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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910030/recurrent-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#1
Edmond S K Ma
Characteristic chromosomal translocations are found to be associated with subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), for example t(8;14)(q24;q32) and Burkitt lymphoma, t(14;18)(q32;q21) and follicular lymphoma, and t(11;14)(q13;q32) in mantle cell lymphoma. Only few recurrent cytogenetic aberrations have been identified in the T-cell NHL and the best known is the ALK gene translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Since lymph node or other tissue is seldom submitted for conventional cytogenetics study, alternative approaches for translocation detection are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859411/dna-demethylation-pathways-additional-players-and-regulators
#2
Matthias Bochtler, Agnieszka Kolano, Guo-Liang Xu
DNA demethylation can occur passively by "dilution" of methylation marks by DNA replication, or actively and independently of DNA replication. Direct conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to cytosine (C), as originally proposed, does not occur. Instead, active DNA methylation involves oxidation of the methylated base by ten-eleven translocations (TETs), or deamination of the methylated or a nearby base by activation induced deaminase (AID). The modified nucleotide, possibly together with surrounding nucleotides, is then replaced by the BER pathway...
November 16, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837485/fractionation-techniques-to-examine-effector-translocation
#3
Rachel M Olson, Deborah M Anderson
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use type III secretion systems to export proteins that act directly on the host and aid in the infectious process. Extracellular bacteria primarily rely upon the type III secretion system to insert or inject effector proteins into the cytosol of their host cell in order to perturb intracellular signaling events and aid in pathogenesis. Intracellular bacteria can also depend on the T3SS translocation of effector proteins from vacuolar compartments into the vacuolar membrane or host cell cytosol where they can modulate intracellular trafficking and/or signaling pathways necessary for their growth and survival...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836487/phosphorylation-mechanisms-in-dopamine-transporter-regulation
#4
REVIEW
James D Foster, Roxanne A Vaughan
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane phosphoprotein that actively translocates extracellular dopamine (DA) into presynaptic neurons. The transporter is the primary mechanism for control of DA levels and subsequent neurotransmission, and is the target for abused and therapeutic drugs that exert their effects by suppressing reuptake. The transport capacity of DAT is acutely regulated by signaling systems and drug exposure, providing neurons the ability to fine-tune DA clearance in response to specific conditions...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833610/tcr-triggering-induces-the-formation-of-lck-rack1-actinin-1-multiprotein-network-affecting-lck-redistribution
#5
Ondřej Ballek, Jan Valečka, Martina Dobešová, Adéla Broučková, Jasper Manning, Pavel Řehulka, Jiří Stulík, Dominik Filipp
The initiation of T-cell signaling is critically dependent on the function of the member of Src family tyrosine kinases, Lck. Upon T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) triggering, Lck kinase activity induces the nucleation of signal-transducing hubs that regulate the formation of complex signaling network and cytoskeletal rearrangement. In addition, the delivery of Lck function requires rapid and targeted membrane redistribution, but the mechanism underpinning this process is largely unknown. To gain insight into this process, we considered previously described proteins that could assist in this process via their capacity to interact with kinases and regulate their intracellular translocations...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752257/-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-a-biomarker-for-microbial-translocation-in-individuals-with-acute-or-early-hiv-infection
#6
Martin Hoenigl, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Masato Nakazawa, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm A Finkelman, Scott Letendre, Davey Smith, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The extent of gut microbial translocation, which plays roles in HIV disease progression and non-AIDS comorbidities, appears to vary with the composition of the gut microbiome, particularly the presence of Lactobacillales, which reduce mucosal injury. While low proportions of Lactobacillales in the distal gut microbiome are a very promising indicator of microbial translocation, measurement is expensive and complicated and not feasible for clinical routine. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan (BDG) is a component of most fungal cell walls and might be a surrogate marker for Lactobacillales proportion in the gut and a useful indicator of HIV-associated gut injury...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689909/malaria-how-this-parasitic-infection-aids-and-abets-ebv-associated-burkitt-lymphomagenesis
#7
REVIEW
Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is >90% EBV-associated when this pediatric cancer is diagnosed in regions heavily burden by endemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria and thus has been geographically classified as endemic BL. The incidence of endemic BL is 10-fold higher compared to BL diagnosed in non-malarious regions of the world. The other forms of BL have been classified as sporadic BL which contain EBV in ∼30% of cases and immunodeficiency BL which occurs in HIV-infected adults with ∼40% of tumors containing EBV...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687492/single-cell-analysis-reveals-igf-1-potentiation-of-inhibition-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-pathway-of-fibrosis-in-human-keratocytes-in-vitro
#8
Tomislav Sarenac, Martin Trapecar, Lidija Gradisnik, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Dusica Pahor
Corneal wound healing is often affected by TGF-β-mediated fibrosis and scar formation. Guided fibrosis with IGF-1 and antifibrotic substances might maintain corneal transparency. Primary human corneal keratocytes under serum-free conditions were used as a model of corneal stromal wounding, with markers of corneal fibrosis and opacity studied under TGF-β2 stimulation. Single-cell imaging flow cytometry was used to determine nuclearization of Smad3, and intracellular fluorescence intensity of Smad7 and the corneal crystallin aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612439/sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1pr2-mediated-signaling-triggers-smad1-5-8-phosphorylation-and-thereby-induces-runx2-expression-in-osteoblasts
#9
Katsumasa Higashi, Etsuko Matsuzaki, Yoko Hashimoto, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Aiko Takano, Hisashi Anan, Masato Hirata, Fusanori Nishimura
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling sphingolipid that also plays crucial roles in bone regeneration. Recently, we reported that the S1P receptors S1PR1 and S1PR2 were mainly expressed in osteoblast-like cells, and that the S1P/S1PR1 signaling pathway up-regulated osteoprotegerin and osteoblast differentiation. However, the involvement of S1P/S1PR2 signaling in osteoblast differentiation is not well understood. Here we investigate the role of S1P/S1PR2-mediated signaling in osteoblast differentiation and clarify the underlying signaling mechanisms...
