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Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Zainab Mbarack, Josephine Samaka, Tarsis Mlaganile, Aline Mamin, Blaise Genton, Laurent Kaiser, Thierry Calandra, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) is a three-item clinical instrument for bedside identification of sepsis patients at risk of poor outcome. qSOFA could be a valuable triage tool in emergency departments of low-income countries, yet its performance in resource-limited settings remains unknown. The prognostic accuracy of qSOFA for 28-day all-cause mortality in febrile adults treated at the EDs in a low-income country was evaluated. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients (≥18 years) with fever (tympanic temperature ≥38°C and fever ≤7 days) who presented between July 2013 and May 2014 at four emergency departments in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
2018: PloS One
Ana Silva Alexandrino, Rita Santos, Cristina Melo, David Tomé, José Mesquita Bastos, Guy Postiaux
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Children up to 2 years old are at high risk of respiratory infections and nasal irrigation is often prescribed. Yet, to date there is no sufficient knowledge about its immediate effects on the nasopharynx and middle ear. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the effect of a rhino-pharyngeal clearance intervention protocol on nasal obstruction and middle ear condition in children under 3 years of age with URTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial in a day-care centre of Porto, including 44 children randomized to Intervention Group (IG) and Control Group (CG)...
June 8, 2018: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Francisco Javier Olarieta Soto, Francisco Antolí-Candela Cano, Alejandro Harguindey Antolí-Candela
OBJECTIVES: A surgical technique for a double medial and lateral overlay autologous fascia graft myringoplasty is described in this paper along with its indications and results. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The presurgical and one year post surgery characteristics are analyzed for 100 cases with the double medial and lateral overlay autologous fascia graft technique. The anatomical and functional results are analyzed. RESULTS: The results are analyzed one year post surgery...
June 6, 2018: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
So Young Kim, Jae Joon Han, Seung Ha Oh, Jun Ho Lee, Myung-Whan Suh, Me Hee Kim, Moo Kyun Park
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to investigate whether wideband tympanometry (WBT) can distinguish among various kinds of conductive hearing loss and provide additional information. METHODS: We recruited normal subjects and patients with conductive hearing loss due to the following reasons: tympanic membrane perforation only, ossicular chain problem only, and one or other of those conditions combined with mastoid problems. Wideband absorbance at ambient pressure, peak pressure, resonance frequency, and averaged tympanogram data were measured by WBT and compared between the normal, tympanic membrane perforation only, ossicular chain problem only, and combined with mastoid problems groups...
June 6, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Aykut Aksit, Daniel N Arteaga, Miguel Arriaga, Xun Wang, Hirobumi Watanabe, Karen E Kasza, Anil K Lalwani, Jeffrey W Kysar
The cochlea, or inner ear, is a space fully enclosed within the temporal bone of the skull, except for two membrane-covered portals connecting it to the middle ear space. One of these portals is the round window, which is covered by the Round Window Membrane (RWM). A longstanding clinical goal is to reliably and precisely deliver therapeutics into the cochlea to treat a plethora of auditory and vestibular disorders. Standard of care for several difficult-to-treat diseases calls for injection of a therapeutic substance through the tympanic membrane into the middle ear space, after which a portion of the substance diffuses across the RWM into the cochlea...
June 8, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Roshan Dsouza, Jungeun Won, Guillermo L Monroy, Malcolm C Hill, Ryan G Porter, Michael A Novak, Stephen A Boppart
Otitis media (OM) is a common ear infection and a leading cause of conductive hearing loss in the pediatric population. Current technologies such as otoscopy, pneumatic otoscopy, tympanometry, and acoustic reflectometry are used to diagnose OM, which can reasonably diagnose the infection with a sensitivity and specificity of 50-90% and 60-90%, respectively. However, these techniques provide limited information about the physical architecture of the tympanic membrane (TM), or what may lie behind it. Here, we report the detection of nanometer-scale structural changes of the TM using nano-sensitive optical coherence tomography (nsOCT)...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Y Z Wu, Z J Song, N Gao, H Zhao
Objective: To investigate clinical characteristic and incidence of the adverse reaction to tympanic injection. The incidence rates of adverse reaction were also compared after improvement of anesthetic method and changed ratio of methylprednisolone. Method: A retrospective analysis of 712 cases (1 928 injections) of receiving injection in a medical center, to explore the overall and classified adverse reactions, as well as effects of age and gender and frequency on adverse reactions. According to the clinical characteristics of the early stage, the incidence of adverse reaction was observed after the application of anesthesia warming method and the change of methylprednisolone ratio...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
T Liu, J H Xie, L He, P Li
Objective: To report surgical techniques, outcomes, clinical experience and application key point of transcanal endoscopic ear surgery for tympanosclerosis. Method: Data from 25 patients (13 males and 12 females; aged 27-61 years, mean=48.8 years) who underwent transcanal endoscopic ear surgery for tympanosclerosis in our department from January 2016 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Removal of tympanosclerosis and tympanoplasty were individualized. Patients were followed up at postoperative 1, 3 and 6 month...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Sara Ferraz, Telma Caria, Aline Vaz Da Silva, Maria Jose Candeias, Teresa Cenicante
Introduction: Opioids are used intrathecally to manage surgical pain. There are few reports of hypothermia after spinal morphine injection, none in the pediatric population. We present a teenager's case of mild hypothermia. Case Presentation: A 15-year-old boy was scheduled for elective abdominal laparotomy. General anesthesia was combined with spinal anesthesia, using levobupivacaine and morphine. In the recovery room, he presented a decreased tympanic temperature (34...
