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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088889/-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#1
Bálint Velkey, Eszter Vitális, Zsuzsanna Vitális
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III...
January 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088785/the-igh-locus-3-cis-regulatory-super-enhancer-co-opts-aid-for-allelic-transvection
#2
Sandrine Le Noir, Brice Laffleur, Claire Carrion, Armand Garot, Sandrine Lecardeur, Eric Pinaud, Yves Denizot, Jane Skok, Michel Cogné
Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) alleles have ambivalent relationships: they feature both allelic exclusion, ensuring monoallelic expression of a single immunoglobulin (Ig) allele, and frequent inter-allelic class-switch recombination (CSR) reassembling genes from both alleles. The IgH locus 3' regulatory region (3'RR) includes several transcriptional cis-enhancers promoting activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation (SHM) and CSR, and altogether behaves as a strong super-enhancer...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077417/aid-is-a-key-regulator-of-myeloid-erythroid-differentiation-and-dna-methylation-in-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#3
Hiroyoshi Kunimoto, Anna Sophia McKenney, Cem Meydan, Kaitlyn Shank, Abbas Nazir, Franck Rapaport, Benjamin Durham, Francine E Garrett-Bakelman, Elodie Pronier, Alan H Shih, Ari Melnick, Jayanta Chaudhuri, Ross L Levine
Recent studies have reported activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family members regulate active DNA demethylation. Genetic alterations of TET2 occur in myeloid malignancies and hematopoietic specific loss of Tet2 induces aberrant hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal/differentiation, implicating TET2 as a master regulator of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Despite the functional link between AID and TET in epigenetic gene regulation, the role of AID loss in hematopoiesis and myeloid transformation remains to be investigated...
January 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074830/tet1-in-nucleus-accumbens-opposes-depression-and-anxiety-like-behaviors
#4
Jian Feng, Catherine J Pena, Immanuel Purushothaman, Olivia Engmann, Deena Walker, Amber N Brown, Orna Issler, Marie Doyle, Eileen Harrigan, Ezekiell Mouzon, Vincent Vialou, Li Shen, Meelad M Dawlaty, Rudolf Jaenisch, Eric J Nestler
Depression is a leading cause of disease burden, yet current therapies fully treat <50% of affected individuals. Increasing evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms in depression and antidepressant action. Here, we examined a possible role for the DNA dioxygenase, ten eleven translocation protein 1 (TET1), in depression-related behavioral abnormalities. We applied chronic social defeat stress, an ethologically validated mouse model of depression-like behaviors, and examined Tet1 expression changes in nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region...
January 11, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057769/extra-nuclear-effects-of-estrogen-on-cortical-bone-in-males-require-er%C3%AE-af-1
#5
Helen H Farman, Jianyao Wu, Karin L Gustafsson, Sara H Windahl, Sung Hoon Kim, John A Katzenellenbogen, Claes Ohlsson, Marie K Lagerquist
Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects by translocating to the nucleus and there affecting gene transcription, but can also mediate effects via extra-nuclear actions by e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue-specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056337/marked-enteropathy-in-an-accelerated-macaque-model-of-aids
#6
Joshua D Croteau, Elizabeth L Engle, Suzanne E Queen, Erin N Shirk, M Christine Zink
Enteropathy in HIV infection is not eliminated with combination antiretroviral therapy and is possibly linked to microbial translocation. We used a rapidly progressing SIV/pigtailed macaque model of HIV to examine enteropathy and microbial translocation. Histologic evidence of intestinal disease was observed in only half of infected macaques during late-stage infection (LSI). Combination antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute infection prevented intestinal disease. In the ileum and colon, enteropathy was associated with increased caspase-3 staining, decreased CD3(+) T cells, and increased SIV-infected cells...
