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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143919/growth-in-prepubertal-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-treated-with-ivacaftor
#1
Michael S Stalvey, Jesse Pace, Minoo Niknian, Mark N Higgins, Valerie Tarn, Joy Davis, Sonya L Heltshe, Steven M Rowe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is known for its impact on the lung and pancreas of individuals; however, impaired growth is also a common complication. We hypothesized that targeting the biological defect in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein may affect growth outcomes. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis, we assessed linear growth and weight in 83 children (aged 6-11 years) enrolled in 2 clinical trials, the longitudinal-observation GOAL study and the placebo-controlled ENVISION study, to evaluate the effects of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130346/the-use-of-whole-body-computed-tomography-in-major-trauma-variations-in-practice-in-uk-trauma-hospitals
#2
Ian Ayenga Sammy, Hridesh Chatha, Omar Bouamra, Marisol Fragoso-Iñiguez, Fiona Lecky, Antoinette Edwards
INTRODUCTION: Whole-body CT (WBCT) use in patients with trauma in England and Wales is not well documented. WBCT in trauma can reduce time to definitive care, thereby increasing survival. However, its use varies significantly worldwide. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) data from 2012 to 2014. The proportion of adult patients receiving WBCT during initial resuscitation at major trauma centres (MTCs) and trauma units/non-designated hospitals (TUs/NDHs) was compared...
January 27, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098806/antibacterial-activities-and-possible-modes-of-action-of-acacia-nilotica-l-del-against-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella
#3
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Joel Tarning, Tay Zar Aye Cho, Anil Kumar Anal
Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments...
January 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072872/population-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-piperaquine-in-falciparum-malaria-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#4
Richard M Hoglund, Lesley Workman, Michael D Edstein, Nguyen Xuan Thanh, Nguyen Ngoc Quang, Issaka Zongo, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Steffen Borrmann, Leah Mwai, Christian Nsanzabana, Ric N Price, Prabin Dahal, Nancy C Sambol, Sunil Parikh, Francois Nosten, Elizabeth A Ashley, Aung Pyae Phyo, Khin Maung Lwin, Rose McGready, Nicholas P J Day, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Karen I Barnes, Joel Tarning
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the mainstay of the current treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but ACT resistance is spreading across Southeast Asia. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is one of the five ACTs currently recommended by the World Health Organization. Previous studies suggest that young children (<5 y) with malaria are under-dosed. This study utilised a population-based pharmacokinetic approach to optimise the antimalarial treatment regimen for piperaquine...
2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052919/traumatic-brain-injuries-in-older-adults-6-years-of-data-for-one-uk-trauma-centre-retrospective-analysis-of-prospectively-collected-data
#5
Carol Hawley, Magdy Sakr, Sarah Scapinello, Jesse Salvo, Paul Wrenn
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine the incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults and investigate the relationship between injury characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data submitted to Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database for a major trauma centre in the West Midlands, UK, from 2008 to 2014. The Mayo Scale was used to categorise TBI. All patients were aged ≥65 years and were admitted with head or brain injuries meeting TARN inclusion criteria: injury resulting in immediate admission to hospital for 3 days, admitted to a high dependency area or death following trauma...
January 4, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044288/on-chip-magnetic-particle-based-immunoassays-using-multilaminar-flow-for-clinical-diagnostics
#6
Mark D Tarn, Nicole Pamme
Magnetic particles have become popular in recent years for immunoassays due to their high surface-to-volume ratio and the ease of their manipulation. However, such assays also require multiple reaction and washing steps that are both time-consuming and manually laborious. Here, we describe a setup and methodology for performing rapid immunoassays on magnetic particles in continuous flow via their deflection through multiple laminar flow streams of reagents and washing solutions. In particular, we focus on the use of the microfluidic platform for a C-reactive protein (CRP) sandwich immunoassay in less than 60 s...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965672/hereditary-angioedema-as-a-metabolic-liver-disorder-novel-therapeutic-options-and-prospects-for-cure
#7
Rohan Ameratunga, Adam Bartlett, John McCall, Richard Steele, See-Tarn Woon, Constance H Katelaris
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of the SERPING1 or the Factor 12 genes. It is potentially fatal, particularly if not identified at an early stage. Apart from androgens, which are contraindicated in children and in pregnant women, a range of effective, albeit very expensive treatments have recently become available for HAE patients. The cost of these new treatments is beyond the reach of most developing countries. At this time, there is no cure for the disorder...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872070/estimation-of-the-in-vivo-mic-of-cipargamin-in-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#8
Tran Tinh Hien, Nicholas J White, Nguyen Thanh Thuy-Nhien, Nhu Thi Hoa, Phung Duc Thuan, Joel Tarning, François Nosten, Baldur Magnusson, Jay Prakash Jain, Kamal Hamed
The MIC of an antimalarial drug for a particular infection is the drug level associated with a net parasite multiplication rate of one per asexual cycle. To ensure the cure of malaria, the MIC must be exceeded until all parasites have been eliminated. The development of highly sensitive and accurate PCR quantitation of low-density malaria parasitemia enables the prospective pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) characterization of antimalarial drug effects and now allows identification of the in vivo MIC...