September 6, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601275/self-assembly-of-a-2-pseudorotaxane-by-an-inchworm-motion-mechanism
#10
Zheng Meng, Bo-Yang Wang, Jun-Feng Xiang, Qiang Shi, Chuan-Feng Chen
The threading of biomolecules through pores or channels in membranes is important to validate the physiological activities of cells. To aid understanding of the controlling factors required for the translocation in space with confined size and distorted conformation, it is desirable to identify experimental systems with minimized complexity. We demonstrate the mechanism of a linear guest L1 threading into a tris(crown ether) host TC with a combinational distorted cavity to form a triply interlocked [2]pseudorotaxane 3in-[L1⊂TC]...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595392/atomic-structure-of-the-entire-mammalian-mitochondrial-complex-i
#11
Karol Fiedorczuk, James A Letts, Gianluca Degliesposti, Karol Kaszuba, Mark Skehel, Leonid A Sazanov
Mitochondrial complex I (also known as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) contributes to cellular energy production by transferring electrons from NADH to ubiquinone coupled to proton translocation across the membrane. It is the largest protein assembly of the respiratory chain with a total mass of 970 kilodaltons. Here we present a nearly complete atomic structure of ovine (Ovis aries) mitochondrial complex I at 3.9 Å resolution, solved by cryo-electron microscopy with cross-linking and mass-spectrometry mapping experiments...
September 5, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588694/the-tamb-ortholog-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-interacts-with-the-%C3%AE-barrel-assembly-machine-bam-complex-protein-bama
#12
Henna Iqbal, Melisha R Kenedy, Meghan Lybecker, Darrin R Akins
Two outer membrane protein (OMP) transport systems in diderm bacteria assist in assembly and export of OMPs. These two systems are the β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex and the translocation and assembly module (TAM). The BAM complex consists of the OMP component BamA along with several outer membrane associated proteins. The TAM also consists of an OMP, designated TamA, and a single inner membrane (IM) protein, TamB. Together TamA and TamB aid in the secretion of virulence-associated OMPs. In this study we characterized the hypothetical protein BB0794 in Borrelia burgdorferi...
September 2, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566574/differential-igm-expression-distinguishes-two-types-of-pediatric-burkitt-lymphoma-in-mouse-and-human
#13
Anthony B Eason, Sang-Hoon Sin, Carolina Lin, Blossom Damania, Steven Park, Yuri Fedoriw, Carlos E Bacchi, Dirk P Dittmer
Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is primarily a childhood cancer in parts of Africa and Brazil. Classic studies describe eBL as a homogeneous entity based on t(8;14) IgH-Myc translocation and clinical response to cytotoxic therapy. By contrast, sporadic BL (sBL) in Western countries is considered more heterogeneous, and affects both children and adults. It is overrepresented in AIDS patients. Unlike diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), molecular subtypes within BL have not been well defined. We find that differential IgM positivity can be used to describe two subtypes of pediatric Burkitt lymphoma both in a high incidence region (Brazil), as well as in a sporadic region (US), suggesting the phenotype is not necessarily geographically isolated...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556823/proximal-cd13-versus-distal-gata-3-expression-in-renal-neoplasia-according-to-who-2016-classification
#14
Matteo Brunelli, Francesco Erdini, Luca Cima, Albino Eccher, Adele Fioravanzo, Stefano Gobbo, Diego Segala, Claudio Ghimenton, Guido Mazzoleni, Enrico Munari, Rodolfo Carella, Guido Martignoni
Little is known about the aminopeptidase CD13 in renal neoplasia according to the new 2016 World Health Organization renal tumor classification. We selected 175 cases, including 79 clear cell, 31 papillary, 24 chromophobe, 8 clear cell papillary renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 21 oncoytomas, and 12 microphthalmia transcription factor family translocation RCCs: 4 t(6;11)/transcription factor EB (TFEB), 7 t(Xp11) with 2 cystic variants and 1 t(X;17). GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3) was inserted as control. Expression of proximal antigen CD13 was observed in 63/79 (80%) clear cell, 25/31 (81%) papillary, 3/8 (37%) clear cell papillary, 1/4 (25%) t(6;11)/TFEB, 2/7 (28%) cystic t(Xp11), and in 1/1 t(X;17) RCCs...
