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Inflammation and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464573/intrinsic-inflammation-is-a-potential-anti-epileptogenic-target-in-the-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-model
#1
Seon-Ah Chong, Silvia Balosso, Catherine Vandenplas, Gregory Szczesny, Etienne Hanon, Kasper Claes, Xavier Van Damme, Bénédicte Danis, Jonathan Van Eyll, Christian Wolff, Annamaria Vezzani, Rafal M Kaminski, Isabelle Niespodziany
Understanding the mechanisms of epileptogenesis is essential to develop novel drugs that could prevent or modify the disease. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a promising target for therapeutic interventions to inhibit the epileptogenic process that evolves from traumatic brain injury. However, it remains unclear whether cytokine-related pathways, particularly TNFα signaling, have a critical role in the development of epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the role of innate inflammation in an in vitro model of post-traumatic epileptogenesis...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447051/targeting-crosstalk-between-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-and-nuclear-factor-kappa-beta-pathway-by-nrf2-activator-dimethyl-fumarate-in-epileptogenesis
#2
Neha Singh, Sheekha Vijayanti, Lekha Saha
Epilepsy is a complex, chronic neurological disorder characterized by increased and abnormal synchronization of neuronal electrical activity, which is manifested as seizures. It is associated with many comorbid conditions such as depression, anxiety, sleep disorder, psychiatric disorder etc. which consequently causes higher mortality rate. The understanding of its cellular and molecular mechanism is partial, because of which it remains an ongoing health problem, despite the increasing availability of newer antiepileptic drugs...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434537/how-can-a-ketogenic-diet-improve-motor-function
#3
REVIEW
Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio, Rudolf Hergesheimer, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Hélène Blasco
A ketogenic diet (KD) is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80-90%), low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs) production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433947/antiglutamic-acid-decarboxylase-65-gad65-antibody-associated-epilepsy
#4
REVIEW
Ahmad Daif, Rimas V Lukas, Naoum P Issa, Adil Javed, Stephen VanHaerents, Anthony T Reder, James X Tao, Peter Warnke, Sandra Rose, Vernon L Towle, Shasha Wu
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-associated encephalitis causes both acute seizures and chronic epilepsy with predominantly temporal lobe onset. This condition is challenging in diagnosis and management, and the incidence of GAD antibody (Ab)-related epilepsy could be much higher than commonly believed. Imaging and CSF evidence of inflammation along with typical clinical presentations, such as adult onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unexplained etiology, should prompt testing for the diagnostic antibodies...
February 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432809/seizure-progression-and-inflammatory-mediators-promote-pericytosis-and-pericyte-microglia-clustering-at-the-cerebrovasculature
#5
Wendy Klement, Rita Garbelli, Emma Zub, Laura Rossini, Laura Tassi, Benoit Girard, Marine Blaquiere, Federica Bertaso, Julie Perroy, Frederic de Bock, Nicola Marchi
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular dysfunction and inflammation occur in experimental and clinical epilepsy. Here we asked whether pericytes, a pivotal cellular component of brain capillaries, undergo pathological modifications during experimental epileptogenesis and in human epilepsy. We evaluated whether pro-inflammatory cytokines, present in the brain during seizures, contribute to pericyte morphological modifications. METHODS: In vivo, unilateral intra-hippocampal kainic acid (KA) injections were performed in NG2DsRed/C57BL6 mice to induce status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS)...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426321/systemic-autoinflammation-with-intractable-epilepsy-managed-with-interleukin-1-blockade
#6
Allen D DeSena, Thuy Do, Grant S Schulert
BACKGROUND: Autoinflammatory disorders are distinguished by seemingly random episodes of systemic hyperinflammation, driven in particular by IL-1. Recent pre-clinical work has shown a key role for IL-1 in epilepsy in animal models, and therapies for autoinflammation including IL-1 blockade are proposed for refractory epilepsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report an adolescent female with signs of persistent systemic inflammation and epilepsy unresponsive to multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AED)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412101/decreased-erp57-expression-in-wag-rij-rats-thalamus-and-cortex-possible-correlation-with-absence-epilepsy
#7
Deniz Sahin, Sabriye Karadenizli, Murat Kasap, Berrin Oztas, Hale Maral Kir, Gurler Akpinar, Nurbay Ates
The role of intracellular proteins in the pathogenesis of absence epilepsy were mentioned. These proteins are thought to be related to energy generation, signal transduction, inflammation processes and membrane conductance. The investigation of protein profile of the genetically epileptic rat brains was the main subject of this study. For this, a 2D-gel electrophoresis based comparative proteome analysis was performed using thalamus tissue of genetic absence epileptic WAG/Rij and age matched Wistar rats. Regulated spots displaying differences in their abundance were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF...
