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magpie trial

M K Stow, A Vernouillet, D M Kelly
The ability to restrain a prepotent response in favor of a more adaptive behavior, or to exert inhibitory control, has been used as a measure of a species' cognitive abilities. Inhibitory control defines a spectrum of behaviors varying in complexity, ranging from self-control to motoric self-regulation. Several factors underlying inhibitory control have been identified, however, the influence of neophobia (i.e., aversion to novelty) on inhibitory control has not received much attention. Neophobia is known to affect complex cognitive abilities, but whether neophobia also influences more basic cognitive abilities, such as motoric self-regulation, has received less attention...
May 17, 2018: Animal Cognition
Anthony A Wright, Debbie M Kelly, Jeffrey S Katz
This article describes an approach for training a variety of species to learn the abstract concept of same/different, which in turn forms the basis for testing proactive interference and list memory. The stimulus set for concept-learning training was progressively doubled from 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 . . . to 1,024 different pictures with novel-stimulus transfer following learning. All species fully learned the same/different abstract concept: capuchin and rhesus monkeys learned more readily than pigeons; nutcrackers and magpies were at least equivalent to monkeys and transferred somewhat better following initial training sets...
February 28, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Nadia Fucci, Carlo P Campobasso, L Mastrogiuseppe, C Puccinelli, S Marcheggiani, L Mancini, L Marino, V L Pascali
In this preliminary study, a digestive method used in forensic context to extract diatoms has been applied in organs taken from ten wildlife animals belonging three species of mammals (a deer, a roe and five otters) and one species of birds (two magpies). Only four carcasses were recovered from aquatic environments (bath trough for animals, bathtub irrigation, river) and only in three cases out of ten that the cause of death was ruled out as drowning. In seven cases, the death was due to other causes: gunshot injuries for one otter, blunt trauma for a magpie, and traumatic injuries followed by motor vehicle collision in other four otters and a roe...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Nicolas A McNair
BACKGROUND: To date, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies manipulating stimulation parameters have largely used blocked paradigms. However, altering these parameters on a trial-by-trial basis in Magstim stimulators is complicated by the need to send regular (1Hz) commands to the stimulator. Additionally, effecting such control interferes with the ability to send TMS pulses or simultaneously present stimuli with high-temporal precision. NEW METHOD: This manuscript presents the MagPy toolbox, a Python software package that provides full control over Magstim stimulators via the serial port...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
R Calandrino, F F Oliveira, L C Wanderley, E Chalem, G Nagahma, M R F Silveira, H Korkes, N Sass
INTRODUCTION: There is now evidence that magnesium sulfate can prevent and control eclamptic seizures. For women with pre-eclampsia, magnesium sulfate reduces by more than one half the risk of eclampsia. After Magpie Trial [1] our clinical practice has been modified in terms of more liberal use of MgSO4, but the evidence regarding the benefit-to-risk ratio of MgSO4 prophylaxis in mild preeclampsia remains uncertain [2]. Thus we consider important to evaluate whether there are specific characteristics between patients who received the medicine that might signal risk and justify our decisions...
July 2012: Pregnancy Hypertension
Manuel Soler, Tomás Pérez-Contreras, Juan Diego Ibáñez-Álamo, Gianluca Roncalli, Elena Macías-Sánchez, Liesbeth de Neve
Natural selection penalizes individuals that provide costly parental care to non-relatives. However, feedings to brood-parasitic fledglings by individuals other than their foster parents, although anecdotic, have been commonly observed, also in the great spotted cuckoo (Clamator glandarius)--magpie (Pica pica) system, but this behaviour has never been studied in depth. In a first experiment, we here show that great spotted cuckoo fledglings that were translocated to a distant territory managed to survive. This implies that obtaining food from foreign magpies is a frequent and efficient strategy used by great spotted cuckoo fledglings...
2014: PloS One
A Koboroff, G Kaplan, Lj Rogers
Anti-predator behaviour of magpies was investigated, using five species of model predators, at times of raising offspring. We predicted differences in mobbing strategies for each predator presented and also that raising juveniles would affect intensity of the mobbing event. Fourteen permanent resident family groups were tested using 5 different types of predator (avian and reptilian) known to be of varying degrees of risk to magpies and common in their habitat. In all, 210 trials were conducted (across three different stages of juvenile development)...
2013: PeerJ
Rebecca M D Smyth, Ann Jacoby, Diana Elbourne
OBJECTIVE: to provide insight into pregnant women's experiences of participating in a large multi-centre randomised trial. DESIGN: qualitative semi-structured interviews. SETTING: six UK maternity units. PARTICIPANTS: women recruited to the Magpie Trial. The Magpie Trial was a trial of prophylactic anticonvulsants for women with severe pre-eclampsia. MEASUREMENTS FINDINGS: a number of major but related themes emerged regarding influences on the women's decision-making: unpredictability of pre-eclampsia; quality of information received; role of others in the decision-making process; perceived personal benefit from trial participation; and perception of voluntariness of joining...
