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Aid translocation

Yue Ma, Chunquan Zheng, Le Shi
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), commonly divided into CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is an inflammatory disease which mechanism remain unclear. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been proved to be a negative regulator of inflammation response while its role in pathogenesis of CRS has yet to be revealed. This research study was designed to investigate the relationship between the expression level and biologic role of LRRK2 in CRS. Methods: Expression of LRRK2 mRNA and noncoding repressor of NFAT (NRON) were examined by qRT-PCR...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Paula Marrano, Mary Shago, Gino R Somers, Paul S Thorner
Osteogenic sarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Despite advances in molecular genetic characterization of pediatric and adult tumors, the diagnosis of OS still depends almost entirely on light microscopy. The lack of consistent genetic changes in OS has greatly hindered the development of any diagnostic molecular test. Recently, whole-genome sequencing has shown that ~50% of cases of OS have a translocation involving the TP53 gene with breakpoints confined to the first intron...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Susan E Hepp, Gina M Borgo, Simina Ticau, Taro Ohkawa, Matthew D Welch
The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the type species of alphabaculoviruses, is an enveloped DNA virus that infects lepidopteran insects and is commonly known as a vector for protein expression and cell transduction. AcMNPV belongs to a diverse group of viral and bacterial pathogens that target the host cell actin cytoskeleton during infection. AcMNPV is unusual, however, in that it absolutely requires actin translocation into the nucleus early in infection, and actin polymerization within the nucleus late in infection coincident with viral replication...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Christie Hancock, Phillip Knouse, Imad Almanaseer, Jacob Bitran
BACKGROUND: Double-hit lymphomas (DHLs) are high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with concurrent translocations involving myc and bcl-2 and/or bcl-6. A patient with DHL often has advanced disease at presentation and typically responds poorly to standard therapy with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). More intensive treatment regimens have been studied; however, few data are available on the outcomes in elderly patients (aged > 70 years) treated with these therapies...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Yanmao Wang, Jiezhi Dai, Yu Zhu, Wanrun Zhong, Shengdi Lu, Hua Chen, Yimin Chai
The metabolic balance between synthesis and resorption of the bone is maintained by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Identification of agents that stimulate bone formation and suppress excessive osteoclast formation, may aid in preventing and treating conditions like osteoporosis and periprosthetic loosening. Paeoniflorin is a natural product derived from Paeonia lactiflora Pall with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties. However, the effect of paeoniflorin on osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis is unknown...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Ambika Binesh, Sivasithambaram Niranjali Devaraj, Halagowder Devaraj
Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in homeostasis and cardiovascular development. The role of Notch signaling in atherosclerosis cannot be complete without analysing the key role of Notch in macrophages, which trigger the inflammatory response and subsequent plaque formation in atherosclerosis. Diosgenin showed its anti-atherosclerotic property by the unifying mechanism of suppressing the expression of Notch Signaling pathway, particularly the nuclear translocation of notch intracellular domain (NICD) in aorta and in differentiated macrophage cells...
February 23, 2018: Biochimie
Alexanda K Ling, Clare C So, Michael X Le, Audrey Y Chen, Lisa Hung, Alberto Martin
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) inflicts DNA damage at Ig genes to initiate class switch recombination (CSR) and chromosomal translocations. However, the DNA lesions formed during these processes retain an element of randomness, and thus knowledge of the relationship between specific DNA lesions and AID-mediated processes remains incomplete. To identify necessary and sufficient DNA lesions in CSR, the Cas9 endonuclease and nickase variants were used to program DNA lesions at a greater degree of predictability than is achievable with conventional induction of CSR...
February 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Matthew J McKay, Fahmida Afrose, Roger E Koeppe, Denise V Greathouse
In this article we review current understanding of basic principles for the folding of membrane proteins, focusing on the more abundant alpha-helical class. Membrane proteins, vital to many biological functions and implicated in numerous diseases, fold into their active conformations in the complex environment of the cell bilayer membrane. While many membrane proteins rely on the translocon and chaperone proteins to fold correctly, others can achieve their functional form in the absence of any translation apparatus or other aides...
February 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jelger A Lycklama A Nijeholt, Ruslan Vietrov, Gea K Schuurman-Wolters, Bert Poolman
Solute transport via ABC importers involves receptor-mediated substrate binding, which is followed by ATP-driven translocation of the substrate across the membrane. How these steps are exactly initiated and coupled, and how much ATP it takes to complete a full transport cycle, are subject of debate. Here, we reconstitute the ABC importer GlnPQ in nanodiscs and in proteoliposomes and determine substrate-(in)dependent ATP hydrolysis and transmembrane transport. We determined the conformational states of the substrate-binding domains (SBDs) by single-molecule FRET measurements...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Marta Epeldegui, Larry Magpantay, Yu Guo, Gordana Halec, William G Cumberland, Priscilla K Yen, Bernard Macatangay, Joseph B Margolick, Anne F Rositch, Steven Wolinsky, Otoniel Martinez-Maza, Shehnaz K Hussain
: Chronic immune activation is a harbinger of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), yet the underlying basis is unclear. Microbial translocation, the passage of microbial components from the gastrointestinal tract into the systemic circulation, is a source of systemic immune activation in HIV infection and may be an important contributor to the chronic B-cell activation and subsequent AIDS-NHL development. We measured biomarkers of microbial translocation including bacterial receptors/antibodies, intestinal barrier proteins, and macrophage activation-associated cytokines/chemokines, in serum from 200 HIV-infected men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study prior to their AIDS-NHL diagnosis (mean = 3...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Ritika Chauhan, Vinita Chauhan, Mula Kameshwar Rao, Dilip Chaudhary, Sameer Bhagyawant, Ram Kumar Dhaked
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic biological substances known. Their potential use as biological warfare agent results in their classification as category A biowarfare agent by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA. Presently, there are no approved detection system and pharmacological treatments for BoNT intoxication. Although a toxoid vaccine is available for immuno-prophylaxis, vaccines cannot reverse the effect of pre-translocated toxin. Direct handling of the live BoNTs for developing detection and therapeutics may pose fatal danger...