February 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855275/epidemiology-and-aetiology-of-traumatic-cardiac-arrest-in-england-and-wales-a-retrospective-database-analysis
#9
Ed Barnard, David Yates, Antoinette Edwards, Marisol Fragoso-Iñiguez, Tom Jenks, Jason E Smith
BACKGROUND: Historically, reported survival from traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) was extremely low. More recent publications have recorded survival to discharge of up to 8%. This improvement is likely to be multi-factorial; however, there are currently no published data describing the epidemiology or aetiology of TCA in England and Wales to guide future practice improvement. METHODS: Population-based analysis of 2009-2015 Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) data...
January 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821480/rbm4-regulates-neuronal-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-modulating-alternative-splicing-of-pyruvate-kinase-m
#10
Chun-Hao Su, Kuan-Yang Hung, Shih-Chieh Hung, Woan-Yuh Tarn
RBM4 promotes differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells and neurite outgrowth of cultured neurons via its role in splicing regulation. In this study, we further explored the role of RBM4 in neuronal differentiation. During neuronal differentiation, energy production shifts from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. We found that the splice isoform change of the metabolic enzyme pyruvate kinase M (PKM) from PKM2 to PKM1 occurs during brain development and is impaired in RBM4-deficient brains. The PKM isoform change could be recapitulated in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during neuronal induction...
February 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756256/clinical-presentations-diagnosis-mortality-and-prognostic-markers-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-vietnamese-children-a-prospective-descriptive-study
#11
Nguyen Duc Bang, Maxine Caws, Thai Thanh Truc, Tran Ngoc Duong, Nguyen Huy Dung, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Guy E Thwaites, Doortje Heemskerk, Joel Tarning, Laura Merson, Pham Van Toi, Jeremy J Farrar, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Pouplin, Jeremy N Day
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis in adults is well characterized in Vietnam, but there are no data on the disease in children. We present a prospective descriptive study of Vietnamese children with TBM to define the presentation, course and characteristics associated with poor outcome. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study of 100 consecutively admitted children with TBM at Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City. Cox and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with risk of death and a combined endpoint of death or disability at treatment completion...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706934/autonomous-marine-robotic-technology-reveals-an-expansive-benthic-bacterial-community-relevant-to-regional-nitrogen-biogeochemistry
#12
David L Valentine, G Burch Fisher, Oscar Pizarro, Carl L Kaiser, Dana Yoerger, John A Breier, Jonathan Tarn
Benthic accumulations of filamentous, mat-forming bacteria occur throughout the oceans where bisulfide mingles with oxygen or nitrate, providing key but poorly quantified linkages between elemental cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. Here we used the autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry to conduct a contiguous, 12.5 km photoimaging survey of sea-floor colonies of filamentous bacteria between 80 and 579 m water depth, spanning the continental shelf to the deep suboxic waters of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB)...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689903/precious-metal-free-heteroarylation-of-azlactones-direct-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-pyridyl-%C3%AE-substituted-amino-acid-derivatives
#13
Tarn C Johnson, Stephen P Marsden
A one-pot, three-component synthesis of α-pyridyl, α-substituted amino acid derivatives is described. The key transformation is a direct, precious-metal-free heteroarylation of readily available, amino acid derived azlactones with electrophilically activated pyridine N-oxides. The resulting intermediates can be used directly as efficient acylating agents for a range of nucleophiles, leading to the heteroarylated amino acid derivatives in a single vessel.
October 21, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587529/regionalisation-of-trauma-care-in-england
#14
D Metcalfe, D C Perry, O Bouamra, A Salim, M Woodford, A Edwards, F E Lecky, M L Costa
AIMS: We aimed to determine whether there is evidence of improved patient outcomes in Major Trauma Centres following the regionalisation of trauma care in England. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational study was undertaken using the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN), Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and national death registrations. The outcome measures were indicators of the quality of trauma care, such as treatment by a senior doctor and clinical outcomes, such as mortality in hospital...