January 2, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998928/the-cell-cycle-restricts-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-activity-to-early-g1
#7
Qiao Wang, Kyong-Rim Kieffer-Kwon, Thiago Y Oliveira, Christian T Mayer, Kaihui Yao, Joy Pai, Zhen Cao, Marei Dose, Rafael Casellas, Mila Jankovic, Michel C Nussenzweig, Davide F Robbiani
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) converts cytosine into uracil to initiate somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of antibody genes. In addition, this enzyme produces DNA lesions at off-target sites that lead to mutations and chromosome translocations. However, AID is mostly cytoplasmic, and how and exactly when it accesses nuclear DNA remains enigmatic. Here, we show that AID is transiently in spatial contact with genomic DNA from the time the nuclear membrane breaks down in prometaphase until early G1, when it is actively exported into the cytoplasm...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986871/hiv-infection-of-kupffer-cells-results-in-an-amplified-proinflammatory-response-to-lps
#8
Arevik Mosoian, Lumin Zhang, Feng Hong, Francesc Cunyat, Adeeb Rahman, Riti Bhalla, Ankur Panchal, Yedidya Saiman, M Isabel Fiel, Sander Florman, Sasan Roayaie, Myron Schwartz, Andrea Branch, Mario Stevenson, Meena B Bansal
End-stage liver disease is a common cause of non-AIDS-related mortality in HIV(+) patients, despite effective anti-retroviral therapies (ARTs). HIV-1 infection causes gut CD4 depletion and is thought to contribute to increased gut permeability, bacterial translocation, and immune activation. Microbial products drain from the gut into the liver via the portal vein where Kupffer cells (KCs), the resident liver macrophage, clear translocated microbial products. As bacterial translocation is implicated in fibrogenesis in HIV patients through unclear mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that HIV infection of KCs alters their response to LPS in a TLR4-dependent manner...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981746/galectin-3-promotes-caspase-independent-cell-death-of-hiv-1-infected-macrophages
#9
Jing Xue, Chunyan Fu, Zhe Cong, Lingjuan Peng, Zhuoying Peng, Ting Chen, Wei Wang, Hong Jiang, Qiang Wei, Chuan Qin
HIV-1-infected macrophages are a key contributor to the formation of a viral reservoir and new treatment strategies focus on eliminating this pool of virus. Galectin-3 is a potent apoptosis-inducing protein that regulates diverse cellular activities. In the present study, we investigated whether galectin-3 could induce cell death in HIV-1-infected macrophages using HIV-1-infected THP1 monocytes (THP1-MNs) and THP1-derived macrophages (THP1-MΦs) as in vitro cellular models. We found that THP1-MΦs were more resistant than the THP1-MNs to HIV-1 infection-induced death, and that HIV-1 infection of the THP1-MΦs increased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL...
November 7, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980783/plasmodium-chabaudi-infection-induces-aid-expression-in-transitional-and-marginal-zone-b-cells
#10
Joel R Wilmore, Alexander C Maue, Rosemary Rochford
INTRODUCTION: Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus and repeated malaria infections. A defining feature of eBL is the translocation of the c-myc oncogene to the control of the immunoglobulin promoter. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) has been shown to be critical for this translocation. Malaria infection induces AID in germinal center B cells, but whether malaria infection more broadly affects AID activation in extrafollicular B cells is unknown...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934922/extreme-activity-of-drug-nanocrystals-coated-with-a-layer-of-non-covalent-polymers-from-self-assembled-boric-acid
#11
Honglei Zhan, Jun F Liang
Non-covalent polymers have remarkable advantages over synthetic polymers for wide biomedical applications. In this study, non-covalent polymers from self-assembled boric acid were used as the capping reagent to replace synthetic polymers in drug crystallization. Under acidic pH, boric acid self-assembled on the surface of drug nanocrystals to form polymers with network-like structures held together by hydrogen bonds. Coating driven by boric acid self-assembly had negligible effects on drug crystallinity and structure but resulted in drug nanocrystals with excellent dispersion properties that aided in the formation of a more stable suspension...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926931/microbial-translocation-and-inflammation-occur-in-hyperacute-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-compromise-host-control-of-virus-replication
#12
Adam J Ericsen, Michael Lauck, Mariel S Mohns, Sarah R DiNapoli, James P Mutschler, Justin M Greene, Jason T Weinfurter, Gabrielle Lehrer-Brey, Trent M Prall, Samantha M Gieger, Connor R Buechler, Kristin A Crosno, Eric J Peterson, Matthew R Reynolds, Roger W Wiseman, Benjamin J Burwitz, Jacob D Estes, Jonah B Sacha, Thomas C Friedrich, Jason M Brenchley, David H O'Connor
Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute "pre-peak" phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924919/a-central-cavity-within-the-holo-translocon-suggests-a-mechanism-for-membrane-protein-insertion
#13
Mathieu Botte, Nathan R Zaccai, Jelger Lycklama À Nijeholt, Remy Martin, Kèvin Knoops, Gabor Papai, Juan Zou, Aurélien Deniaud, Manikandan Karuppasamy, Qiyang Jiang, Abhishek Singha Roy, Klaus Schulten, Patrick Schultz, Juri Rappsilber, Giuseppe Zaccai, Imre Berger, Ian Collinson, Christiane Schaffitzel
The conserved SecYEG protein-conducting channel and the accessory proteins SecDF-YajC and YidC constitute the bacterial holo-translocon (HTL), capable of protein-secretion and membrane-protein insertion. By employing an integrative approach combining small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), low-resolution electron microscopy and biophysical analyses we determined the arrangement of the proteins and lipids within the super-complex. The results guided the placement of X-ray structures of individual HTL components and allowed the proposal of a model of the functional translocon...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910030/recurrent-cytogenetic-abnormalities-in-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#14
Edmond S K Ma
Characteristic chromosomal translocations are found to be associated with subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), for example t(8;14)(q24;q32) and Burkitt lymphoma, t(14;18)(q32;q21) and follicular lymphoma, and t(11;14)(q13;q32) in mantle cell lymphoma. Only few recurrent cytogenetic aberrations have been identified in the T-cell NHL and the best known is the ALK gene translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Since lymph node or other tissue is seldom submitted for conventional cytogenetics study, alternative approaches for translocation detection are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859411/dna-demethylation-pathways-additional-players-and-regulators
#15
Matthias Bochtler, Agnieszka Kolano, Guo-Liang Xu
DNA demethylation can occur passively by "dilution" of methylation marks by DNA replication, or actively and independently of DNA replication. Direct conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to cytosine (C), as originally proposed, does not occur. Instead, active DNA methylation involves oxidation of the methylated base by ten-eleven translocations (TETs), or deamination of the methylated or a nearby base by activation induced deaminase (AID). The modified nucleotide, possibly together with surrounding nucleotides, is then replaced by the BER pathway...
