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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#1
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894900/interaction-between-luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone-and-gm1-doped-cholesterol-sphingomyelin-vesicles-a-spectroscopic-study
#2
Zarrin Shahzadi, Chaitali Mukhopadhyay
Understanding the role of neural membrane in translocation and action of neurohormone is of great importance. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a neuropeptide hormone and it acts as a final signaling molecule by stimulating the synthesis of LH and FSH to maintain reproduction in all vertebrates. The receptors of LHRH are found in breast tumors and pituitary gland in the brain. Moreover, neural plasma membrane is also found to contain specific binding site for LHRH. The mechanism by which LHRH binds to membrane before it binds to the receptors is a very critical step and can have a profound impact upon the translation of peptide across the membrane...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893288/potential-contribution-of-gut-microbiota-and-systemic-inflammation-on-hiv-vaccine-effectiveness-and-vaccine-design
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj
The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Such findings support the assessment and reduction of pre-vaccine immune activation in order to optimize vaccine response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890882/neutrophils-to-the-roscue-mechanisms-of-nadph-oxidase-activation-and-bacterial-resistance
#4
REVIEW
Giang T Nguyen, Erin R Green, Joan Mecsas
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase play an important role in antimicrobial host defense and inflammation. Their deficiency in humans results in recurrent and severe bacterial infections, while their unregulated release leads to pathology from excessive inflammation. The release of high concentrations of ROS aids in clearance of invading bacteria. Localization of ROS release to phagosomes containing pathogens limits tissue damage. Host immune cells, like neutrophils, also known as PMNs, will release large amounts of ROS at the site of infection following the activation of surface receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878823/a-de-novo-complex-chromosome-rearrangement-associated-with-multisystematic-abnormalities-a-case-report
#5
Chan Tian, Dan Li, Ping Liu, Liping Jiao, Xuefeng Gao, Jie Qiao
BACKGROUND: Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are constitutional structural rearrangements that involve three or more chromosomes or that have more than two breakpoints. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we describe a four-way CCR involving chromosomes 4, 5, 6 and 8. The patient had mild multisystematic abnormalities during his development, including defects in his eyes and teeth, exomphalos and asthenozoospermia. His wife had two spontaneous abortions during the first trimester...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860565/interleukin-6-dependent-growth-in-a-newly-established-plasmablastic-lymphoma-cell-line-and-its-therapeutic-targets
#6
Sohtaro Mine, Tsunekazu Hishima, Akihiko Suganuma, Hitomi Fukumoto, Yuko Sato, Michiyo Kataoka, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Makoto Kuroda, Tadaki Suzuki, Hideki Hasegawa, Masashi Fukayama, Harutaka Katano
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare, highly aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with plasma-cell differentiation occurring typically in immune-suppressed patients such as those with AIDS. This study reports the establishment and characterization of a new cell line, PBL-1, derived from a patient with AIDS-associated PBL. Morphological assessment of PBL-1 indicated plasma-cell differentiation with a CD20(-) CD38(+) CD138(+) immunophenotype and IgH/c-myc translocation. The cell line harbours Epstein-Barr virus, but a 52...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859155/cyclocarya-paliurus-extract-activates-insulin-signaling-via-sirtuin1-in-c2c12-myotubes-and-decreases-blood-glucose-level-in-mice-with-impaired-insulin-secretion
#7
Hisae Yoshitomi, Rika Tsuru, Linyi Li, Jingxin Zhou, Maya Kudo, Tonghua Liu, Ming Gao
Diabetes is caused by the lack of release or action of insulin. Some foods and supplements can compensate for this deficiency; thus, they can aid in the prevention or treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Cyclocarya paliurus extract (CPE) on insulin signaling and its capacity to correct hyperglycemia in the absence of insulin. To investigate the hypoglycemic effects of CPE, C2C12 cells were exposed to CPE (50 and 100 μg/mL). CPE promoted 2-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)Amino)-2-Deoxyglucose (2NBDG) uptake into the cells via translocation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847072/-intestinal-microbiota-and-progression-of-aids
#8
J Liu, Z Wang
Antiretroviral treatment has significantly reduced the mortality and morbidity of AIDS. However, recent studies have shown that when HIV viremia is successfully inhibited by antiretroviral treatment, intestinal immune disorders and secondary structural damage can still bring out microbial translocation which give rise to immune activation and the related inflammation will later lead to the progression of AIDS disease. Since intestinal microbiota is important for maintaining the function of the intestinal mucosal barrier, regulating innate immunity/acquired immunity and maintaining intestinal balance, studies on the relationship between changes in intestinal microbiota and the progression AIDS disease are of significantly theoretical value and practical meaning...
