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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720134/in-vitro-antioxidant-and-antimalarial-activities-of-leaves-pods-and-bark-extracts-of-acacia-nilotica-l-del
#1
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Pattamon Tharaphan, Kesinee Chotivanich, Joel Tarning, Anil Kumar Anal
BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug resistant malaria is threatening our ability to treat and control malaria in the Southeast Asian region. There is an urgent need to develop novel and chemically diverse antimalarial drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimalarial and antioxidant potentials of Acacia nilotica plant extracts. METHODS: The antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts were determined by standard antioxidant assays; reducing power capacity, % lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay...
July 18, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695570/population-pharmacokinetics-and-electrocardiographic-effects-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-in-healthy-volunteers
#2
Palang Chotsiri, Thanaporn Wattanakul, Richard Hoglund, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Daniel Blessborn, Podjanee Jittamala, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P J Day, Joel Tarning
AIMS: The aims of the presented study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine, potential drug-drug interactions with concomitant primaquine treatment, and piperaquine effects on the electrocardiogram in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Population pharmacokinetic properties of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine were assessed in 16 in healthy Thai adults using an open-label randomized crossover study. Drug concentration-time data and electrocardiographic measurements were evaluated with nonlinear mixed-effects modelling...
July 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687086/ivermectin-susceptibility-and-sporontocidal-effect-in-greater-mekong-subregion-anopheles
#3
Kevin C Kobylinski, Ratawan Ubalee, Alongkot Ponlawat, Chanyapat Nitatsukprasert, Siriporn Phasomkulsolsil, Thanaporn Wattanakul, Joel Tarning, Kesara Na-Bangchang, Patrick W McCardle, Silas A Davidson, Jason H Richardson
BACKGROUND: Novel vector control methods that can directly target outdoor malaria transmission are urgently needed in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) to accelerate malaria elimination and artemisinin resistance containment efforts. Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) to humans has been shown to effectively kill wild Anopheles and suppress malaria transmission in West Africa. Preliminary laboratory investigations were performed to determine ivermectin susceptibility and sporontocidal effect in GMS Anopheles malaria vectors coupled with pharmacokinetic models of ivermectin at escalating doses...
July 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607450/new-noninvasive-index-for-predicting-liver-fibrosis-in-asian-patients-with-chronic-viral-hepatitis
#4
Hung-Wei Wang, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Hsueh-Chou Lai, Wen-Pang Su, Chia-Hsin Lin, Po-Heng Chuang, Sheng-Hung Chen, Ching-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Fan Hsu, Guan-Tarn Huang
We developed an optimal noninvasive index comprising routine laboratory parameters for predicting cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. This study included 992 CHB patients and 1,284 CHC patients who received liver biopsy. We developed the new index, named modified Fibrosis-4 (mFIB-4) according to four independent variables of the model: age, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and platelet count. The formula of the mFIB-4 index is 10 × Age(years) × AST(U/L)/Platelet count(10(9)/L) × AST(U/L)...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602178/differential-effects-of-the-glasgow-coma-scale-score-and-its-components-an-analysis-of-54-069-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Florence C M Reith, Hester F Lingsma, Belinda J Gabbe, Fiona E Lecky, Ian Roberts, Andrew I R Maas
INTRODUCTION: The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is widely used in the assessment of clinical severity and prediction of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The sum score is frequently applied, but the differential influence of the components infrequently addressed. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the GCS components to the sum score, floor and ceiling effects of the components, and their prognostic effects. METHODS: Data on adult TBI patients were gathered from three data repositories: TARN (n=50,064), VSTR (n=14,062), and CRASH (n=9,941)...
June 1, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597978/pharmacokinetics-of-sulfadoxine-and-pyrimethamine-for-intermittent-preventive-treatment-of-malaria-during-pregnancy-and-after-delivery
#6
M de Kock, J Tarning, L Workman, M M Nyunt, I Adam, K I Barnes, P Denti
Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine is recommended for intermittent preventative treatment of malaria during pregnancy. Data from 98 women during pregnancy and 77 after delivery in four African countries were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to characterize the effects of pregnancy, postpartum duration, and other covariates such as body weight and hematocrit on sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine pharmacokinetic properties. During pregnancy, clearance increased 3-fold for sulfadoxine but decreased by 18% for pyrimethamine...
