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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721679/phytochemicals-as-potential-antidotes-for-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
REVIEW
R Kowshik Aravilli, S Laveen Vikram, V Kohila
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune destructive arthropathy prevalent among people in the age group of 40-70 years. RA induces severe pain, swelling and stiffness of joints resulting in bone damage. RA leads to reduced life expectancy when left untreated. RA is characterized by synovial hyperplasia, infiltration of inflammatory cells resulting in formation of pannus. Synovial hyperplasia is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, notably IL-1 and TNF-α. NF-κB is a predominant transcription factor in amplifying the inflammatory response...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710348/spatiotemporal-expression-patterns-of-wheat-amino-acid-transporters-reveal-their-putative-roles-in-nitrogen-transport-and-responses-to-abiotic-stress
#2
Yongfang Wan, Robert King, Rowan A C Mitchell, Keywan Hassani-Pak, Malcolm J Hawkesford
Amino acid transporters have roles in amino acid uptake from soil, long-distance transport, remobilization from vegetative tissues and accumulation in grain. Critically, the majority of wheat grain nitrogen is derived from amino acids remobilized from vegetative organs. However, no systematic analysis of wheat AAT genes has been reported to date. Here, 283 full length wheat AAT genes representing 100 distinct groups of homeologs were identified and curated by selectively consolidating IWGSC CSSv2 and TGACv1 Triticum aestivum genome assemblies and reassembling or mapping of IWGSC CSS chromosome sorted reads to fill any gaps...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707393/malaria-epstein-barr-virus-infection-and-the-pathogenesis-of-burkitt-s-lymphoma
#3
Anthony R Mawson, Suvankar Majumdar
A geographical and causal connection has long been recognized between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Potential clues are that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and depends on it for its biological activities; secondly, alterations in vitamin A (retinoid) metabolism have been implicated in many forms of cancer, including BL. The first author has proposed that the merozoite-stage malaria parasite, emerging from the liver, uses its absorbed vitamin A as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the red blood cells, causing anemia and other signs and symptoms of the disease as manifestations of an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A (Mawson AR...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689052/directing-iron-transport-in-dicots-regulation-of-iron-acquisition-and-translocation
#4
REVIEW
Jeeyon Jeong, Aleks Merkovich, Madeline Clyne, Erin L Connolly
Iron is essential for plant growth and development, but excess iron is cytotoxic. While iron is abundant in soil, it is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth. Consequentially, plants have evolved mechanisms to tightly regulate iron uptake, trafficking and storage. Recent work has contributed to a more comprehensive picture of iron uptake, further elucidating molecular and physiological processes that aid in solubilization of iron and modulation of the root system architecture in response to iron availability...
July 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688209/quantifying-the-efficiency-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-translocation-tags
#5
Amy M Ehrenworth, Mitchell A Haines, Amy Wong, Pamela Peralta-Yahya
Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways into organelles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to improve chemical production. Pathway compartmentalization aids chemical production by bringing enzymes into close proximity to one another, placing enzymes near key starting metabolites or essential co-factors, increasing the effective concentration of metabolic intermediates, and providing a more suitable chemical environment for enzymatic activity. Although several translocation tags have been used to localize enzymes to different yeast organelles, their translocation efficiencies have not been quantified...
July 8, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687194/the-influence-of-the-commensal-microbiota-on-distal-tumor-promoting-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Claire M Buchta Rosean, Melanie R Rutkowski
Commensal microbes inhabit barrier surfaces, providing a first line of defense against invading pathogens, aiding in metabolic function of the host, and playing a vital role in immune development and function. Several recent studies have demonstrated that commensal microbes influence systemic immune function and homeostasis. For patients with extramucosal cancers, or cancers occurring distal to barrier surfaces, the role of commensal microbes in influencing tumor progression is beginning to be appreciated. Extrinsic factors such as chronic inflammation, antibiotics, and chemotherapy dysregulate commensal homeostasis and drive tumor-promoting systemic inflammation through a variety of mechanisms, including disruption of barrier function and bacterial translocation, release of soluble inflammatory mediators, and systemic changes in metabolic output...
