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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400759/human-and-epstein-barr-virus-mirna-profiling-as-predictive-biomarkers-for-endemic-burkitt-lymphoma
#1
Cliff I Oduor, Mercedeh Movassagh, Yasin Kaymaz, Kiprotich Chelimo, Juliana Otieno, John M Ong'echa, Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell lymphoma and is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum malaria co-infections. Central to BL oncogenesis is the over-expression of the MYC proto-oncogene which is caused by a translocation of an Ig enhancer in approximation to the myc gene. While whole genome/transcriptome sequencing methods have been used to define driver mutations and transcriptional dysregulation, microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation and differential expression has yet to be fully characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398031/a-carbon-nanotube-optical-sensor-reports-nuclear-entry-via-a-noncanonical-pathway
#2
Januka Budhathoki-Uprety, Rachel E Langenbacher, Prakrit V Jena, Daniel Roxbury, Daniel A Heller
Single-walled carbon nanotubes are of interest in biomedicine for imaging and molecular sensing applications and as shuttles for various cargos such as chemotherapeutic drugs, peptides, proteins, and oligonucleotides. Carbon nanotube surface chemistry can be modulated for subcellular targeting while preserving photoluminescence for label-free visualization in complex biological environments, making them attractive materials for such studies. The cell nucleus is a potential target for many pathologies including cancer and infectious diseases...
April 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388279/investigation-of-aid-dicer-and-drosha-expressions-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#3
Metin Yusuf Gelmez, Ender Coskunpinar, Basak Saracoglu, Gunnur Deniz, Melih Aktan
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in Western countries. Cytogenetic lesions such as del13q14, del11q22.3, and del17p13 are identified in 50-60% of patients. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) plays a central role in somatic hyper mutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) and functions on Ig genes, but also target non-Ig genes, and over-expression of AID can lead to point mutations or translocations in non-Ig genes such as IgH/Myc translocation. Dicer and Drosha, which have a role in activation process of miRNA, also act in a double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair mechanism...
April 7, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371134/strandadvantage-test-for-early-line-and-advanced-stage-treatment-decisions-in-solid-tumors
#4
Manimala Sen, Shanmukh Katragadda, Aarthi Ravichandran, Gouri Deshpande, Minothi Parulekar, Swetha Nayanala, Vikram Vittal, Weiming Shen, Melanie Phooi Nee Yong, Jemima Jacob, Sravanthi Parchuru, Kalpana Dhanuskodi, Kenneth Eyring, Pooja Agrawal, Smita Agarwal, Ashwini Shanmugam, Satish Gupta, Divya Vishwanath, Kiran Kumari, Arun K Hariharan, Sai A Balaji, Qiaoling Liang, Belen Robolledo, Vijayashree Gauribidanur Raghavendrachar, Mohammed Oomer Farooque, Cary J Buresh, Preveen Ramamoorthy, Urvashi Bahadur, Kalyanasundaram Subramanian, Ramesh Hariharan, Vamsi Veeramachaneni, Satish Sankaran, Vaijayanti Gupta
Comprehensive genetic profiling of tumors using next-generation sequencing (NGS) is gaining acceptance for guiding treatment decisions in cancer care. We designed a cancer profiling test combining both deep sequencing and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of relevant cancer targets to aid therapy choices in both standard-of-care (SOC) and advanced-stage treatments for solid tumors. The SOC report is provided in a short turnaround time for four tumors, namely lung, breast, colon, and melanoma, followed by an investigational report...
April 3, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360415/hiv-tat-induces-a-prolonged-myc-relocalization-next-to-igh-in-circulating-b-cells
#5
D Germini, T Tsfasman, M Klibi, R El-Amine, A Pichugin, O Iarovaia, C Bilhou-Nabera, F Subra, Y B Saada, A Sukhanova, D Boutboul, M Raphaël, J Wiels, S Razin, S Bury-Moné, E Oksenhendler, M Lipinski, Y Vassetzky
With combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the risk for HIV-infected individuals to develop a non-Hodgkin lymphoma is diminished. However, the incidence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) remains strikingly elevated. Most BL present a t(8;14) chromosomal translocation which must take place at a time of spatial proximity between the translocation partners. The two partner genes, MYC and IGH, were found colocalized only very rarely in the nuclei of normal peripheral blood B-cells examined using 3D-FISH while circulating B-cells from HIV-infected individuals whose exhibited consistently elevated levels of MYC-IGH colocalization...
March 31, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314909/localization-of-dynamin-related-protein-1-and-its-potential-role-in-lamellipodia-formation
#6
Youhwa Jo, Hyo Min Cho, Woong Sun, Jae Ryun Ryu
Dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) plays an essential role in mitochondrial fission: Cytosolic Drp1 is translocated to the mitochondria upon stimulus, and oligomerized Drp1 constricts mitochondria by aid of actin filaments. Drp1 completes the fission process with GTP hydrolysis by its own GTPase activity. The importance of actin filament and its interaction with Drp1 in the mitochondrial fission process have been demonstrated. In this study, we found that Drp1 is enriched in the actin-rich leading edge of lamellipodia of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) wherein mitochondria or peroxisomes are absent...