September 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550751/effect-of-primary-care-involvement-on-end-of-life-care-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#15
Sion L Kim, Derjung M Tarn
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between primary care involvement in end-of-life (EOL) care and health and utilization outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review using MEDLINE and Web of Science. SETTING: All English literature published between 1994 and August 31, 2014, that included terms related to primary care providers (PCPs), continuity of care, EOL care, and palliative care. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals receiving care from a PCP at the end of life...
August 22, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512332/mortality-in-trauma-patients-with-active-arterial-bleeding-managed-by-embolization-or-surgical-packing-an-observational-cohort-study-of-66-patients
#16
Lonnie Froberg, Frederik Helgstrand, Caroline Clausen, Jacob Steinmetz, Henrik Eckardt
OBJECTIVE: Exsanguination due to coagulopathy and vascular injury is a common cause of death among trauma patients. Arterial injury can be treated either by angiography and embolization or by explorative laparotomy and surgical packing. The purpose of this study was to compare 30-day mortality and blood product consumption in trauma patients with active arterial haemorrhage in the abdominal and/or pelvic region treated with either angiography and embolization or explorative laparotomy and surgical packing...
July 2016: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493792/fatigue-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-is-associated-with-lower-levels-of-proinflammatory-cytokines
#17
Nadia Howard Tripp, Jessica Tarn, Andini Natasari, Colin Gillespie, Sheryl Mitchell, Katie L Hackett, Simon J Bowman, Elizabeth Price, Colin T Pease, Paul Emery, Peter Lanyon, John Hunter, Monica Gupta, Michele Bombardieri, Nurhan Sutcliffe, Costantino Pitzalis, John McLaren, Annie Cooper, Marian Regan, Ian Giles, David A Isenberg, Vadivelu Saravanan, David Coady, Bhaskar Dasgupta, Neil McHugh, Steven Young-Min, Robert Moots, Nagui Gendi, Mohammed Akil, Bridget Griffiths, Dennis W Lendrem, Wan-Fai Ng
OBJECTIVES: This article reports relationships between serum cytokine levels and patient-reported levels of fatigue, in the chronic immunological condition primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). METHODS: Blood levels of 24 cytokines were measured in 159 patients with pSS from the United Kingdom Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry and 28 healthy non-fatigued controls. Differences between cytokines in cases and controls were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. Patient-reported scores for fatigue were evaluated, classified according to severity and compared with cytokine levels using analysis of variance...
2016: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431233/population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-tribendimidine-metabolites-in-opisthorchis-viverrini-infected-adults
#18
Fiona Vanobberghen, Melissa A Penny, Urs Duthaler, Peter Odermatt, Somphou Sayasone, Jennifer Keiser, Joel Tarning
There is a pressing need for alternative treatments against the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini Oral tribendimidine is a promising candidate, but its population pharmacokinetic properties are unknown. Two phase IIa trials were conducted in Laos in O. viverrini-infected adults receiving single oral doses of 25 to 600 mg tribendimidine administered as different formulations in each study (study 1 used 200-mg tablets, and study 2 used 50-mg tablets). Venous whole blood, plasma, and capillary dried blood spots were sampled frequently from 68 adults, and concentrations of the tribendimidine metabolites dADT (deacetylated amidantel) and adADT (acetylated dADT) were measured...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355232/the-case-for-a-national-service-for-primary-immune-deficiency-disorders-in-new-zealand
#19
Rohan Ameratunga, Richard Steele, Anthony Jordan, Kahn Preece, Russell Barker, Maia Brewerton, Karen Lindsay, Jan Sinclair, Peter Storey, See-Tarn Woon
Primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDs) are rare conditions for which effective treatment is available. It is critical these patients are identified at an early stage to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Treatment of these disorders is expensive and expert evaluation and ongoing management by a clinical immunologist is essential. Until recently there has been a major shortage of clinical immunologists in New Zealand. While the numbers of trained immunologists have increased in recent years, most are located in Auckland...
June 10, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318570/handling-missing-data-in-large-healthcare-dataset-a-case-study-of-unknown-trauma-outcomes
#20
E M Mirkes, T J Coats, J Levesley, A N Gorban
Handling of missed data is one of the main tasks in data preprocessing especially in large public service datasets. We have analysed data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database, the largest trauma database in Europe. For the analysis we used 165,559 trauma cases. Among them, there are 19,289 cases (11.35%) with unknown outcome. We have demonstrated that these outcomes are not missed 'completely at random' and, hence, it is impossible just to exclude these cases from analysis despite the large amount of available data...
August 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
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