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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330821/effects-of-ferrous-sulfate-amendment-and-water-management-on-rice-growth-and-metal-loid-accumulation-in-arsenic-and-lead-co-contaminated-soil
#1
Lina Zou, Shu Zhang, Dechao Duan, Xinqiang Liang, Jiyan Shi, Jianming Xu, Xianjin Tang
Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) commonly co-exist with high concentrations in paddy soil mainly due to human activities in south of China. This study investigates the effect of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) amendment and water management on rice growth and arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) accumulation in rice plants. A paddy soil co-contaminated with As and Pb was chosen for the pot experiment with three FeSO4 levels (0, 0.25, and 1%, on a dry weight basis) and two water managements (flooded, non-flooded). The concentrations of As and Pb in iron plaques and rice plants were determined...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320481/architecture-of-a-channel-forming-o-antigen-polysaccharide-abc-transporter
#2
Yunchen Bi, Evan Mann, Chris Whitfield, Jochen Zimmer
O-antigens are cell surface polysaccharides of many Gram-negative pathogens that aid in escaping innate immune responses. A widespread O-antigen biosynthesis mechanism involves the synthesis of the lipid-anchored polymer on the cytosolic face of the inner membrane, followed by transport to the periplasmic side where it is ligated to the lipid A core to complete a lipopolysaccharide molecule. In this pathway, transport to the periplasm is mediated by an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, called Wzm-Wzt...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318644/description-and-prognostic-significance-of-the-kinetics-of-minimal-residual-disease-status-in-adults-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-treated-with-hypercvad
#3
Ryan D Cassaday, Philip A Stevenson, Brent L Wood, Pamela S Becker, Paul C Hendrie, Brenda M Sandmaier, Jerald L Radich, Andrei R Shustov
HyperCVAD is a commonly-used regimen for adults with newly-diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, relatively little is known about the application of minimal residual disease (MRD) detection with this treatment. To address this, we studied 142 adults with ALL treated with hyperCVAD over a 10-year period who had MRD assessed by either multi-parameter flow cytometry or (for patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive ALL) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the BCR-ABL1 translocation...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313060/an-md2-derived-peptide-promotes-lps-aggregation-facilitates-its-internalization-in-thp-1-cells-and-inhibits-lps-induced-pro-inflammatory-responses
#4
Anshika Tandon, Munesh Kumar Harioudh, Nayab Ishrat, Amit Kumar Tripathi, Saurabh Srivastava, Jimut Kanti Ghosh
MD2, a 160-residue accessory glycoprotein, is responsible for the recognition and binding of Gram-negative bacterial membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Internalization of pathogen inside the mononuclear phagocytes has also been attributed to MD2 which leads to the clearance of pathogens from the host. However, not much is known about the segments in MD2 that are responsible for LPS interaction or internalization of pathogen inside the defense cells. A 16-residue stretch (MD54) from MD2 protein has been identified that possesses a short heptad repeat sequence and four cationic residues enabling it to participate in both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with LPS...
January 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297811/fecal-cortisol-levels-in-scimitar-horned-oryx-oryx-dammah-reveals-differences-between-captive-environments
#5
Cassandra D Pauling, Scott E Lankford, Victoria L Jackson
Due to the intensive management of the scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, involving both captivity and reintroductions, understanding the stress associated with environmental situations this endangered species might experience would be particularly helpful. Fecal cortisol levels were measured across seasons, between captive management programs, and among varying reproductive states in animals held at Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC) and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ). A total of 72 samples were collected from FRWC and 69 samples were collected from KCZ...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295511/concept-of-aided-phytostabilization-of-contaminated-soils-in-postindustrial-areas
#6
Maja Radziemska, Eugeniusz Koda, Ayla Bilgin, Mgdalena D Vaverková
The experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of trace element immobilizing soil amendments, i.e., chalcedonite, dolomite, halloysite, and diatomite on the chemical characteristics of soil contaminated with Cr and the uptake of metals by plants. The study utilized analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA). The content of trace elements in plants, pseudo-total and extracted by 0.01 M CaCl₂, were determined using the method of spectrophotometry...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220655/aid-and-reactive-oxygen-species-can-induce-dna-breaks-within-human-chromosomal-translocation-fragile-zones
