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Hien Tinh Tran, Nicholas J White, Thuy-Nhien Thanh Nguyen, Hoa Thi Nhu, Thuan Duc Phung, Joel Tarning, François Nosten, Baldur Magnusson, Jay Prakash Jain, Kamal Hamed
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antimalarial drug for a particular infection is the drug level associated with a net parasite multiplication rate of one per asexual cycle. To ensure cure of malaria the MIC must be exceeded until all parasites have been eliminated. The development of highly sensitive and accurate polymerase chain reaction quantitation of low-density malaria parasitemia enables prospective pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) characterization of antimalarial drug effects, and now allows identification of the in-vivo MIC...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ed Barnard, David Yates, Antoinette Edwards, Marisol Fragoso-Iñiguez, Tom Jenks, Jason E Smith
BACKGROUND: Historically, reported survival from traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) was extremely low. More recent publications have recorded survival to discharge of up to 8%. This improvement is likely to be multi-factorial; however, there are currently no published data describing the epidemiology or aetiology of TCA in England and Wales to guide future practice improvement. METHODS: Population-based analysis of 2009-2015 Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) data...
November 14, 2016: Resuscitation
Chun-Hao Su, Kuan-Yang Hung, Shih-Chieh Hung, Woan-Yuh Tarn
RBM4 promotes differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells and neurite outgrowth of cultured neurons via its role in splicing regulation. In this study, we further explored the role of RBM4 in neuronal differentiation. During neuronal differentiation, energy production shifts from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. We found that the splice isoform change of the metabolic enzyme pyruvate kinase M (PKM) from PKM2 to PKM1 occurs during brain development and is impaired in RBM4-deficient brain. The PKM isoform change could be recapitulated in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during neuronal induction...
November 7, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Nguyen Duc Bang, Maxine Caws, Thai Thanh Truc, Tran Ngoc Duong, Nguyen Huy Dung, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Guy E Thwaites, Doortje Heemskerk, Joel Tarning, Laura Merson, Pham Van Toi, Jeremy J Farrar, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Pouplin, Jeremy N Day
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis in adults is well characterized in Vietnam, but there are no data on the disease in children. We present a prospective descriptive study of Vietnamese children with TBM to define the presentation, course and characteristics associated with poor outcome. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study of 100 consecutively admitted children with TBM at Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City. Cox and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with risk of death and a combined endpoint of death or disability at treatment completion...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
David L Valentine, G Burch Fisher, Oscar Pizarro, Carl L Kaiser, Dana Yoerger, John A Breier, Jonathan Tarn
Benthic accumulations of filamentous, mat-forming bacteria occur throughout the oceans where bisulfide mingles with oxygen or nitrate, providing key but poorly quantified linkages between elemental cycles of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. Here we used the autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry to conduct a contiguous, 12.5 km photoimaging survey of sea-floor colonies of filamentous bacteria between 80 and 579 m water depth, spanning the continental shelf to the deep suboxic waters of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB)...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Tarn C Johnson, Stephen P Marsden
A one-pot, three-component synthesis of α-pyridyl, α-substituted amino acid derivatives is described. The key transformation is a direct, precious-metal-free heteroarylation of readily available, amino acid derived azlactones with electrophilically activated pyridine N-oxides. The resulting intermediates can be used directly as efficient acylating agents for a range of nucleophiles, leading to the heteroarylated amino acid derivatives in a single vessel.
October 21, 2016: Organic Letters
D Metcalfe, D C Perry, O Bouamra, A Salim, M Woodford, A Edwards, F E Lecky, M L Costa
AIMS: We aimed to determine whether there is evidence of improved patient outcomes in Major Trauma Centres following the regionalisation of trauma care in England. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational study was undertaken using the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN), Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and national death registrations. The outcome measures were indicators of the quality of trauma care, such as treatment by a senior doctor and clinical outcomes, such as mortality in hospital...
September 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
Sion L Kim, Derjung M Tarn
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between primary care involvement in end-of-life (EOL) care and health and utilization outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review using MEDLINE and Web of Science. SETTING: All English literature published between 1994 and August 31, 2014, that included terms related to primary care providers (PCPs), continuity of care, EOL care, and palliative care. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals receiving care from a PCP at the end of life...
August 22, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Lonnie Froberg, Frederik Helgstrand, Caroline Clausen, Jacob Steinmetz, Henrik Eckardt
OBJECTIVE: Exsanguination due to coagulopathy and vascular injury is a common cause of death among trauma patients. Arterial injury can be treated either by angiography and embolization or by explorative laparotomy and surgical packing. The purpose of this study was to compare 30-day mortality and blood product consumption in trauma patients with active arterial haemorrhage in the abdominal and/or pelvic region treated with either angiography and embolization or explorative laparotomy and surgical packing...
July 2016: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Nadia Howard Tripp, Jessica Tarn, Andini Natasari, Colin Gillespie, Sheryl Mitchell, Katie L Hackett, Simon J Bowman, Elizabeth Price, Colin T Pease, Paul Emery, Peter Lanyon, John Hunter, Monica Gupta, Michele Bombardieri, Nurhan Sutcliffe, Costantino Pitzalis, John McLaren, Annie Cooper, Marian Regan, Ian Giles, David A Isenberg, Vadivelu Saravanan, David Coady, Bhaskar Dasgupta, Neil McHugh, Steven Young-Min, Robert Moots, Nagui Gendi, Mohammed Akil, Bridget Griffiths, Dennis W Lendrem, Wan-Fai Ng
OBJECTIVES: This article reports relationships between serum cytokine levels and patient-reported levels of fatigue, in the chronic immunological condition primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). METHODS: Blood levels of 24 cytokines were measured in 159 patients with pSS from the United Kingdom Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry and 28 healthy non-fatigued controls. Differences between cytokines in cases and controls were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. Patient-reported scores for fatigue were evaluated, classified according to severity and compared with cytokine levels using analysis of variance...
