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Aid translocation

Martin Hoenigl, Josué Pérez-Santiago, Masato Nakazawa, Michelli Faria de Oliveira, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm A Finkelman, Scott Letendre, Davey Smith, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The extent of gut microbial translocation, which plays roles in HIV disease progression and non-AIDS comorbidities, appears to vary with the composition of the gut microbiome, particularly the presence of Lactobacillales, which reduce mucosal injury. While low proportions of Lactobacillales in the distal gut microbiome are a very promising indicator of microbial translocation, measurement is expensive and complicated and not feasible for clinical routine. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan (BDG) is a component of most fungal cell walls and might be a surrogate marker for Lactobacillales proportion in the gut and a useful indicator of HIV-associated gut injury...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is >90% EBV-associated when this pediatric cancer is diagnosed in regions heavily burden by endemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria and thus has been geographically classified as endemic BL. The incidence of endemic BL is 10-fold higher compared to BL diagnosed in non-malarious regions of the world. The other forms of BL have been classified as sporadic BL which contain EBV in ∼30% of cases and immunodeficiency BL which occurs in HIV-infected adults with ∼40% of tumors containing EBV...
September 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Tomislav Sarenac, Martin Trapecar, Lidija Gradisnik, Marjan Slak Rupnik, Dusica Pahor
Corneal wound healing is often affected by TGF-β-mediated fibrosis and scar formation. Guided fibrosis with IGF-1 and antifibrotic substances might maintain corneal transparency. Primary human corneal keratocytes under serum-free conditions were used as a model of corneal stromal wounding, with markers of corneal fibrosis and opacity studied under TGF-β2 stimulation. Single-cell imaging flow cytometry was used to determine nuclearization of Smad3, and intracellular fluorescence intensity of Smad7 and the corneal crystallin aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katsumasa Higashi, Etsuko Matsuzaki, Yoko Hashimoto, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Aiko Takano, Hisashi Anan, Masato Hirata, Fusanori Nishimura
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling sphingolipid that also plays crucial roles in bone regeneration. Recently, we reported that the S1P receptors S1PR1 and S1PR2 were mainly expressed in osteoblast-like cells, and that the S1P/S1PR1 signaling pathway up-regulated osteoprotegerin and osteoblast differentiation. However, the involvement of S1P/S1PR2 signaling in osteoblast differentiation is not well understood. Here we investigate the role of S1P/S1PR2-mediated signaling in osteoblast differentiation and clarify the underlying signaling mechanisms...
September 6, 2016: Bone
Zheng Meng, Bo-Yang Wang, Jun-Feng Xiang, Qiang Shi, Chuan-Feng Chen
The threading of biomolecules through pores or channels in membranes is important to validate the physiological activities of cells. To aid understanding of the controlling factors required for the translocation in space with confined size and distorted conformation, it is desirable to identify experimental systems with minimized complexity. We demonstrate the mechanism of a linear guest L1 threading into a tris(crown ether) host TC with a combinational distorted cavity to form a triply interlocked [2]pseudorotaxane 3in-[L1⊂TC]...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Karol Fiedorczuk, James A Letts, Gianluca Degliesposti, Karol Kaszuba, Mark Skehel, Leonid A Sazanov
Mitochondrial complex I plays a key role in cellular energy production by transferring electrons from NADH to ubiquinone coupled to proton translocation across the membrane1,2. It is the largest protein assembly of the respiratory chain with total mass of 970 kDa3. Here we present a nearly complete atomic structure of ovine mitochondrial complex I at 3.9 Å resolution, solved by cryo-electron microscopy aided by crosslinking/mass-spectrometry mapping. All 14 conserved core and 31 mitochondria-specific supernumerary subunits are resolved within the L-shaped molecule...
September 5, 2016: Nature
Henna Iqbal, Melisha R Kenedy, Meghan Lybecker, Darrin R Akins
Two outer membrane protein (OMP) transport systems in diderm bacteria assist in assembly and export of OMPs. These two systems are the β-barrel assembly machine (BAM) complex and the translocation and assembly module (TAM). The BAM complex consists of the OMP component BamA along with several outer membrane associated proteins. The TAM also consists of an OMP, designated TamA, and a single inner membrane (IM) protein, TamB. Together TamA and TamB aid in the secretion of virulence-associated OMPs. In this study we characterized the hypothetical protein BB0794 in Borrelia burgdorferi...
