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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474655/systemic-interferon-type-i-and-type-ii-signatures-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-reveal-differences-in-biological-disease-activity
#1
Iris L A Bodewes, Shereen Al-Ali, Cornelia G van Helden-Meeuwsen, Naomi I Maria, Jessica Tarn, Dennis W Lendrem, Marco W J Schreurs, Eline C Steenwijk, Paul L A van Daele, Tim Both, Simon J Bowman, Bridget Griffiths, Wan-Fai Ng, Marjan A Versnel
Objective: To assess the relationships between systemic IFN type I (IFN-I) and II (IFN-II) activity and disease manifestations in primary SS (pSS). Methods: RT-PCR of multiple IFN-induced genes followed by principal component analysis of whole blood RNA of 50 pSS patients was used to identify indicator genes of systemic IFN-I and IFN-II activities. Systemic IFN activation levels were analysed in two independent European cohorts (n = 86 and 55, respectively) and their relationships with clinical features were analysed...
February 20, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465764/comparison-of-two-prognostic-models-in-trauma-outcome
#2
A Cook, T Osler, L Glance, F Lecky, O Bouamra, J Weddle, B Gross, J Ward, F O Moore, F Rogers, D Hosmer
BACKGROUND: The Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) in the UK publicly reports hospital performance in the management of trauma. The TARN risk adjustment model uses a fractional polynomial transformation of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) as the measure of anatomical injury severity. The Trauma Mortality Prediction Model (TMPM) is an alternative to ISS; this study compared the anatomical injury components of the TARN model with the TMPM. METHODS: Data from the National Trauma Data Bank for 2011-2015 were analysed...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463542/population-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-sulfadoxine-and-pyrimethamine-a-pooled-analysis-to-inform-optimal-dosing-in-african-children-with-uncomplicated-malaria
#3
Miné de Kock, Joel Tarning, Lesley Workman, Elizabeth N Allen, Mamadou M Tekete, Abdoulaye A Djimde, David J Bell, Steve A Ward, Karen I Barnes, Paolo Denti
Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine with amodiaquine is recommended by the World Health Organization as seasonal malaria chemoprevention for children between 3 to 59 months in the sub-Sahel regions of Africa. Sub-optimal dosing in children may lead to treatment failure and increased resistance. Pooled individual patient data from four previously published trials on the pharmacokinetics of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine in 415 paediatric and 386 adult patients were analysed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling to evaluate the current dosing regimen and, if needed, propose an optimised dosing regimen in children under five years old...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444080/promising-approach-to-reducing-malaria-transmission-by-ivermectin-sporontocidal-effect-against-plasmodium-vivax-in-the-south-american-vectors-anopheles-aquasalis-and-anopheles-darlingi
#4
Yudi T Pinilla, Stefanie C P Lopes, Vanderson S Sampaio, Francys S Andrade, Gisely C Melo, Alessandra S Orfanó, Nágila F C Secundino, Maria G V B Guerra, Marcus V G Lacerda, Kevin C Kobylinski, Karin S Escobedo-Vargas, Victor M López-Sifuentes, Craig A Stoops, G Christian Baldeviano, Joel Tarning, Gissella M Vasquez, Paulo F P Pimenta, Wuelton M Monteiro
BACKGROUND: The mosquito resistance to the insecticides threatens malaria control efforts, potentially becoming a major public health issue. Alternative methods like ivermectin (IVM) administration to humans has been suggested as a possible vector control to reduce Plasmodium transmission. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi are competent vectors for Plasmodium vivax, and they have been responsible for various malaria outbreaks in the coast of Brazil and the Amazon Region of South America...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395998/treatment-of-uncomplicated-and-severe-malaria-during-pregnancy
#5
REVIEW
Umberto D'Alessandro, Jenny Hill, Joel Tarning, Christopher Pell, Jayne Webster, Julie Gutman, Esperanca Sevene
Over the past 10 years, the available evidence on the treatment of malaria during pregnancy has increased substantially. Owing to their relative ease of use, good sensitivity and specificity, histidine rich protein 2 based rapid diagnostic tests are appropriate for symptomatic pregnant women; however, such tests are less appropriate for systematic screening because they will not detect an important proportion of infections among asymptomatic women. The effect of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of antimalarial drugs varies greatly between studies and class of antimalarial drugs, emphasising the need for prospective studies in pregnant and non-pregnant women...
January 30, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364004/motorcyclists-and-pillion-passengers-with-open-lower-limb-fractures-a-study-using-tarn-data-2007-2014
#6
Agc Hay-David, T Stacey, I Pallister
Introduction We aimed to identify population demographics of motorcyclists and pillion passengers with isolated open lower-limb fractures, to ascertain the impact of the revised 2009 British Orthopaedic Association/British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons joint standards for the management of open fractures of the lower limb (BOAST 4), in terms of time to skeletal stabilisation and soft-tissue coverage, and to observe any impact on patient movement. Methods Retrospective cohort data was collected by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN)...