January 30, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Ángel F Álvarez-Prado, Pablo Pérez-Durán, Arantxa Pérez-García, Alberto Benguria, Carlos Torroja, Virginia G de Yébenes, Almudena R Ramiro
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates antibody diversification in germinal center (GC) B cells through the deamination of cytosines on immunoglobulin genes. AID can also target other regions in the genome, triggering mutations or chromosome translocations, with major implications for oncogenic transformation. However, understanding the specificity of AID has proved extremely challenging. We have sequenced at very high depth >1,500 genomic regions from GC B cells and identified 275 genes targeted by AID, including 30 of the previously known 35 AID targets...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Ester Párraga Ros, Laura Correa-Martín, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo, Irma Eugenia Candanosa-Aranda, Manu L N G Malbrain, Robert Wise, Rafael Latorre, Octavio López Albors, Gregorio Castellanos
BACKGROUND: A mechanical intestinal obstruction (MIO) can generate intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) that is life threatening. The intestines are very sensitive to IAH since the low splanchnic perfusion causes intestinal hypoxia, local acidosis and bacterial translocations. This may lead to acute intestinal distress syndrome (AIDS). The identification of intestinal injuries during IAH and its correlation with clinical parameters as the abdominal perfusion pressure (APP), the gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) and lactic acid (Lc) are still unknown...
2018: PloS One
Lina Zou, Shu Zhang, Dechao Duan, Xinqiang Liang, Jiyan Shi, Jianming Xu, Xianjin Tang
Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) commonly co-exist with high concentrations in paddy soil mainly due to human activities in south of China. This study investigates the effect of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) amendment and water management on rice growth and arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) accumulation in rice plants. A paddy soil co-contaminated with As and Pb was chosen for the pot experiment with three FeSO4 levels (0, 0.25, and 1%, on a dry weight basis) and two water managements (flooded, non-flooded). The concentrations of As and Pb in iron plaques and rice plants were determined...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yunchen Bi, Evan Mann, Chris Whitfield, Jochen Zimmer
O-antigens are cell surface polysaccharides of many Gram-negative pathogens that aid in escaping innate immune responses. A widespread O-antigen biosynthesis mechanism involves the synthesis of the lipid-anchored polymer on the cytosolic face of the inner membrane, followed by transport to the periplasmic side where it is ligated to the lipid A core to complete a lipopolysaccharide molecule. In this pathway, transport to the periplasm is mediated by an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, called Wzm-Wzt...
January 10, 2018: Nature
Ryan D Cassaday, Philip A Stevenson, Brent L Wood, Pamela S Becker, Paul C Hendrie, Brenda M Sandmaier, Jerald L Radich, Andrei R Shustov
HyperCVAD is a commonly-used regimen for adults with newly-diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, relatively little is known about the application of minimal residual disease (MRD) detection with this treatment. To address this, we studied 142 adults with ALL treated with hyperCVAD over a 10-year period who had MRD assessed by either multi-parameter flow cytometry or (for patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive ALL) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the BCR-ABL1 translocation...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Anshika Tandon, Munesh Kumar Harioudh, Nayab Ishrat, Amit Kumar Tripathi, Saurabh Srivastava, Jimut Kanti Ghosh
MD2, a 160-residue accessory glycoprotein, is responsible for the recognition and binding of Gram-negative bacterial membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Internalization of pathogen inside the mononuclear phagocytes has also been attributed to MD2 which leads to the clearance of pathogens from the host. However, not much is known about the segments in MD2 that are responsible for LPS interaction or internalization of pathogen inside the defense cells. A 16-residue stretch (MD54) from MD2 protein has been identified that possesses a short heptad repeat sequence and four cationic residues enabling it to participate in both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with LPS...
January 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Cassandra D Pauling, Scott E Lankford, Victoria L Jackson
Due to the intensive management of the scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, involving both captivity and reintroductions, understanding the stress associated with environmental situations this endangered species might experience would be particularly helpful. Fecal cortisol levels were measured across seasons, between captive management programs, and among varying reproductive states in animals held at Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC) and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ). A total of 72 samples were collected from FRWC and 69 samples were collected from KCZ...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Maja Radziemska, Eugeniusz Koda, Ayla Bilgin, Mgdalena D Vaverková
The experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of trace element immobilizing soil amendments, i.e., chalcedonite, dolomite, halloysite, and diatomite on the chemical characteristics of soil contaminated with Cr and the uptake of metals by plants. The study utilized analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA). The content of trace elements in plants, pseudo-total and extracted by 0.01 M CaCl₂, were determined using the method of spectrophotometry...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nicholas R Pannunzio, Michael R Lieber
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) occurring within fragile zones of less than 200 base pairs account for the formation of the most common human chromosomal translocations in lymphoid malignancies, yet the mechanism of how breaks occur remains unknown. Here, we have transferred human fragile zones into S. cerevisiae in the context of a genetic assay to understand the mechanism leading to DSBs at these sites. Our findings indicate that a combination of factors is required to sensitize these regions. Foremost, DNA strand separation by transcription or increased torsional stress can expose these DNA regions to damage from either the expression of human AID or increased oxidative stress...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
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