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
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