July 4, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661459/macrophages-and-phospholipases-at-the-intersection-between-inflammation-and-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-infection
#7
REVIEW
Francesca Spadaro, Serena Cecchetti, Laura Fantuzzi
Persistent low grade immune activation and chronic inflammation are nowadays considered main driving forces of the progressive immunologic failure in effective antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Among the factors contributing to this phenomenon, microbial translocation has emerged as a key driver of persistent immune activation. Indeed, the rapid depletion of gastrointestinal CD4⁺ T lymphocytes occurring during the early phases of infection leads to a deterioration of the gut epithelium followed by the translocation of microbial products into the systemic circulation and the subsequent activation of innate immunity...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615210/a-conserved-leucine-zipper-motif-in-gammaherpesvirus-orf52-is-critical-for-distinct-microtubule-rearrangements
#8
Matthew S Loftus, Nancy Verville, Dean H Kedes
Productive viral infection often depends on manipulation of the cytoskeleton. Herpesviruses, including Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and its close homolog the oncogenic human gammaherpesvirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8), exploit microtubule-based retrograde transport to deliver their genomes to the nucleus. Subsequently, during the lytic phase of the life cycle, the maturing viral particles undergo orchestrated translocation to specialized regions within the cytoplasm, leading to tegumentation, secondary envelopment, and then egress...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607006/nr4a2-promotes-dna-double-strand-break-repair-upon-exposure-to-uvr
#9
Kelvin Yin, Yash Chhabra, Romain Tropée, Yi Chieh Lim, Mitchell Fane, Eloise Dray, Richard Sturm, Aaron G Smith
Exposure of melanocytes to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces the formation of UV-lesions that can produce deleterious effects in genomic DNA. Encounters of replication forks with unrepaired UV-lesions can lead to several complex phenomena, such as the formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The NR4A family of nuclear receptors are transcription factors that have been associated with mediating DNA repair functions downstream of the MC1R signalling pathway in melanocytes. In particular, emerging evidence shows that upon DNA damage, the NR4A2 receptor can translocate to sites of UV-lesion by mechanisms requiring post-translational modifications within the N-terminal domain and at a serine residue in the DNA biding domain at position 337...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588135/spatial-distribution-and-ribosome-binding-dynamics-of-ef-p-in-live-escherichia%C3%A2-coli
#10
Sonisilpa Mohapatra, Heejun Choi, Xueliang Ge, Suparna Sanyal, James C Weisshaar
In vitro assays find that ribosomes form peptide bonds to proline (Pro) residues more slowly than to other residues. Ribosome profiling shows that stalling at Pro-Pro-X triplets is especially severe but is largely alleviated in Escherichia coli by the action of elongation factor EF-P. EF-P and its eukaryotic/archaeal homolog IF5A enhance the peptidyl transfer step of elongation. Here, a superresolution fluorescence localization and tracking study of EF-P-mEos2 in live E. coli provides the first in vivo information about the spatial distribution and on-off binding kinetics of EF-P...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578239/bioaccumulation-of-pharmaceutically-active-compounds-and-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-aquatic-macrophytes-results-of-hydroponic-experiments-with-echinodorus-horemanii-and-eichhornia-crassipes
#11
N Pi, J Z Ng, B C Kelly
Information regarding the bioaccumulation behaviour of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic plants is limited. The present study involved controlled hydroponic experiments to assess uptake and elimination rate constants (ku, ke), bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of several PhACs and EDCs in two aquatic macrophyte species, including one submerged species (Echinodorus horemanii) and one free-floating species (Eichhornia crassipes)...
June 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550783/occurrence-distribution-and-bioaccumulation-behaviour-of-hydrophobic-organic-contaminants-in-a-large-scale-constructed-wetland-in-singapore
#12
Qian Wang, Barry C Kelly
This study involved a field-based investigation to assess the occurrence, distribution and bioaccumulation behaviour of hydrophobic organic contaminants in a large-scale constructed wetland. Samples of raw leachate, water and wetland plants, Typha angustifolia, were collected for chemical analysis. Target contaminants included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), as well as several halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and personal care products (triclosan and synthetic musks). In addition to PCBs and OCPs, synthetic musks, triclosan (TCS) and dechlorane plus stereoisomers (syn- and anti-DPs) were frequently detected...
May 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532341/pterostilbene-protects-against-uvb-induced-photo-damage-through-a-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent-nrf2-are-pathway-in-human-keratinocytes
#13
Huaping Li, Na Jiang, Bihua Liang, Qing Liu, Erting Zhang, Liqian Peng, Huiyan Deng, Runxiang Li, Zhenjie Li, Huilan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation is the initial etiological factor for various skin disorders, including erythema, sunburn, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Pterostilbene (Pter) displayed remarkable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities. This study aimed to investigate the effective mechanism of Pter against UVB-induced photodamage in immortalized human keratinocytes. METHODS: Human keratinocytes were pretreated with Pter (5 and 10 μM) for 24 h prior to UVB irradiation (300 mJ/cm(2))...