#7
Nicholas R Pannunzio, Michael R Lieber
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) occurring within fragile zones of less than 200 base pairs account for the formation of the most common human chromosomal translocations in lymphoid malignancies, yet the mechanism of how breaks occur remains unknown. Here, we have transferred human fragile zones into S. cerevisiae in the context of a genetic assay to understand the mechanism leading to DSBs at these sites. Our findings indicate that a combination of factors is required to sensitize these regions. Foremost, DNA strand separation by transcription or increased torsional stress can expose these DNA regions to damage from either the expression of human AID or increased oxidative stress...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180487/toxoplasma-gondii-inactivates-human-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-by-functional-mimicry-of-il-10
#8
Piotr L Pierog, Yanlin Zhao, Sukhwinder Singh, Jihong Dai, George S Yap, Patricia Fitzgerald-Bocarsly
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the major producers of IFN-α, an antiviral cytokine involved in immunomodulation and control of HIV type 1 replication, whereas Toxoplasma gondii is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. During infection with HIV type 1, human pDCs decrease in circulation and remaining pDC produce lower amounts of IFN-α in response to viral stimulation. In this study, we investigated the impact of coinfection with T. gondii on the innate virus-directed responses of human pDCs...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163528/the-role-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-in-the-progression-of-hiv-aids-and-development-of-non-aids-defining-fibrotic-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Annette J Theron, Ronald Anderson, Theresa M Rossouw, Helen C Steel
Even after attainment of sustained viral suppression following implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected persons continue to experience persistent, low-grade, systemic inflammation. Among other mechanisms, this appears to result from ongoing microbial translocation from a damaged gastrointestinal tract. This HIV-related chronic inflammatory response is paralleled by counteracting, but only partially effective, biological anti-inflammatory processes. Paradoxically, however, this anti-inflammatory response not only exacerbates immunosuppression but also predisposes for development of non-AIDS-related, non-communicable disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145844/development-and-evaluation-of-an-interferon-gamma-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-red-deer-experimentally-infected-with-mycobacterium-bovis
#10
María Ángeles Risalde, Jobin Thomas, Iker Sevilla, Miriam Serrano, Jose Antonio Ortíz, Joseba Garrido, Mercedes Domínguez, Lucas Domínguez, Christian Gortázar, Jose Francisco Ruíz-Fons
BACKGROUND: Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is regarded as an epidemiologically relevant host for Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that cause animal tuberculosis (TB). The standard antemortem screening test for the detection of TB in deer is the intradermal tuberculin skin test, but the detection of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) produced by white blood cells exposed to M. bovis antigens can be used as an alternative or supplemental assay in most TB eradication/control programs...
November 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142761/aeromonas-hydrophila-utilizes-tlr4-topology-for-synchronous-activation-of-myd88-and-trif-to-orchestrate-anti-inflammatory-responses-in-zebrafish
#11
Nidhi Srivastava, Asha Shelly, Manmohan Kumar, Archana Pant, Bhabatosh Das, Tanmay Majumdar, Shibnath Mazumder
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in host immunity against Gram-negative bacteria. It transduces signals through two distinct TIR-domain-containing adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF, which function at the plasma membrane and endosomes, respectively. Using zebrafish Aeromonas hydrophila infection model, we demonstrate that synchronization of MyD88 and TRIF dependent pathways is critical for determining the fate of infection. Zebrafish were infected with A. hydrophila, and bacterial recovery studies suggested its effective persistence inside the host...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136157/depletion-of-recombination-specific-co-factors-by-the-c-terminal-mutant-of-the-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-causes-the-dominant-negative-effect-on-class-switch-recombination
#12
Azza Al Ismail, Afzal Husain, Maki Kobayashi, Tasuku Honjo, Nasim A Begum
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Studies on in vitro mutagenized AID as well as its mutations in human patients with Hyper-IgM (HIGM)-syndrome type II revealed that C-terminal AID mutations were defective in CSR whereas their DNA cleavage and SHM activities remained intact. The C-terminal mutants of AID were speculated to exert the dominant negative effect on wild type WT AID whereas its mechanism remains unknown...