August 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841169/phytostabilization-management-strategy-for-stabilizing-trace-elements-in-contaminated-soils
#9
Maja Radziemska, Magdalena D Vaverková, Anna Baryła
Contamination of soil by copper (Cu) has become a serious problem throughout the world, causing the reduction of agricultural yield and harmful effects on human health by entering the food chain. A glasshouse pot experiment was designed to evaluate the potential use of halloysite as an immobilizing agent in the aided phytostabilization of Cu-contaminated soil, using Festuca rubra L. The content of Cu in plants, i.e., total and extracted by 0.01 M CaCl₂, was determined using the method of spectrophotometry...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840857/detection-of-6-tfeb-amplified-renal-cell-carcinomas-and-25-renal-cell-carcinomas-with-mitf-translocations-systematic-morphologic-analysis-of-85-cases-evaluated-by-clinical-tfe3-and-tfeb-fish-assays
#10
Stephanie L Skala, Hong Xiao, Aaron M Udager, Saravana M Dhanasekaran, Sudhanshu Shukla, Yang Zhang, Carrie Landau, Lina Shao, Diane Roulston, Lisha Wang, Javed Siddiqui, Xuhong Cao, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Miao Zhang, Adeboye O Osunkoya, Steven C Smith, Jesse K McKenney, Bryan L Betz, Jeffrey L Myers, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Scott A Tomlins, Rohit Mehra
Renal cell carcinomas with MITF aberrations demonstrate a wide morphologic spectrum, highlighting the need to consider these entities within the differential diagnosis of renal tumors encountered in clinical practice. Herein, we describe our experience with application of clinical fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays for detection of TFE3 and TFEB gene aberrations from 85 consecutive renal cell carcinoma cases submitted to our genitourinary FISH service. Results from 170 FISH assays performed on these tumors were correlated with available clinicopathologic findings...
August 25, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797956/orientation-and-density-control-of-proteins-on-solid-matters-by-outer-membrane-coating-analytical-and-diagnostic-applications
#11
REVIEW
Min Park, Jae-Chul Pyun, Joachim Jose
Autodisplay is an expression system for the display of recombinant proteins on the outer membrane (OM) of gram negative bacteria and has been developed for translocation studies, whole cell biocatalysis, bioremediation, inhibitor screening, and enzyme refolding. Recently, affinity proteins such as IgG-binding Z-domains and biotin-binding streptavidin have been autodisplayed on the OM of Escherichia coli for analytical and biomedical applications. The secretion mechanism of the autodisplay system was used and orientation and density control of these affinity proteins were determined...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789548/brownian-dynamics-of-a-protein-polymer-chain-complex-in-a-solid-state-nanopore
#12
Craig C Wells, Dmitriy V Melnikov, Maria E Gracheva
We study the movement of a polymer attached to a large protein inside a nanopore in a thin silicon dioxide membrane submerged in an electrolyte solution. We use Brownian dynamics to describe the motion of a negatively charged polymer chain of varying lengths attached to a neutral protein modeled as a spherical bead with a radius larger than that of the nanopore, allowing the chain to thread the nanopore but preventing it from translocating. The motion of the protein-polymer complex within the pore is also compared to that of a freely translocating polymer...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783139/antipsychotic-induced-hdac2-transcription-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-leads-to-synaptic-and-cognitive-side-effects
#13
Daisuke Ibi, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Nebojsa Kezunovic, Carolina Muguruza, Justin M Saunders, Supriya A Gaitonde, José L Moreno, Maryum K Ijaz, Vishaka Santosh, Alexey Kozlenkov, Terrell Holloway, Jeremy Seto, Aintzane García-Bea, Mitsumasa Kurita, Grace E Mosley, Yan Jiang, Daniel J Christoffel, Luis F Callado, Scott J Russo, Stella Dracheva, Juan F López-Giménez, Yongchao Ge, Carlos R Escalante, J Javier Meana, Schahram Akbarian, George W Huntley, Javier González-Maeso
Antipsychotic drugs remain the standard for schizophrenia treatment. Despite their effectiveness in treating hallucinations and delusions, prolonged exposure to antipsychotic medications leads to cognitive deficits in both schizophrenia patients and animal models. The molecular mechanisms underlying these negative effects on cognition remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that chronic antipsychotic drug exposure increases nuclear translocation of NF-κB in both mouse and human frontal cortex, a trafficking event triggered via 5-HT2A-receptor-dependent downregulation of the NF-κB repressor IκBα...