January 24, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316466/metal-complexation-capacity-of-antarctic-lacustrine-sediments
#7
Giancarla Alberti, Matteo Mussi, Federico Quattrini, Maria Pesavento, Raffaela Biesuz
The purpose of this study is to implement a work that is a part of a project funded by the Italian National Antarctic Research Program (PNRA, Piano Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide) within the main thematic focus "Chemical Contamination-Global Change". This research was devoted to detect and characterize micro and nano components with strong complexing capability towards metal ions at trace level in sea water, lakes and lacustrine sediments, sampled during the XXII expedition of PNRA. In particular, in the present work, the sorption complexation capacity of an Antarctic lacustrine sediments toward Cu(II) and Pb(II) is described...
December 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306138/spatial-and-length-dependent-variation-of-the-risks-and-benefits-of-consuming-walleye-sander-vitreus
#8
Ursula Strandberg, Satyendra P Bhavsar, Tarn Preet Parmar, Michael T Arts
Restricted fish consumption due to elevated contaminant levels may limit the intake of essential omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) acids. We analyzed lake- and length-specific mercury and EPA+DHA contents in Walleye (Sander vitreus; Mitchell 1818) from 20 waterbodies in Ontario, Canada, and used this information to calculate the theoretical intake of EPA+DHA when the consumption advisories are followed. The stringent consumption advisory resulted in decreased EPA+DHA intake regardless of the EPA+DHA content in Walleye...
January 2, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244851/inhibition-of-merozoite-invasion-and-transient-de-sequestration-by-sevuparin-in-humans-with-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#9
Anna M Leitgeb, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, Ronnatrai Rueangveerayut, Chirapong Uthaisin, Kamolrat Silamut, Kesinee Chotivanich, Patima Sila, Kirsten Moll, Sue J Lee, Maria Lindgren, Erik Holmer, Anna Färnert, Mpungu S Kiwuwa, Jens Kristensen, Christina Herder, Joel Tarning, Mats Wahlgren, Arjen M Dondorp
SEVERE MALARIA: Even with the best available treatment, the mortality from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains high. Typical features at death are high parasite loads and obstructed micro- vasculature. Infected erythrocytes (IE) containing mature parasites bind to the host receptor heparan sulfate, which is also an important receptor for merozoite invasion. To block merozoite invasion has not previously been proposed as an adjunctive therapeutic approach but it may preclude the early expansion of an infection that else leads to exacerbated sequestration and death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170351/54%C3%A2-paediatric-traumatic-cardiac-arrest-in-england-and-wales-a-10-year-epidemiological-study
#10
James Vassallo, Melanie Webster, Edward Barnard, Marisol Fragoso Iniguez, Mark Lyttle, Jason Smith
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) has traditionally been described as futile, with poor outcomes. Reported survival rates vary widely, with higher rates observed from mechanisms leading to a respiratory cause of traumatic cardiac arrest (e.g., drowning and hanging). Currently there is little evidence regarding outcomes following TCA in children. The primary aim of our study was to describe 30 day survival following TCA. Secondary aims were to provide an analysis of injury patterns (severe haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury), describe the functional outcome at discharge and to report the association between survival and interventions performed...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170346/49%C3%A2-paediatric-traumatic-cardiac-arrest-the-development-of-a-treatment-algorithm
#11
James Vassallo, Tim Nutbeam, Annette Rickard, Mark Lyttle, Jason Smith
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric Traumatic Cardiac Arrest (TCA) is a high acuity, low frequency event with fewer than 15 cases reported per year to the Trauma Audit Research Network (TARN). Traditionally survival from TCA has been reported as low, with some believing resuscitation is futile. Within the adult population there is growing evidence to suggest that with early and aggressive correction of reversible causes, survival from TCA may be comparable to that seen from medical out-of-hospital cardiac arrests...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170338/41%C3%A2-simultaneous-trauma-patients-in-emergency-department-s-a-difference-in-mortality
#12
Laura Morrow, Tim Nutbeam
BACKGROUND: The presentation of multiple simultaneous trauma patients in an Emergency Department, is likely to place significant stress and strain on trauma care resources. Currently there is limited data available to understand the impact simultaneous trauma demands on patient outcomes. For the purposes of this project we define simultaneous trauma as occurring when there is more than one TARN qualifying major trauma patient within an Emergency Department at any one time. We hypothesise that with increasing numbers of simultaneous trauma patients a relative increase in mortality will be seen...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170332/35%C3%A2-to-pan-scan-or-not-to-pan-scan-further-analysis-of-the-tarn-database-2012-2017
#13
Paul Hunt, Fiona Lecky, Omar Bouamra
BACKGROUND: A 'whole body' or 'pan-scan' computed tomography (CT) imaging approach is now becoming the standard of care during the early management of adult patients with suspected severe blunt multitrauma. A number of studies have variously reported a mortality benefit or no benefit from a pan-scan approach compared to that of carrying out body region-focused CT and/or plain radiographs or a mixture of imaging modalities. However, unanswered questions still remain due to the significant heterogeneity in practice between institutions, and the limitations of published studies...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170310/13%C3%A2-prophylactic-antibiotics-for-penetrating-injury-a-review-of-practice-at-a-major-trauma-centre-literature-review-and-recommendations