November 10, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122947/phosphorylation-promotes-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-activity-at-the-myc-oncogene
#13
Yunxiang Mu, Monika A Zelazowska, Kevin M McBride
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a mutator enzyme that targets immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to initiate antibody somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). Off-target AID association also occurs, which causes oncogenic mutations and chromosome rearrangements. However, AID occupancy does not directly correlate with DNA damage, suggesting that factors beyond AID association contribute to mutation targeting. CSR and SHM are regulated by phosphorylation on AID serine38 (pS38), but the role of pS38 in off-target activity has not been evaluated...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119002/mechanisms-of-liver-disease-in-patients-infected-with-hiv
#14
REVIEW
Matthew B Kaspar, Richard K Sterling
Objective: To describe the various mechanisms of liver disease in patients with HIV infection, and to link these mechanisms to disease states which may utilise them. Background: Non-AIDS causes of morbidity and mortality are becoming increasingly common in patients chronically infected with HIV. In particular, liver-related diseases have risen to become one of the leading causes of non-AIDS-related death. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms driving the development of liver disease in these patients is essential when evaluating and caring for these patients...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118670/an-overview-of-the-role-of-platelets-in-angiogenesis-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia
#15
REVIEW
Lisa Repsold, Roger Pool, Mohammed Karodia, Gregory Tintinger, Annie Margaretha Joubert
Amongst males, leukaemia is the most common cause of cancer-related death in individuals younger than 40 years of age whereas in female children and adolescents, leukaemia is the most common cause of cancer-related death. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a chronic leukaemia of the haematopoietic stem cells affecting mostly adults. The disease results from a translocation of the Philadelphia chromosome in stem cells of the bone marrow. CML patients usually present with mild to moderate anaemia and with decreased, normal, or increased platelet counts...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104110/pseudomyogenic-hemangioendothelioma-of-skin-bone-and-soft-tissue-a-clinicopathological-immunohistochemical-and-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-study
#16
Dinesh Pradhan, Karen Schoedel, Richard L McGough, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Uma N M Rao
Pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma (PHE) is an uncommon neoplasm with propensity for local recurrence. The tumor mimics epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and epithelioid sarcoma, representing a possible diagnostic pitfall. We investigated the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization features of PHEs. Eight cases of PHE were retrieved from our pathology archives. The clinical and outcome information was available in six patients. In six cases the tumors were located in the lower limb while the upper limb was involved in two cases...
November 2, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073235/src-family-kinases-negatively-regulate-nfat-signaling-in-resting-human-t-cells
#17
Alan Baer, Winston Colon-Moran, Jinhua Xiang, Jack T Stapleton, Nirjal Bhattarai
T cell signaling is required for activation of both natural and therapeutic T cells including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. Identification of novel factors and pathways regulating T cell signaling may aid in development of effective T cell therapies. In resting human T cells, the majority of Src-family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs) are inactive due to phosphorylation of a conserved carboxy-terminal tyrosine residue. Recently, a pool of enzymatically active SFKs has been identified in resting T cells; however, the significance of these is incompletely understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054647/pilot-scale-aided-phytoremediation-of-a-co-contaminated-soil
#18
Charlotte Marchand, Michel Mench, Yahya Jani, Fabio Kaczala, Peter Notini, Mohamed Hijri, William Hogland
A pilot scale experiment was conducted to investigate the aided-phytoextraction of metals and the aided-phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in a co-contaminated soil. First, this soil was amended with compost (10% w/w) and assembled into piles (Unp-10%C). Then, a phyto-cap of Medicago sativa L. either in monoculture (MS-10%C) or co-cropped with Helianthus annuus L. as companion planting (MSHA-10%C) was sown on the topsoil. Physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in the soil and its leachates were measured at the beginning and the end of the first growth season (after five months)...
October 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040604/associations-of-plasma-cytokine-and-microbial-translocation-biomarkers-with-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#19
Varghese George, Linda Harrison, Margaret Roach, Xiao-Dong Li, Camlin Tierney, Margaret A Fischl, Judith Aberg, Pablo Tebas, David M Asmuth, Richard B Pollard, Catherine Godfrey, Savita Pahwa
A nested case-cohort study was performed in participants of a clinical trial of first-line human immunodeficiency virus treatments to investigate plasma biomarkers of inflammation and microbial translocation for their association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Fifty-one of 1452 participants with baseline CD4 count <350 cells/μL developed IRIS. Plasma from 51 IRIS cases, including 6 stratified by preenrollment CD4 count ≤200 cells/μL, were analyzed and compared to 94 non-IRIS controls...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031880/assisted-phytoremediation-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-soil-from-a-mined-site-with-typha-latifolia-and-chrysopogon-zizanioides
#20
Alexander Kofi Anning, Ruth Akoto
Chemically assisted phytoremediation is fast gaining attention as a biotechnology to accelerate heavy metal removal from contaminated substrates, but how different chemical amendments affect the process remains an important research question. Here, bioaccumulation factor (BAF), translocation factor (TF), removal efficiency (RE) and uptake of Hg, As, Pb, Cu and Zn by cattail (Typha latifolia) and vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) were quantified in a potted experiment to determine the effects of amendments on the phytoremediation success...
October 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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