June 9, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597095/natural-and-anthropic-effects-on-hydrochemistry-and-major-and-trace-elements-in-the-water-mass-of-a-spanish-pyrenean-glacial-lake-set
#7
Zoe Santolaria, Tomás Arruebo, Alfonso Pardo, Carlos Rodríguez-Casals, José María Matesanz, Francisco Javier Lanaja, José Santiago Urieta
This study presents the key hydrochemical characteristics and concentration levels of major (Ca, Mg, Na, Si, K, Sr, Fe) and trace (Ba, Sc, Cr, Mn, Al, As, Li, Co, Cu, U, Pb, Hg, Au, Sn, Zn, Cd, Ag, Ni) elements in the water mass of four selected Pyrenean cirque glacial lakes (Sabocos, Baños, Truchas and Escalar tarns) with different catchment features, between 2010 and 2013. Resulting data set is statistically analyzed to discriminate between the natural or anthropic origin of the elements. Analyses indicate that in all cases, the main source of most major and trace elements is geological weathering, being thus individual bedrock composition the main driver of differences between lakes...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580176/engineering-affinity-agents-for-the-detection-of-hemi-methylated-cpg-sites-in-dna
#8
B E Tarn, K-J Sung, H D Sikes
Wild-type methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) proteins specifically bind symmetrically methylated DNA sequences, and assays have been developed that use these proteins for profiling DNA methylation. Here, we use directed evolution in the yeast surface display format to identify a new protein variant that binds hemi-methylated CpG dinucleotides.
October 1, 2016: Molecular Systems Design & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564625/dynamics-of-inorganic-components-in-lake-waters-from-terra-nova-bay-antarctica
#9
E Conca, M Malandrino, A Giacomino, S Buoso, S Berto, P L Verplanck, E Magi, O Abollino
Water and Suspended Particulate Material (SPM) samples analysed in this work were collected in the austral summer 2011/12 from six shallow Antarctic lakes (Carezza, Edmonson Point 14 and 15a, Gondwana, Inexpressible Island 10b and Tarn Flat 20) of Terra Nova Bay (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica). The total concentrations of a large suite of inorganic analytes were determined, in order to gain insight into the natural processes regulating species distribution, define natural background values and detect possible present or future local and/or global anthropogenic contamination...
May 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431790/-barriers-to-referral-to-pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-copd-patients-from-the-perspective-of-general-practitioners
#10
O Galera, G Grimal, D Bajon, Y Darolles
INTRODUCTION: In spite of recommendations of the highest level of proof (rank A), the respiratory rehabilitation remains very widely sub-prescribed by general practitioners, who are nevertheless in the front line in the care and the follow-up of the patients affected by BPCO. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semi-qualitative study with the general practitioners installed in the city of Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne). RESULTS: The rate of answer was 57%...
April 18, 2017: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361991/y14-governs-p53-expression-and-modulates-dna-damage-sensitivity
#11
Chia-Chen Lu, Chi-Chieh Lee, Ching-Tzu Tseng, Woan-Yuh Tarn
Y14 is a core component of the exon junction complex (EJC), while it also exerts cellular functions independent of the EJC. Depletion of Y14 causes G2/M arrest, DNA damage and apoptosis. Here we show that knockdown of Y14 induces the expression of an alternative spliced isoform of p53, namely p53β, in human cells. Y14, in the context of the EJC, inhibited aberrant exon inclusion during the splicing of p53 pre-mRNA, and thus prevent p53β expression. The anti-cancer agent camptothecin specifically suppressed p53β induction...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346619/scope-of-practice-and-family-medicine-match-rates-results-from-a-cera-clerkship-directors-survey
#12
David Anthony, Jordan White, Katherine Margo, Derjung M Tarn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Family medicine clerkship directors depend on community preceptors to teach and attract medical students to family medicine. Many community preceptors do not provide the full range of family medicine services, and some are not family physicians. This study aimed to determine the types of practices in which family medicine clerkship students train and whether scope of practice is associated with family medicine Match rates. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the 2014 Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance (CERA) Family Medicine Clerkship Director Survey...