#14
Marharyta Kamarova, Richard Kendall
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of clarity regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotics for patients presenting with penetrating injuries. A structured literature review and review of penetrating injury records in an MTC was undertaken with a view to help guide clinical practice. METHOD: Searches were conducted on Medline (1946-2017), Embase (1974-2017), and Cochrane (up to 2017) using key words pertaining to penetrating trauma, prophylactic antibiotics and infection...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170299/2%C3%A2-major-incident-triage-and-the-implementation-of-a-new-triage-tool-the-mptt-24
#15
James Vassallo, Jason Smith
INTRODUCTION: Over the last decade, a number of European cities including London, have witnessed high profile terrorist attacks resulting in major incidents with large numbers of casualties. Triage, the process of categorising casualties on the basis of their clinical acuity, is a key principle in the effective management of major incidents.The Modified Physiological Triage Tool (MPTT) is a recently developed primary triage tool which in comparison to existing triage tools, including the 2013 UK NARU Sieve, demonstrates the greatest sensitivity at predicting need for life-saving intervention (LSI) within both military and civilian populations...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119562/validating-performance-of-triss-tarn-and-normit-survival-prediction-models-in-a-norwegian-trauma-population
#16
N O Skaga, T Eken, S Søvik
INTRODUCTION: Anatomic injury, physiological derangement, age, injury mechanism and pre-injury comorbidity are well-founded predictors of trauma outcome. Statistical prediction models may have poorer discrimination, calibration and accuracy when applied in new locations. We aimed to compare the TRISS, TARN and NORMIT survival prediction models in a Norwegian trauma population. METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to Oslo University Hospital Ullevål within 24 h after injury, with Injury Severity Score ≥ 10, proximal penetrating injuries, or received by trauma team, were studied...
February 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114388/epistatic-interactions-between-mutations-of-taci-tnfrsf13b-and-tcf3-result-in-a-severe-primary-immunodeficiency-disorder-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#17
Rohan Ameratunga, Wikke Koopmans, See-Tarn Woon, Euphemia Leung, Klaus Lehnert, Charlotte A Slade, Jessica C Tempany, Anselm Enders, Richard Steele, Peter Browett, Philip D Hodgkin, Vanessa L Bryant
Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are a group of primary immunodeficiencies where monogenetic causes account for only a fraction of cases. On this evidence, CVID is potentially polygenic and epistatic although there are, as yet, no examples to support this hypothesis. We have identified a non-consanguineous family, who carry the C104R (c.310T>C) mutation of the Transmembrane Activator Calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand Interactor (TACI, TNFRSF13B) gene. Variants in TNFRSF13B/TACI are identified in up to 10% of CVID patients, and are associated with, but not solely causative of CVID...
October 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080710/conservative-management-in-traumatic-pneumothoraces-an-observational-study
#18
Steven P Walker, Shaney L Barratt, Julian Thompson, Nick A Maskell
BACKGROUND: Traumatic pneumothoraces are a common consequence of major trauma. Despite this, there is a paucity of literature regarding their optimal management, including the role of conservative treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the treatment, complications, and outcomes of traumatic pneumothoraces in patients presenting to a major trauma center. METHODS: The prospectively collected Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database was used to identify all patients presenting with traumatic pneumothoraces to a UK major trauma center from April 2012 to December 2016...
November 15, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055894/major-incident-triage-and-the-implementation-of-a-new-triage-tool-the-mptt-24
#19
James Vassallo, J E Smith, L A Wallis
INTRODUCTION: The Modified Physiological Triage Tool (MPTT) is a recently developed primary triage tool and in comparison with existing tools demonstrates the greatest sensitivity at predicting need for life-saving intervention (LSI) within both military and civilian populations. To improve its applicability, we proposed to increase the upper respiratory rate (RR) threshold to 24 breaths per minute (bpm) to produce the MPTT-24. Our aim was to conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed MPTT-24, comparing its performance with the existing UK Military Sieve...
October 21, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030829/review-diagnosing-common-variable-immunodeficiency-disorder-in-the-era-of-genome-sequencing
#20
REVIEW
Rohan Ameratunga, Klaus Lehnert, See-Tarn Woon, David Gillis, Vanessa L Bryant, Charlotte A Slade, Richard Steele
Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) are an enigmatic group of often heritable conditions, which may manifest for the first time in early childhood or as late as the eighth decade of life. In the last 5 years, next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionised identification of genetic disorders. However, despite the best efforts of researchers around the globe, CVID conditions have been slow to yield their molecular secrets. We have previously described the many clinical advantages of identifying the genetic basis of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs)...
October 14, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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