September 2, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Anthony B Eason, Sang-Hoon Sin, Carolina Lin, Blossom Damania, Steven Park, Yuri Fedoriw, Carlos E Bacchi, Dirk P Dittmer
Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is primarily a childhood cancer in parts of Africa and Brazil. Classic studies describe eBL as a homogeneous entity based on t(8;14) IgH-Myc translocation and clinical response to cytotoxic therapy. By contrast, sporadic BL (sBL) in Western countries is considered more heterogeneous, and affects both children and adults. It is overrepresented in AIDS patients. Unlike diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), molecular subtypes within BL have not been well defined. We find that differential IgM positivity can be used to describe two subtypes of pediatric Burkitt lymphoma both in a high incidence region (Brazil), as well as in a sporadic region (US), suggesting the phenotype is not necessarily geographically isolated...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Matteo Brunelli, Francesco Erdini, Luca Cima, Albino Eccher, Adele Fioravanzo, Stefano Gobbo, Diego Segala, Claudio Ghimenton, Guido Mazzoleni, Enrico Munari, Rodolfo Carella, Guido Martignoni
Little is known about the aminopeptidase CD13 in renal neoplasia according to the new 2016 World Health Organization renal tumor classification. We selected 175 cases, including 79 clear cell, 31 papillary, 24 chromophobe, 8 clear cell papillary renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 21 oncoytomas, and 12 microphthalmia transcription factor family translocation RCCs: 4 t(6;11)/transcription factor EB (TFEB), 7 t(Xp11) with 2 cystic variants and 1 t(X;17). GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3) was inserted as control. Expression of proximal antigen CD13 was observed in 63/79 (80%) clear cell, 25/31 (81%) papillary, 3/8 (37%) clear cell papillary, 1/4 (25%) t(6;11)/TFEB, 2/7 (28%) cystic t(Xp11), and in 1/1 t(X;17) RCCs...
August 23, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Vanessa Sue Wacleche, Jean-Philippe Goulet, Annie Gosselin, Patricia Monteiro, Hugo Soudeyns, Rémi Fromentin, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Shant Vartanian, Steven G Deeks, Nicolas Chomont, Jean-Pierre Routy, Petronela Ancuta
BACKGROUND: Th17 cells are permissive to HIV-1 infection and their depletion from the gut of infected individuals leads to microbial translocation, a major cause for non-AIDS co-morbidities. Most recent evidence supports the contribution of long-lived Th17 cells to HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the identity of long-lived Th17 cells remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, we performed an in-depth transcriptional and functional characterization of four distinct Th17 subsets and investigated their contribution to HIV reservoir persistence during ART...
2016: Retrovirology
Yuyao Tian, Weiping Wang, Qin Lu, Ping Chen, Kangtao Ma, Zhuqing Jia, Chunyan Zhou
Signaling pathways play an important role in cardiogenesis. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), a member of the Wnt family, contributes to adipogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, how SFRP4 participates in cardiogenesis and the detailed molecular mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. The aim of this work was to determine cross-talk between SFRP4, integrin α1β1, and Notch1 during cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells. Using a well-established in vitro P19CL6 cell cardiomyocyte differentiation system, we found that SFRP4 inhibited P19CL6 cell cardiac differentiation via SFRP4 overexpression or knockdown...
November 2016: Cellular Signalling
Joy Guedia, Paola Brun, Sukhada Bhave, Sylvia Fitting, Minho Kang, William L Dewey, Kurt F Hauser, Hamid I Akbarali
The loss of gut epithelium integrity leads to translocation of microbes and microbial products resulting in immune activation and drives systemic inflammation in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Although viral loads in HIV patients are significantly reduced in the post-cART era, inflammation and immune activation persist and can lead to morbidity. Here, we determined the interactive effects of the viral protein HIV-1 Tat and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on enteric neurons and glia. Bacterial translocation was significantly enhanced in Tat-expressing (Tat+) mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Maria Xilouri, Leonidas Stefanis
The major lysosomal proteolytic pathways essential for maintaining proper cellular homeostasis are macroautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and microautophagy. What differentiates CMA from the other types of autophagy is the fact that it does not involve vesicle formation; the unique feature of this pathway is the selective targeting of substrate proteins containing a CMA-targeting motif and the direct translocation into the lysosomal lumen, through the aid of chaperones/co-chaperones localized both at the cytosol and the lysosomes...