August 23, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553844/new-insights-into-the-heterogeneity-of-th17-subsets-contributing-to-hiv-1-persistence-during-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Vanessa Sue Wacleche, Jean-Philippe Goulet, Annie Gosselin, Patricia Monteiro, Hugo Soudeyns, Rémi Fromentin, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Shant Vartanian, Steven G Deeks, Nicolas Chomont, Jean-Pierre Routy, Petronela Ancuta
BACKGROUND: Th17 cells are permissive to HIV-1 infection and their depletion from the gut of infected individuals leads to microbial translocation, a major cause for non-AIDS co-morbidities. Most recent evidence supports the contribution of long-lived Th17 cells to HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the identity of long-lived Th17 cells remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, we performed an in-depth transcriptional and functional characterization of four distinct Th17 subsets and investigated their contribution to HIV reservoir persistence during ART...
2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542621/cross-talk-of-sfrp4-integrin-%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-1-and-notch1-inhibits-cardiac-differentiation-of-p19cl6-cells
#16
Yuyao Tian, Weiping Wang, Qin Lu, Ping Chen, Kangtao Ma, Zhuqing Jia, Chunyan Zhou
Signaling pathways play an important role in cardiogenesis. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), a member of the Wnt family, contributes to adipogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, how SFRP4 participates in cardiogenesis and the detailed molecular mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. The aim of this work was to determine cross-talk between SFRP4, integrin α1β1, and Notch1 during cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells. Using a well-established in vitro P19CL6 cell cardiomyocyte differentiation system, we found that SFRP4 inhibited P19CL6 cell cardiac differentiation via SFRP4 overexpression or knockdown...
November 2016: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491828/hiv-1-tat-exacerbates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cytokine-release-via-tlr4-signaling-in-the-enteric-nervous-system
#17
Joy Guedia, Paola Brun, Sukhada Bhave, Sylvia Fitting, Minho Kang, William L Dewey, Kurt F Hauser, Hamid I Akbarali
The loss of gut epithelium integrity leads to translocation of microbes and microbial products resulting in immune activation and drives systemic inflammation in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Although viral loads in HIV patients are significantly reduced in the post-cART era, inflammation and immune activation persist and can lead to morbidity. Here, we determined the interactive effects of the viral protein HIV-1 Tat and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on enteric neurons and glia. Bacterial translocation was significantly enhanced in Tat-expressing (Tat+) mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484893/chaperone-mediated-autophagy-in-aging-starve-to-prosper
#18
Maria Xilouri, Leonidas Stefanis
The major lysosomal proteolytic pathways essential for maintaining proper cellular homeostasis are macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and microautophagy. What differentiates CMA from the other types of autophagy is the fact that it does not involve vesicle formation; the unique feature of this pathway is the selective targeting of substrate proteins containing a CMA-targeting motif and the direct translocation into the lysosomal lumen, through the aid of chaperones/co-chaperones localized both at the cytosol and the lysosomes...
July 30, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479442/surface-immobilization-of-human-arginase-1-with-an-engineered-ice-nucleation-protein-display-system-in-e-coli
#19
Zhen Zhang, Rongxin Tang, Lu Bian, Meng Mei, Chunhua Li, Xiangdong Ma, Li Yi, Lixin Ma
Ice nucleation protein (INP) is frequently used as a surface anchor for protein display in gram-negative bacteria. Here, MalE and TorA signal peptides, and three charged polypeptides, 6×Lys, 6×Glu and 6×Asp, were anchored to the N-terminus of truncated INP (InaK-N) to improve its surface display efficiency for human Arginase1 (ARG1). Our results indicated that the TorA signal peptide increased the surface translocation of non-protein fused InaK-N and human ARG1 fused InaK-N (InaK-N/ARG1) by 80.7% and 122...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468306/gene-flow-from-an-adaptively-divergent-source-causes-rescue-through-genetic-and-demographic-factors-in-two-wild-populations-of-trinidadian-guppies
#20
Sarah W Fitzpatrick, Jill C Gerberich, Lisa M Angeloni, Larissa L Bailey, Emily D Broder, Julian Torres-Dowdall, Corey A Handelsman, Andrés López-Sepulcre, David N Reznick, Cameron K Ghalambor, W Chris Funk
Genetic rescue, an increase in population growth owing to the infusion of new alleles, can aid the persistence of small populations. Its use as a management tool is limited by a lack of empirical data geared toward predicting effects of gene flow on local adaptation and demography. Experimental translocations provide an ideal opportunity to monitor the demographic consequences of gene flow. In this study we take advantage of two experimental introductions of Trinidadian guppies to test the effects of gene flow on downstream native populations...
August 2016: Evolutionary Applications
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