February 6, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401729/follow-up-of-peripheral-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-6-and-relation-with-apoptotic-death-in-drug-resistant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-submitted-to-surgery
#8
Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Lilia M Morales Chacón, Nancy Pavón Fuentes, María de Los A Robinson Agramonte, Teresa Serrano Sánchez, Rachel M Cruz-Xenes, Mei-Li Díaz Hung, Bárbara Estupiñán Díaz, Margarita M Báez Martín, Sandra Orozco-Suárez
Increasing amounts of evidence support the role of inflammation in epilepsy. This study was done to evaluate serum follow-up of IL-1β and IL-6 levels, as well as their concentration in the neocortex, and the relationship of central inflammation with NF-κB and annexin V in drug-resistant temporal lobe epileptic (DRTLE) patients submitted to surgical treatment. Peripheral and central levels of IL-1β and IL-6were measured by ELISA in 10 DRTLE patients. The sera from patients were taken before surgery, and 12 and 24 months after surgical treatment...
February 5, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399089/effects-of-ganoderic-acid-a-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-proinflammatory-cytokine-release-from-primary-mouse-microglia-cultures
#9
Baojin Chi, Shuqiu Wang, Sheng Bi, Wenbo Qin, Dongmei Wu, Zhenguo Luo, Shiliang Gui, Dongwei Wang, Xingzhong Yin, Fangfang Wang
For several thousand years, Ganoderma lucidum (Ling-Zhi in Chinese and Reishi in Japanese) has been widely used as a traditional medication for the prevention and treatment of various diseases in Asia. Its major biologically active components, ganoderic acids (GAs), exhibit significant medicinal value due to their anti-inflammatory effects. Dysregulation of microglial function may cause seizures or promote epileptogenesis through release of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384235/mir147b-a-novel-key-regulator-of-interleukin-1-beta-mediated-inflammation-in-human-astrocytes
#10
Jackelien van Scheppingen, James D Mills, Till S Zimmer, Diede W M Broekaart, Valentina Iori, Anika Bongaarts, Jasper J Anink, Anand M Iyer, Anatoly Korotkov, Floor E Jansen, Wim van Hecke, Wim G Spliet, Peter C van Rijen, Johannes C Baayen, Annamaria Vezzani, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica
Astrocytes are important mediators of inflammatory processes in the brain and seem to play an important role in several neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Recent studies show that astrocytes produce several microRNAs, which may function as crucial regulators of inflammatory pathways and could be used as therapeutic target. We aim to study which miRNAs are produced by astrocytes during IL-1β mediated inflammatory conditions in vitro, as well as their functional role and to validate these findings in human epileptogenic brain tissue...
January 31, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380527/the-sphingosine-1-phosphate-analogue-fty720-alleviates-seizure-induced-over-expression-of-p-glycoprotein-in-rat-hippocampus
#11
Fei Gao, Ying Gao, Fangling Meng, Chunmei Yang, Jiangfeng Fu, Yajun Li
Over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the brain is an important factor leading to drug-resistant epilepsy. Clinical use of P-gp inhibitors is limited by their systemic toxicity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that FTY720, a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) analogue used for treating multiple sclerosis, modulates the up-regulation of P-gp and improves brain delivery of phenytoin (PHT) through S1P receptor 1 in the hippocampus of a pilocarpine-induced rat model of status epilepticus (SE). We administered vehicle, FTY720 or FTY720 + W146 (an S1P receptor 1 antagonist) to SE rats...