March 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322709/treatment-failure-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-vietnam
#13
Bui Quang Phuc, Charlotte Rasmussen, Tran Thanh Duong, Le Than Dong, Mai Anh Loi, Didier Ménard, Joel Tarning, Dorina Bustos, Pascal Ringwald, Gawrie Loku Galappaththy, Nguyen Quang Thieu
We conducted a study in Binh Phuoc, Vietnam, in 2015 on the therapeutic efficacy of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A high number of treatment failures (14/40) was found, and piperaquine resistance in Vietnam was confirmed. A change in the malaria treatment policy for Vietnam is in process.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248205/mir-107-promotes-tumor-progression-by-targeting-the-let-7-microrna-in-mice-and-humans
#14
Pai-Sheng Chen, Jen-Liang Su, Shih-Ting Cha, Woan-Yuh Tarn, Ming-Yang Wang, Hsing-Chih Hsu, Ming-Tsan Lin, Chia-Yu Chu, Kuo-Tai Hua, Chiung-Nien Chen, Tsang-Chih Kuo, King-Jen Chang, Michael Hsiao, Yi-Wen Chang, Jin-Shing Chen, Pan-Chyr Yang, Min-Liang Kuo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242661/prediction-of-improved-antimalarial-chemoprevention-with-weekly-dosing-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine
#15
Jesmin Permala, Joel Tarning, François Nosten, Nicholas J White, Mats O Karlsson, Martin Bergstrand
Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is used to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality, especially in vulnerable groups such as children and pregnant women. IPT with the fixed dose combination of piperaquine (PQ) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is being evaluated as a potential mass treatment to control and eliminate artemisinin-resistant falciparum malaria. This study explored alternative DHA-PQ adult dosing regimens compared to the monthly adult dosing regimen currently being studied in clinical trials. A time-to-event model describing the concentration-effect relationship of preventive DHA-PQ administration was used to explore the potential clinical efficacy of once-weekly adult dosing regimens...
May 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143919/growth-in-prepubertal-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-treated-with-ivacaftor
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Michael S Stalvey, Jesse Pace, Minoo Niknian, Mark N Higgins, Valerie Tarn, Joy Davis, Sonya L Heltshe, Steven M Rowe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is known for its impact on the lung and pancreas of individuals; however, impaired growth is also a common complication. We hypothesized that targeting the biological defect in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein may affect growth outcomes. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis, we assessed linear growth and weight in 83 children (aged 6-11 years) enrolled in 2 clinical trials, the longitudinal-observation GOAL study and the placebo-controlled ENVISION study, to evaluate the effects of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130346/the-use-of-whole-body-computed-tomography-in-major-trauma-variations-in-practice-in-uk-trauma-hospitals
#17
Ian Ayenga Sammy, Hridesh Chatha, Omar Bouamra, Marisol Fragoso-Iñiguez, Fiona Lecky, Antoinette Edwards
INTRODUCTION: Whole-body CT (WBCT) use in patients with trauma in England and Wales is not well documented. WBCT in trauma can reduce time to definitive care, thereby increasing survival. However, its use varies significantly worldwide. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) data from 2012 to 2014. The proportion of adult patients receiving WBCT during initial resuscitation at major trauma centres (MTCs) and trauma units/non-designated hospitals (TUs/NDHs) was compared...
January 27, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098806/antibacterial-activities-and-possible-modes-of-action-of-acacia-nilotica-l-del-against-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella
#18
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Joel Tarning, Tay Zar Aye Cho, Anil Kumar Anal
Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments...
January 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072872/population-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-piperaquine-in-falciparum-malaria-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#19
Richard M Hoglund, Lesley Workman, Michael D Edstein, Nguyen Xuan Thanh, Nguyen Ngoc Quang, Issaka Zongo, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Steffen Borrmann, Leah Mwai, Christian Nsanzabana, Ric N Price, Prabin Dahal, Nancy C Sambol, Sunil Parikh, Francois Nosten, Elizabeth A Ashley, Aung Pyae Phyo, Khin Maung Lwin, Rose McGready, Nicholas P J Day, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Karen I Barnes, Joel Tarning
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the mainstay of the current treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but ACT resistance is spreading across Southeast Asia. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is one of the five ACTs currently recommended by the World Health Organization. Previous studies suggest that young children (<5 y) with malaria are under-dosed. This study utilised a population-based pharmacokinetic approach to optimise the antimalarial treatment regimen for piperaquine...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052919/traumatic-brain-injuries-in-older-adults-6-years-of-data-for-one-uk-trauma-centre-retrospective-analysis-of-prospectively-collected-data
#20
Carol Hawley, Magdy Sakr, Sarah Scapinello, Jesse Salvo, Paul Wrenn
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine the incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults and investigate the relationship between injury characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data submitted to Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database for a major trauma centre in the West Midlands, UK, from 2008 to 2014. The Mayo Scale was used to categorise TBI. All patients were aged ≥65 years and were admitted with head or brain injuries meeting TARN inclusion criteria: injury resulting in immediate admission to hospital for 3 days, admitted to a high dependency area or death following trauma...
January 4, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
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