2016: RMD Open
Fiona Vanobberghen, Melissa A Penny, Urs Duthaler, Peter Odermatt, Somphou Sayasone, Jennifer Keiser, Joel Tarning
There is a pressing need for alternative treatments against the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini Oral tribendimidine is a promising candidate, but its population pharmacokinetic properties are unknown. Two phase IIa trials were conducted in Laos in O. viverrini-infected adults receiving single oral doses of 25 to 600 mg tribendimidine administered as different formulations in each study (study 1 used 200-mg tablets, and study 2 used 50-mg tablets). Venous whole blood, plasma, and capillary dried blood spots were sampled frequently from 68 adults, and concentrations of the tribendimidine metabolites dADT (deacetylated amidantel) and adADT (acetylated dADT) were measured...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Rohan Ameratunga, Richard Steele, Anthony Jordan, Kahn Preece, Russell Barker, Maia Brewerton, Karen Lindsay, Jan Sinclair, Peter Storey, See-Tarn Woon
Primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDs) are rare conditions for which effective treatment is available. It is critical these patients are identified at an early stage to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Treatment of these disorders is expensive and expert evaluation and ongoing management by a clinical immunologist is essential. Until recently there has been a major shortage of clinical immunologists in New Zealand. While the numbers of trained immunologists have increased in recent years, most are located in Auckland...
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
E M Mirkes, T J Coats, J Levesley, A N Gorban
Handling of missed data is one of the main tasks in data preprocessing especially in large public service datasets. We have analysed data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database, the largest trauma database in Europe. For the analysis we used 165,559 trauma cases. Among them, there are 19,289 cases (11.35%) with unknown outcome. We have demonstrated that these outcomes are not missed 'completely at random' and, hence, it is impossible just to exclude these cases from analysis despite the large amount of available data...
August 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jonathan Tarn, Logan M Peoples, Kevin Hardy, James Cameron, Douglas H Bartlett
Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs) and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs) within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Daniel M Fountain, Angelos G Kolias, Fiona E Lecky, Omar Bouamra, Thomas Lawrence, Hadie Adams, Simon J Bond, Peter J Hutchinson
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine 30-day survival trends and prognostic factors following surgery for acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) in England and Wales over a 20-year period. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ASDHs are still considered the most lethal type of traumatic brain injury. It remains unclear whether the adjusted odds of survival have improved significantly over time. METHODS: Using the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database, we analyzed ASDH cases in the adult population (>16 yrs) treated surgically between 1994 and 2013...
April 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
O Mosley, L Melling, M D Tarn, C Kemp, M M N Esfahani, N Pamme, K J Shaw
Despite recent advances in microfluidic-based integrated diagnostic systems, the sample introduction interface, especially with regards to large volume samples, has often been neglected. We present a sample introduction interface that allows direct on-chip processing of crude stool samples for the detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The principle of IFAST (immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension) was adapted to include a large volume sample chamber with a septum-based interface for stool sample introduction...
May 24, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Thanaporn Wattanakul, Pramote Teerapong, Katherine Plewes, Paul N Newton, Wirongrong Chierakul, Kamolrat Silamut, Kesinee Chotivanich, Ronnatrai Ruengweerayut, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp, Joel Tarning
BACKGROUND: Fever is an inherent symptom of malaria in both adults and children. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the recommended antipyretic as it is inexpensive, widely available and has a good safety profile, but patients may not be able to take the oral drug reliably. A comparison between the pharmacokinetics of oral syrup and intramuscular paracetamol given to patients with acute falciparum malaria and high body temperature was performed. METHODS: A randomized, open-label, two-treatment, crossover, pharmacokinetic study of paracetamol dosed orally and intramuscularly was conducted...
2016: Malaria Journal
Matthew P Taggart, Mark D Tarn, Mohammad M N Esfahani, Daniel M Schofield, Nathaniel J Brown, Stephen J Archibald, Tom Deakin, Nicole Pamme, Lee F Thompson
The ability to detect radiation in microfluidic devices is important for the on-chip analysis of radiopharmaceuticals, but previously reported systems have largely suffered from various limitations including cost, complexity of fabrication, and insufficient sensitivity and/or speed. Here, we present the use of sensitive, low cost, small-sized, commercially available silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for the detection of radioactivity inside microfluidic channels fabricated from a range of conventional microfluidic chip substrates...
April 26, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Thomas Pouplin, Nguyen Duc Bang, Pham Van Toi, Pham Nguyen Phuong, Nguyen Huy Dung, Tran Ngoc Duong, Maxine Caws, Guy E Thwaites, Joel Tarning, Jeremy N Day
BACKGROUND: Among the various forms of TB, tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe, with about 30% mortality and 50% of survivors left with neurological sequelae. Children suffer more frequently from TBM than adults and outcomes are often poor due to difficulties in making the diagnosis and uncertainty regarding the best anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. The aim of this prospective study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide, isoniazid and rifampicin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children with tuberculous meningitis treated with the standard TBM regimen...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mark D Tarn, Dzmitry Maneuski, Richard Alexander, Nathaniel J Brown, Val O'Shea, Sally L Pimlott, Nicole Pamme, Stephen J Archibald
We demonstrate the use of the miniaturised Medipix positron sensor for detection of the clinical PET radiotracer, [(68)Ga]gallium-citrate, on a silica-based monolith, towards microfluidic quality control. The system achieved a far superior signal-to-noise ratio compared to conventional sodium iodide-based radio-HPLC detection and allowed real-time visualisation of positrons in the monolith.
June 7, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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