August 2012: Midwifery
Alexander Springer, Wilfried Krois, Ernst Horcher
BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a challenging field of urogenital reconstructive surgery, with different techniques currently being used. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate international trends in hypospadias surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Paediatric urologists, paediatric surgeons, urologists, and plastic surgeons worldwide were invited to participate an anonymous online questionnaire ( MEASUREMENTS: General epidemiologic data, preferred technique in the correction of hypospadias, and preferred technique in the correction of penile curvature were gathered...
December 2011: European Urology
S Marret, C Chollat, C Levèque, L Marpeau
This review concentrates on the best evidence emerging in recent years on cerebral palsy prevention by administration of magnesium sulfate in mothers at risk of pre-term birth before 33-34 weeks' gestation. It was shown in the Cochrane database and in 3 meta-analyses of 5 randomized trials (Magpie Trial [neuroprotection of the pre-eclamptic mother], MagNet [neuroprotection/other intent: tocolysis], ActoMgSO(4) [neuroprotection], PreMag [neuroprotection], and Beam [neuroprotection]) that prenatal low-dose magnesium sulfate given to mothers at risk of pre-term birth has no severe deleterious effects in mothers and does not increase pediatric mortality in very pre-term infants...
March 2011: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Kwabena A Danso, Henry S Opare-Addo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the challenges associated with the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hypertensive disease during pregnancy in low-income countries, following the success of the Magpie Trial. METHODS: Descriptive review of the literature from 1990 to 2009 on the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hypertensive disease in pregnancy. RESULTS: In the absence of credible measures to predict and prevent hypertension in pregnancy, diagnosis and treatment remain the only viable options, although they are still associated with important challenges in low-income countries...
July 2010: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Rebecca M D Smyth, Lelia Duley, Ann Jacoby, Diana Elbourne
BACKGROUND: The Magpie Trial compared magnesium sulfate with placebo for women with preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to explore women's views and experiences of participating in the Magpie Trial in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent to 771 women participants in the Magpie Trial to assess long-term health of UK women and children. The questionnaire included three questions exploring women's experience of participating in the trial: (a) If time suddenly went backward, and you had to do it all over again, would you agree to participate in the Magpie Trial? (b) Please tell us if there was anything about the Magpie Trial that you think could have been done better; and (c) Please tell us if there was anything about the Magpie Trial, or your experience of joining the trial, that you think was particularly good...
September 2009: Birth
Rebecca M D Smyth, Patsy Spark, Nina Armstrong, Lelia Duley
BACKGROUND: The Magpie Trial, a randomised trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo for women with pre-eclampsia. This paper describes methods used for follow up in the UK, and presents additional data collected. METHODS: In the UK 774 women and their 827 children were included; excluded were women discharged without a surviving child and families who opted out. General practitioners were sent a questionnaire when the child was around 18 months old. When the child was two years, or older, questionnaires asking about the health of the women and children were posted to families...
April 14, 2009: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Ann Zinkivskay, Farrah Nazir, Tom V Smulders
Some animals have been shown to be able to remember which type of food they hoarded or encountered in which location and how long ago (what-where-when memory). In this study, we test whether magpies (Pica pica) also show evidence of remembering these different aspects of a past episode. Magpies hid red- and blue-dyed pellets of scrambled eggs in a large tray containing wood shavings. They were allowed to make as many caches as they wanted. The birds were then returned either the same day or the next day to retrieve the pellets...
January 2009: Animal Cognition
Ly-Mee Yu, Edmund Hey, Lex W Doyle, Barbara Farrell, Patsy Spark, Doug G Altman, Lelia Duley
AIM: To evaluate performance of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (full ASQ), and a shortened version (short ASQ), in detecting children with severe neurosensory disability in the Magpie Trial follow-up study. METHODS: All children, born to women in the Magpie Trial and selected for follow-up, with a completed full 30 items and/or short 9-items ASQ were included in this analysis. Sensitivity and specificity, corrected for verification bias, were computed to assess detection ability...
December 2007: Acta Paediatrica
Barbara Farrell, Lelia Duley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2007: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term effects of in utero exposure to magnesium sulphate for children whose mothers had pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Assessment at 18 months of age for children whose mothers were recruited to the Magpie Trial (recruitment 1998-2001 ISRCTN 86938761), which compared magnesium sulphate with placebo. SETTING: Follow-up of children born at 125 centres in 19 countries across five continents. POPULATION: A total of 6922 children were born to women randomised before delivery at follow-up centres...
March 2007: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess long-term effects for women following the use of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Assessment at 2-3 years after delivery for women recruited to the Magpie Trial (recruitment in 1998-2001, ISRCTN 86938761), which compared magnesium sulphate with placebo for pre-eclampsia. SETTING: Follow up after discharge from hospital at 125 centres in 19 countries across five continents. POPULATION: A total of 7927 women were randomised at the follow-up centres...
March 2007: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Judit Simon, Alastair Gray, Lelia Duley
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of using magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia to prevent eclampsia. DESIGN: Multinational trial-based economic evaluation. SETTING: Thirty-three countries participating in the Magnesium Sulphate for Prevention of Eclampsia (Magpie) Trial. POPULATION: Women (9996) with pre-eclampsia from the Magpie Trial. METHODS: Outcome and hospital resource use data were available for the trial period from the Magpie Trial...
February 2006: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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