January 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837485/fractionation-techniques-to-examine-effector-translocation
#16
Rachel M Olson, Deborah M Anderson
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use type III secretion systems to export proteins that act directly on the host and aid in the infectious process. Extracellular bacteria primarily rely upon the type III secretion system to insert or inject effector proteins into the cytosol of their host cell in order to perturb intracellular signaling events and aid in pathogenesis. Intracellular bacteria can also depend on the T3SS translocation of effector proteins from vacuolar compartments into the vacuolar membrane or host cell cytosol where they can modulate intracellular trafficking and/or signaling pathways necessary for their growth and survival...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836487/phosphorylation-mechanisms-in-dopamine-transporter-regulation
#17
REVIEW
James D Foster, Roxanne A Vaughan
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane phosphoprotein that actively translocates extracellular dopamine (DA) into presynaptic neurons. The transporter is the primary mechanism for control of DA levels and subsequent neurotransmission, and is the target for abused and therapeutic drugs that exert their effects by suppressing reuptake. The transport capacity of DAT is acutely regulated by signaling systems and drug exposure, providing neurons the ability to fine-tune DA clearance in response to specific conditions...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833610/tcr-triggering-induces-the-formation-of-lck-rack1-actinin-1-multiprotein-network-affecting-lck-redistribution
#18
Ondřej Ballek, Jan Valečka, Martina Dobešová, Adéla Broučková, Jasper Manning, Pavel Řehulka, Jiří Stulík, Dominik Filipp
The initiation of T-cell signaling is critically dependent on the function of the member of Src family tyrosine kinases, Lck. Upon T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) triggering, Lck kinase activity induces the nucleation of signal-transducing hubs that regulate the formation of complex signaling network and cytoskeletal rearrangement. In addition, the delivery of Lck function requires rapid and targeted membrane redistribution, but the mechanism underpinning this process is largely unknown. To gain insight into this process, we considered previously described proteins that could assist in this process via their capacity to interact with kinases and regulate their intracellular translocations...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752257/-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-a-biomarker-for-microbial-translocation-in-individuals-with-acute-or-early-hiv-infection
#19
Martin Hoenigl, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Masato Nakazawa, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm A Finkelman, Scott Letendre, Davey Smith, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The extent of gut microbial translocation, which plays roles in HIV disease progression and non-AIDS comorbidities, appears to vary with the composition of the gut microbiome, particularly the presence of Lactobacillales, which reduce mucosal injury. While low proportions of Lactobacillales in the distal gut microbiome are a very promising indicator of microbial translocation, measurement is expensive and complicated and not feasible for clinical routine. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan (BDG) is a component of most fungal cell walls and might be a surrogate marker for Lactobacillales proportion in the gut and a useful indicator of HIV-associated gut injury...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689909/malaria-how-this-parasitic-infection-aids-and-abets-ebv-associated-burkitt-lymphomagenesis
#20
REVIEW
Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is >90% EBV-associated when this pediatric cancer is diagnosed in regions heavily burden by endemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria and thus has been geographically classified as endemic BL. The incidence of endemic BL is 10-fold higher compared to BL diagnosed in non-malarious regions of the world. The other forms of BL have been classified as sporadic BL which contain EBV in ∼30% of cases and immunodeficiency BL which occurs in HIV-infected adults with ∼40% of tumors containing EBV...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
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