May 22, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494759/time-resolved-dual-transcriptomics-reveal-early-induced-nicotiana-benthamiana-root-genes-and-conserved-infection-promoting-phytophthora-palmivora-effectors
#14
Edouard Evangelisti, Anna Gogleva, Thomas Hainaux, Mehdi Doumane, Frej Tulin, Clément Quan, Temur Yunusov, Kévin Floch, Sebastian Schornack
BACKGROUND: Plant-pathogenic oomycetes are responsible for economically important losses in crops worldwide. Phytophthora palmivora, a tropical relative of the potato late blight pathogen, causes rotting diseases in many tropical crops including papaya, cocoa, oil palm, black pepper, rubber, coconut, durian, mango, cassava and citrus. Transcriptomics have helped to identify repertoires of host-translocated microbial effector proteins which counteract defenses and reprogram the host in support of infection...
May 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490810/establishment-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-normal-b-cells-and-inducing-aid-expression-in-their-differentiation-into-hematopoietic-progenitor-cells
#15
Fumihiko Kawamura, Makoto Inaki, Atsushi Katafuchi, Yu Abe, Naohiro Tsuyama, Yumiko Kurosu, Aki Yanagi, Mitsunori Higuchi, Satoshi Muto, Takumi Yamaura, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hideyoshi Noji, Shinichi Suzuki, Mitsuaki A Yoshida, Megumi Sasatani, Kenji Kamiya, Masafumi Onodera, Akira Sakai
B cell derived induced pluripotent stem cells (BiPSCs) were recently established from peripheral blood B cells by the simultaneous transfection of Yamanaka factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) and C/EBPα using a Sendai virus vector. Here, using a different method, we established BiPSCs with immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement from normal B cells purified from lymph nodes. The critical points of our method are pre-stimulation of B cells with IL-21 and CD40-ligand (CD40L), followed by consecutive transfection of highly concentrated Yamanaka factors using a retroviral vector...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480640/dynamic-basis-of-fidelity-and-speed-in-translation-coordinated-multistep-mechanisms-of-elongation-and-termination
#16
REVIEW
Arjun Prabhakar, Junhong Choi, Jinfan Wang, Alexey Petrov, Joseph D Puglisi
As the universal machine that transfers genetic information from RNA to protein, the ribosome synthesizes proteins with remarkably high fidelity and speed. This is a result of the accurate and efficient decoding of mRNA codons via multistep mechanisms during elongation and termination stages of translation. These mechanisms control how the correct sense codon is recognized by a tRNA for peptide elongation, how the next codon is presented to the decoding center without change of frame during translocation, and how the stop codon is discriminated for timely release of the nascent peptide...
July 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468332/neuroprotective-role-of-atractylenolide-i-in-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Sandeep More, Dong-Kug Choi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurological disorder characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons within the midbrain. Neuroinflammation has been nominated as one of the key pathogenic features of PD. Recently, the inadequate pharmacotherapy and adverse effects of conventional drugs have spurred the development of unconventional medications in the treatment of PD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory mechanisms of Atractylenolide-I (ATR-I) in in vivo and in vitro models of PD...
May 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400759/human-and-epstein-barr-virus-mirna-profiling-as-predictive-biomarkers-for-endemic-burkitt-lymphoma
#18
Cliff I Oduor, Mercedeh Movassagh, Yasin Kaymaz, Kiprotich Chelimo, Juliana Otieno, John M Ong'echa, Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell lymphoma and is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria co-infections. Central to BL oncogenesis is the over-expression of the MYC proto-oncogene which is caused by a translocation of an Ig enhancer in approximation to the myc gene. While whole genome/transcriptome sequencing methods have been used to define driver mutations and transcriptional dysregulation, microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation and differential expression has yet to be fully characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398031/a-carbon-nanotube-optical-sensor-reports-nuclear-entry-via-a-noncanonical-pathway
#19
Januka Budhathoki-Uprety, Rachel E Langenbacher, Prakrit V Jena, Daniel Roxbury, Daniel A Heller
Single-walled carbon nanotubes are of interest in biomedicine for imaging and molecular sensing applications and as shuttles for various cargos such as chemotherapeutic drugs, peptides, proteins, and oligonucleotides. Carbon nanotube surface chemistry can be modulated for subcellular targeting while preserving photoluminescence for label-free visualization in complex biological environments, making them attractive materials for such studies. The cell nucleus is a potential target for many pathologies including cancer and infectious diseases...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388279/investigation-of-aid-dicer-and-drosha-expressions-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#20
Metin Yusuf Gelmez, Ender Coskunpinar, Basak Saracoglu, Gunnur Deniz, Melih Aktan
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in Western countries. Cytogenetic lesions such as del13q14, del11q22.3, and del17p13 are identified in 50-60% of patients. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) plays a central role in somatic hyper mutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) and functions on Ig genes, but also target non-Ig genes, and over-expression of AID can lead to point mutations or translocations in non-Ig genes such as IgH/Myc translocation. Dicer and Drosha, which have a role in activation process of miRNA, also act in a double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair mechanism...
July 2017: Immunological Investigations
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