March 17, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250134/mir-126-5p-enhances-the-inflammatory-responses-of-monocytes-to-lps-stimulation-by-suppressing-cyld-in-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#7
Jun Huang, Lingyan Zhu, Chao Qiu, Xuan Xu, Linxia Zhang, Xiangqing Ding, Qibin Liao, Jianqing Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang
Persistent immune activation during chronic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection facilitates immune dysfunction and thereby fuels disease progression. The translocation of bacterial derivatives into blood and the hyper-inflammatory responsiveness of monocytes have been considered important causative factors for persistent immune activation. Whether microRNAs (miRNAs) involve in regulating monocyte-mediated inflammatory responses during chronic HIV-1 infection remains elusive. In this study, we show that miR-126-5p functions as a positive regulator of monocyte-mediated inflammatory responses...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223458/mutation-of-the-n-terminal-region-of-chikungunya-virus-capsid-protein-implications-for-vaccine-design
#8
Adam Taylor, Xiang Liu, Ali Zaid, Lucas Y H Goh, Jody Hobson-Peters, Roy A Hall, Andres Merits, Suresh Mahalingam
Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199309/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-%C3%AE-blockade-increases-genomic-instability-in-b-cells
#9
Mara Compagno, Qi Wang, Chiara Pighi, Taek-Chin Cheong, Fei-Long Meng, Teresa Poggio, Leng-Siew Yeap, Elif Karaca, Rafael B Blasco, Fernanda Langellotto, Chiara Ambrogio, Claudia Voena, Adrian Wiestner, Siddha N Kasar, Jennifer R Brown, Jing Sun, Catherine J Wu, Monica Gostissa, Frederick W Alt, Roberto Chiarle
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a B-cell-specific enzyme that targets immunoglobulin genes to initiate class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. In addition, through off-target activity, AID has a much broader effect on genomic instability by initiating oncogenic chromosomal translocations and mutations involved in the development and progression of lymphoma. AID expression is tightly regulated in B cells and its overexpression leads to enhanced genomic instability and lymphoma formation...
February 23, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192748/exposure-to-pm2-5-induces-aberrant-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells-by-downregulating-mir-331-expression
#10
Lei Song, Dan Li, Xiaoping Li, Lianjun Ma, Xiaoxue Bai, Zhongmei Wen, Xiufang Zhang, Dong Chen, Liping Peng
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter≤2.5μm (PM2.5) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leading to airway epithelial injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of PM2.5 have not been clarified. Here, we show that exposure to PM2.5 induces sustained activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling in human airway epithelial Beas-2B (B2B) cells. In addition, PM2.5 exposure significantly decreased miR-331 expression in B2B cells, which was abrogated by inhibition of ROS or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway...
March 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188246/cutting-edge-the-transcription-factor-sox2-regulates-aid-expression-in-class-switched-b-cells
#11
Lauren J DiMenna, Wei-Feng Yen, Laura Nicolas, Rahul Sharma, Zara N Saldanha, Jayanta Chaudhuri
IgH class switch recombination (CSR) occurs through the deliberate introduction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-instigated DNA double-strand breaks into the IgH loci. Because double-strand breaks are generally highly toxic, mechanisms that regulate AID expression are of much relevance to CSR and genomic integrity; however, effectors of such regulatory processes are still poorly understood. In this article, we show that the transcription factor sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) is expressed in activated B cells, but almost exclusively in those that have undergone CSR...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176781/rad52-competes-with-ku70-ku86-for-binding-to-s-region-dsb-ends-to-modulate-antibody-class-switch-dna-recombination
#12
Hong Zan, Connie Tat, Zhifang Qiu, Julia R Taylor, Justin A Guerrero, Tian Shen, Paolo Casali
Antibody class-switch DNA recombination (CSR) is initiated by AID-introduced DSBs in the switch (S) regions targeted for recombination, as effected by Ku70/Ku86-mediated NHEJ. Ku-deficient B cells, however, undergo (reduced) CSR through an alternative(A)-NHEJ pathway, which introduces microhomologies in S-S junctions. As microhomology-mediated end-joining requires annealing of single-strand DNA ends, we addressed the contribution of single-strand annealing factors HR Rad52 and translesion DNA polymerase θ to CSR...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169073/partition-uptake-of-a-brominated-diphenyl-ether-by-the-edible-plant-root-of-white-radish-raphanus-sativus-l
#13
Chien-Ying Yang, Meei-Ling Chang, Siang Chen Wu, Yang-Hsin Shih
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of a class of emerging contaminants. In this study, the accumulation of 4-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-3) by different parts of a live white radish was investigated. Different cultural media (hydroponics, silica sand, and soil) were used to sustain the radish plant during its uptake and in-plant translocation of BDE-3. The results showed that BDE-3 can be translocated from the roots to the aboveground organs and the accumulated levels of BDE-3 in different parts of the white radish followed the order for the three types of cultivation: fibrous roots > peels > main roots > leaves...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140477/coexistence-of-fusion-and-concrescence-of-primary-teeth-in-a-child-with-down-syndrome
#14
Akshara Singh, Hind Pal Bhatia, Naresh Sharma
Down syndrome is one of the most common congenital anomaly. It is most frequently caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. Other causes can be mosaicism and translocation. Such patients are commonly encountered in routine dental practice. This syndrome has wide range of medical and dental abnormalities. This paper presents a unique case of fusion and concrescence of retained primary teeth in a child with Down syndrome. The incidence of such anomalies is quite low in these cases. Thus, a better awareness of such conditions on part of a dental practitioner will aid in the provision of enhanced dental care to these patients...