September 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762863/dendritic-cells-maturated-by-co-culturing-with-hiv-1-latently-infected-jurkat-t-cells-or-stimulating-with-aids-associated-pathogens-secrete-tnf-alpha-to-reactivate-hiv-1-from-latency
#14
Xiao-Xin Ren, Li Ma, Wei-Wei Sun, Wen-Dong Kuang, Tai-Sheng Li, Xia Jin, Jian-Hua Wang
Elucidation of mechanisms underlying the establishment, maintenance of and reactivation from HIV-1 latency is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating HIV-1 reservoirs. Microbial translocation, as a consequence of HIV-1-induced deterioration of host immune system, is known to result in a systemic immune activation and transient outbursts of HIV-1 viremia in chronic HIV-1 infection. How these microbes cause the robust HIV-1 reactivation remains elusive. Dendritic cells (DCs) have previously been shown to reactivate HIV-1 from latency; however, the precise role of DCs in reactivating HIV-1 from latently infected T-cell remains obscure...
August 1, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752075/mir-155-effectively-induces-apoptosis-in-k562-philadelphia-positive-cell-line-through-upregulation-of-p27kip1
#15
Mahdi Edalati Fathabad, Morteza Karimipoor, Shaban Alizadeh, Asghar Abdoli, Amir Atashi, Mahtab Sayadi
Introduction: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder caused by the Philadelphia chromosome translocation, at (9; 22), which results in BCR-ABL fusion tyrosine kinase oncoprotein. This fusion induces down-regulation of miR-155. Upregulation of miR-155 can influence cell fate via the effect on p27kip1 and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to induce apoptosis in K562 CML cell line by overexpression of miR-155. Methods: The K562 cell line was transfected with pLenti-III-pre mir155-GFP constructs through electroporation...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733577/skin-renewal-activity-of-non-thermal-plasma-through-the-activation-of-%C3%AE-catenin-in-keratinocytes
#16
J H Choi, Y S Song, K Song, H J Lee, J W Hong, G C Kim
For recent years, devices that generate non-thermal plasma (NTP) have been introduced into the field of dermatology. Since NTP has demonstrated strong anti-pathogenic activity with safety of use, NTP was first applied to sterilize the skin surface to aid in the healing of various kinds of skin diseases. However, the effect of NTP on skin regeneration has not yet been fully explored. In this study, the effect of NTP on the growth of keratinocytes was tested using the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line and HRM2 hairless mice...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721679/phytochemicals-as-potential-antidotes-for-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
REVIEW
R Kowshik Aravilli, S Laveen Vikram, V Kohila
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune destructive arthropathy prevalent among people in the age group of 40-70 years. RA induces severe pain, swelling and stiffness of joints resulting in bone damage. RA leads to reduced life expectancy when left untreated. RA is characterized by synovial hyperplasia, infiltration of inflammatory cells resulting in formation of pannus. Synovial hyperplasia is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, notably IL-1 and TNF-α. NF-κB is a predominant transcription factor in amplifying the inflammatory response...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710348/spatiotemporal-expression-patterns-of-wheat-amino-acid-transporters-reveal-their-putative-roles-in-nitrogen-transport-and-responses-to-abiotic-stress
#18
Yongfang Wan, Robert King, Rowan A C Mitchell, Keywan Hassani-Pak, Malcolm J Hawkesford
Amino acid transporters have roles in amino acid uptake from soil, long-distance transport, remobilization from vegetative tissues and accumulation in grain. Critically, the majority of wheat grain nitrogen is derived from amino acids remobilized from vegetative organs. However, no systematic analysis of wheat AAT genes has been reported to date. Here, 283 full length wheat AAT genes representing 100 distinct groups of homeologs were identified and curated by selectively consolidating IWGSC CSSv2 and TGACv1 Triticum aestivum genome assemblies and reassembling or mapping of IWGSC CSS chromosome sorted reads to fill any gaps...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707393/malaria-epstein-barr-virus-infection-and-the-pathogenesis-of-burkitt-s-lymphoma
#19
Anthony R Mawson, Suvankar Majumdar
A geographical and causal connection has long been recognized between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Potential clues are that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum selectively absorbs vitamin A from the host and depends on it for its biological activities; secondly, alterations in vitamin A (retinoid) metabolism have been implicated in many forms of cancer, including BL. The first author has proposed that the merozoite-stage malaria parasite, emerging from the liver, uses its absorbed vitamin A as a cell membrane destabilizer to invade the red blood cells, causing anemia and other signs and symptoms of the disease as manifestations of an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A (Mawson AR, Path Global Health 2013;107(3):122-9)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689052/directing-iron-transport-in-dicots-regulation-of-iron-acquisition-and-translocation
#20
REVIEW
Jeeyon Jeong, Aleks Merkovich, Madeline Clyne, Erin L Connolly
Iron is essential for plant growth and development, but excess iron is cytotoxic. While iron is abundant in soil, it is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth. Consequentially, plants have evolved mechanisms to tightly regulate iron uptake, trafficking and storage. Recent work has contributed to a more comprehensive picture of iron uptake, further elucidating molecular and physiological processes that aid in solubilization of iron and modulation of the root system architecture in response to iron availability...
July 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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