February 2018: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Steven Lien, J David Dickman
The increased use of close range explosives has led to a higher incidence of exposure to blast-related head trauma. Exposure to primary blast waves is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Active service members and civilians who have experienced blast waves report high rates of vestibular dysfunction, such as vertigo, oscillopsia, imbalance, and dizziness. Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to blast-wave trauma produces damage to both the peripheral and central vestibular system; similar to previous findings that blast exposure results in damage to auditory receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mun Young Chang, Moo Kyun Park, So Hyeon Park, Myung-Whan Suh, Jun Ho Lee, Seung Ha Oh
To study the vestibular system or the vestibular compensation process, a number of methods have been developed to cause vestibular damage, including surgical or chemical labyrinthectomy and vestibular neurectomy. Surgical labyrinthectomy is a relatively simple, reliable, and rapid method. Here, we describe the surgical technique for rat labyrinthectomy. A postauricular incision is made under general anesthesia to expose the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane, after which the tympanic membrane and the ossicles are removed without the stapes...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mathias Müller, Rolf Salcher, Nils Prenzler, Thomas Lenarz, Hannes Maier
Introduction: In order to reduce the large variations in clinical outcomes of patients with implanted MED-EL Floating Mass Transducer (FMT) at the round window (RW), several approaches were proposed to optimize FMT-RW coupling. Our previous study showed improved FMT-RW coupling by applying static RW loads utilizing the "Hannover Coupler" (HC) FMT-prosthesis but also demonstrated insufficient low frequency performance. Hence, a redesigned HC version (HCv2) was investigated in this study...
2018: BioMed Research International
Lukáš Školoudík, Viktor Chrobok, Zuzana Kočí, Jiří Popelář, Josef Syka, Jan Laco, Alžběta Filipová, Eva Syková, Stanislav Filip
Temporal bone reconstruction is a persisting problem following middle ear cholesteatoma surgery. Seeking to advance the clinical transfer of stem cell therapy we attempted the reconstruction of temporal bone using a composite bioartificial graft based on a hydroxyapatite bone scaffold combined with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combined biomaterial on the healing of postoperative temporal bone defects and the preservation of physiological hearing functions in a guinea pig model...
June 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Yoh Sawatari, Hisham Marwan, Shadi Alzahrani, Michael Peleg, Robert Marx
PURPOSE: Reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint defect is challenging. The purposes of this study were to identify factors associated with the accuracy of positioning of a titanium condylar prosthesis and to measure the association between the accuracy of the condylar prosthesis position and postoperative complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed a retrospective cohort study and enrolled a sample of patients whose condyle was reconstructed with an alloplastic condylar prosthesis...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Marie Gisselsson-Solen
OBJECTIVES: The insertion of grommets is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in children. The underlying reason might be otitis media with effusion (OME) with concomitant hearing loss, recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) or a combination of the two. Sweden has a national quality register for children receiving grommets with the purpose of evaluating how treatment guidelines are followed, and if surgery confers good quality health care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the circumstances during which Swedish children receive grommets and to examine how doctors follow the guidelines for grommet surgery...
July 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jing Zhang, Jiabin Tian, Na Ta, Zhushi Rao
Nowadays, the steady-state responses of human ear to pure tone stimuli have been widely studied. However, the temporal responses to transient stimuli have not been investigated systematically to date. In this study, a comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear is used to investigate the transient characteristics of the human ear in response to impulsive stimuli. There are two types of idealized impulses applied in the FE analysis: the square wave impulse (a single positive pressure waveform) and the A-duration wave impulse (both of positive and negative pressure waveforms)...
May 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Tewodros Tesfa Hailegiyorgis, Wondemagegn Demsiss Sarhie, Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie
Background: Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear and tympanic membrane, which often occurs after an acute upper respiratory tract infection. It is the most common episode of infection in children and the second most important cause of hearing loss affecting 1.23 billion people, thus ranked fifth global burden of disease with a higher incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the isolation rate of bacterial pathogens from pediatric patients with otitis media...
2018: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
Seidu A Richard, Li Qiang, Zhi Gang Lan, Yuekang Zhang, Chao You
Cholesteatomas are very rare benign, progressive lesions that have embryologic derivation and usually result in progressive exfoliation and confinement of squamous epithelium behind an intact or preciously infected tympanic membrane. To the best of our understanding no reports demonstrates the extension of cholesteatoma from the temporal bone into the foramen magnum. We therefore present a case of cholesteatoma extending down into the foramen magnum. We report a case of 67- year-old man with a giant cholesteatoma extending into the foramen magnum without substantial destruction of the mastoid and petrous temporal bones...
March 30, 2018: Neurology International
Nathaniel T Greene, Mohamed A Alhussaini, James R Easter, Theodore F Argo, Tim Walilko, Daniel J Tollin
INTRODUCTION: Injuries to the peripheral auditory system are among the most common results of high intensity impulsive acoustic exposure. Prior studies of high intensity sound transmission by the ossicular chain have relied upon measurements in animal models, measurements at more moderate sound levels (i.e. < 130 dB SPL), and/or measured responses to steady-state noise. Here, we directly measure intracochlear pressure in human cadaveric temporal bones, with fiber optic pressure sensors placed in scala vestibuli (SV) and tympani (ST), during exposure to shock waves with peak positive pressures between ∼7 and 83 kPa...
May 19, 2018: Hearing Research
Raf Claes, Pieter G G Muyshondt, Frederic Van Assche, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Peter Aerts, Joris J J Dirckx
Although most birds encounter large pressure variations during flight, motion of the middle ear components as a result of changing ambient pressure are not well known or described. In the present study, motion of the columella footplate and tympanic membrane (extrastapedius) in domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) under quasi-static pressure conditions are provided. Micro-CT scans were made of cadaveric heads of chickens under positive (0.25 kPa, 0.5 kPa, 1 kPa, and 1.5 kPa) and negative (-0...
May 19, 2018: Hearing Research
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