July 30, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Zhen Zhang, Rongxin Tang, Lu Bian, Meng Mei, Chunhua Li, Xiangdong Ma, Li Yi, Lixin Ma
Ice nucleation protein (INP) is frequently used as a surface anchor for protein display in gram-negative bacteria. Here, MalE and TorA signal peptides, and three charged polypeptides, 6×Lys, 6×Glu and 6×Asp, were anchored to the N-terminus of truncated INP (InaK-N) to improve its surface display efficiency for human Arginase1 (ARG1). Our results indicated that the TorA signal peptide increased the surface translocation of non-protein fused InaK-N and human ARG1 fused InaK-N (InaK-N/ARG1) by 80.7% and 122...
2016: PloS One
Sarah W Fitzpatrick, Jill C Gerberich, Lisa M Angeloni, Larissa L Bailey, Emily D Broder, Julian Torres-Dowdall, Corey A Handelsman, Andrés López-Sepulcre, David N Reznick, Cameron K Ghalambor, W Chris Funk
Genetic rescue, an increase in population growth owing to the infusion of new alleles, can aid the persistence of small populations. Its use as a management tool is limited by a lack of empirical data geared toward predicting effects of gene flow on local adaptation and demography. Experimental translocations provide an ideal opportunity to monitor the demographic consequences of gene flow. In this study we take advantage of two experimental introductions of Trinidadian guppies to test the effects of gene flow on downstream native populations...
August 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Rachel Pinto, Jonathan K Nambiar, Lisa Leotta, Claudio Counoupas, Warwick J Britton, James A Triccas
The characterisation of mycobacterial factors that influence or modulate the host immune response may aid the development of more efficacious TB vaccines. We have previously reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis deficient in export of Phthiocerol Dimycocerosates (DIM) (MT103(ΔdrrC)) is more attenuated than wild type M. tuberculosis and provides sustained protective immunity compared to the existing BCG vaccine. Here we sought to define the correlates of immunity associated with DIM deficiency by assessing the impact of MT103(ΔdrrC) delivery on antigen presenting cell (APC) function and the generation of CD4(+) T cell antigen-specific immunity...
July 2016: Tuberculosis
Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Marco Pirazzini, Oneda Leka, Andrea Mattarei, Florigio Lista, Thomas Binz, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins are the most toxic substances known and form the growing family of clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs). They are composed of a metalloprotease light chain (L), linked via a disulfide bond to a heavy chain (H). H mediates the binding to nerve terminals and the membrane translocation of L into the cytosol where their substrates, the three SNARE proteins, are localized. L translocation is accompanied by unfolding and it has to be reduced and reacquire the native fold to exert its neurotoxicity...
July 12, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Ran Zhao, Yukun Liu, Heran Wang, Jing Yang, Weihong Niu, Songqing Fan, Wei Xiong, Jian Ma, Xiaoling Li, Joshua B Phillips, Ming Tan, Yuanzheng Qiu, Guiyuan Li, Ming Zhou
Increasing evidence has shown a strong association between tumor-suppressor genes and inflammation. However, the role of BRD7 as a novel tumor suppressor in inflammation remains unknown. In this study, by observing BRD7 knockout mice for 6-12 months, we discovered that compared with BRD7(+/+) mice, BRD7(-/-) mice were more prone to inflammation, such as external inflammation and abdominal abscess. By using mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cells from the BRD7 knockout mouse, an in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated MEF cell line was established...
July 4, 2016: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
M Y Liu, J E DeNizio, R M Kohli
In eukaryotic DNA, cytosine can be enzymatically modified to yield up to four epigenetic base variants. DNA methyltransferases convert cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (mC), which plays critical roles in gene regulation during development. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes can sequentially oxidize mC to three products: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC), 5-formylcytosine (fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (caC). These oxidized bases have been found in numerous mammalian cell types, where they potentially carry out independent epigenetic functions and aid in DNA demethylation...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
Michael D David
The two factors which determine an insecticide's potency are its binding to a target site (intrinsic activity) and the ability of its active form to reach the target site (bioavailability). Bioavailability is dictated by the compound's stability and transport kinetics, which are determined by both physical and biochemical characteristics. At BASF Global Insecticide Research, we characterize bioavailability in early research with an ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion) approach, combining classical and modern techniques...
June 27, 2016: Pest Management Science
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