January 31, 2017: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137224/sulfated-glycans-in-hiv-infection-and-therapy
#15
Vitor H Pomin, Francisco F Bezerra, Paulo A G Soares
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the infectious agent causative of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The number of HIV-infected people in the globe is incredibly large. Contrary to the big contamination rates, the incidence recently reported to AIDS-related deaths are fairly lower, less than 5 % of the total infected population. The reduced rates of the AIDS-associated deaths rely primarily on the growing availability, variety and efficiency of the antiretroviral treatments. During the initial molecular events of the HIV infectivity, the glycoprotein gp120 on the HIV envelop must interact with CD4 and heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans on the surface of the host cells in order to enable HIV attachment, fusion and entry into these cells...
January 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134625/autophagy-facilitates-macrophage-depots-of-sustained-release-nanoformulated-antiretroviral-drugs
#16
Divya Prakash Gnanadhas, Prasanta K Dash, Brady Sillman, Aditya N Bade, Zhiyi Lin, Diana L Palandri, Nagsen Gautam, Yazen Alnouti, Harris A Gelbard, JoEllyn McMillan, R Lee Mosley, Benson Edagwa, Howard E Gendelman, Santhi Gorantla
Long-acting anti-HIV products can substantively change the standard of care for patients with HIV/AIDS. To this end, hydrophobic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) were recently developed for parenteral administration at monthly or longer intervals. While shorter-acting hydrophilic drugs can be made into nanocarrier-encased prodrugs, the nanocarrier encasement must be boosted to establish long-acting ARV depots. The mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK-3) inhibitor URMC-099 provides this function by affecting autophagy. Here, we have shown that URMC-099 facilitates ARV sequestration and its antiretroviral responses by promoting the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor EB (TFEB)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121054/enhanced-aerobic-glycolysis-by-s-nitrosoglutathione-via-hif-1%C3%AE-associated-glut1-aldolase-a-axis-in-human-endothelial-cells
#17
Jieping Yan, Xin Huang, Danyan Zhu, Yijia Lou
S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO)-induced apoptosis is associated with reactive oxygen species and loss of mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 in human endothelial cells (ECs). But its upstream regulation is still not elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α)-linked aerobic glycolysis is associated with mitochondrial abnormality by treatment of human EC-derived EA.hy926 cells with GSNO (500 µM) for 6 h. GSNO exposure increased the levels of Aldolase A and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) mRNAs and proteins...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088889/-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#18
Bálint Velkey, Eszter Vitális, Zsuzsanna Vitális
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III...
January 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088785/the-igh-locus-3-cis-regulatory-super-enhancer-co-opts-aid-for-allelic-transvection
#19
Sandrine Le Noir, Brice Laffleur, Claire Carrion, Armand Garot, Sandrine Lecardeur, Eric Pinaud, Yves Denizot, Jane Skok, Michel Cogné
Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) alleles have ambivalent relationships: they feature both allelic exclusion, ensuring monoallelic expression of a single immunoglobulin (Ig) allele, and frequent inter-allelic class-switch recombination (CSR) reassembling genes from both alleles. The IgH locus 3' regulatory region (3'RR) includes several transcriptional cis-enhancers promoting activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation (SHM) and CSR, and altogether behaves as a strong super-enhancer...
February 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077417/aid-is-a-key-regulator-of-myeloid-erythroid-differentiation-and-dna-methylation-in-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#20
Hiroyoshi Kunimoto, Anna Sophia McKenney, Cem Meydan, Kaitlyn Shank, Abbas Nazir, Franck Rapaport, Benjamin Durham, Francine E Garrett-Bakelman, Elodie Pronier, Alan H Shih, Ari Melnick, Jayanta Chaudhuri, Ross L Levine
Recent studies have reported that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family members regulate active DNA demethylation. Genetic alterations of TET2 occur in myeloid malignancies, and hematopoietic-specific loss of Tet2 induces aberrant hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal/differentiation, implicating TET2 as a master regulator of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Despite the functional link between AID and TET in epigenetic gene regulation, the role of AID loss in hematopoiesis and myeloid transformation remains to be investigated...
March 30, 2017: Blood
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