January 30, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377244/microrna-132-attenuates-lps-induced-inflammatory-injury-by-targeting-traf6-in-neuronal-cell-line-ht-22
#12
Yang-Fei Ji, Dan Wang, Yan-Ru Liu, Xing-Rong Ma, Hong Lu, Bo-Ai Zhang
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in the central nervous system. Inflammation disrupts the blood-brain barrier, which is responsible for maintaining brain homeostasis. This study was aimed to investigate the functional role of microRNA (miR)-132 in hippocampal HT-22 cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. In vitro cell inflammatory model was constructed by LPS stimulation. Inflammatory cell injury was evaluated according to the alterations of cell viability, apoptosis and expression of inflammatory cytokines...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372545/prospects-of-cannabidiol-for-easing-status-epilepticus-induced-epileptogenesis-and-related-comorbidities
#13
REVIEW
Dinesh Upadhya, Olagide W Castro, Raghavendra Upadhya, Ashok K Shetty
The hippocampus is one of the most susceptible regions in the brain to be distraught with status epilepticus (SE) induced injury. SE can occur from numerous causes and is more frequent in children and the elderly population. Administration of a combination of antiepileptic drugs can abolish acute seizures in most instances of SE but cannot prevent the morbidity typically seen in survivors of SE such as cognitive and mood impairments and spontaneous recurrent seizures. This is primarily due to the inefficiency of antiepileptic drugs to modify the evolution of SE-induced initial precipitating injury into a series of epileptogenic changes followed by a state of chronic epilepsy...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364511/-18-f-ge180-positron-emission-tomographic-imaging-indicates-a-potential-double-hit-insult-in-the-intrahippocampal-kainate-mouse-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Mirjam Brackhan, Pablo Bascuñana, Tobias L Ross, Frank M Bengel, Jens P Bankstahl, Marion Bankstahl
OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests that brain inflammation, elicited by epileptogenic insults, is involved in epilepsy development. Noninvasive nuclear imaging of brain inflammation in animal models of epileptogenesis represents a diagnostic in vivo approach with potential for direct translation into the clinic. Here, we investigated up-regulation of the translocator protein (TSPO) indicative of microglial activation by serial [18 F]GE180 positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy...
January 24, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360612/intracranial-electrodes-monitoring-improves-seizure-control-and-complication-outcomes-for-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Yan-En Lyu, Xiao-Fei Xu, Shuang Dai, Xiao-Bo Dong, Shao-Ping Shen, Yao Wang, Chong Liu
BACKGROUND: Anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) is the standard surgical treatment for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but patients may suffer from recurrent seizures post-surgery. Invasive electrical monitoring plays a critical role in precisely identifying the epileptic foci. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the benefits of long-term invasive electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and two-stage surgery with the classical approach to examine their effect on post-surgical brain function and complications...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342997/-x-linked-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-deficiency-manifested-as-crohn-s-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
L J Xu, Y Y Luo, J D Yu, J G Lou, Y H Fang, J Chen
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficient patients with clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. Methods: Clinical manifestations, laboratory investigations, genetic testing and therapeutic interventions of one case of XIAP deficiency who was admitted to Department of Gastroenterology in Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine in May 2016 were summarized. PubMed and Chinese database for articles published from January 2016 to June 2017 were searched using the key words of'Crohn's disease'and'XIAP', and the relevant literature was reviewed...
January 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321395/-hmgb1-as-a-representative-damp-and-anti-hmgb1-antibody-therapy
#17
Masahiro Nishibori
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a representative damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), has been reported to be involved in many inflammatory diseases. To validate HMGB1 as a target molecule of inflammatory diseases and to examine the effects of inhibition of HMGB1 on the diseases, we raised anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) neutralizing extracellular HMGB1 and characterized it. We report the effects of anti-HMGB1 mAb on brain infarction, brain hemorrhage, brain trauma, epilepsy and neuropathic pain using animal models...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318974/-understanding-the-role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-during-neurodegeneration-for-new-therapeutics-opportunities
#18
Amalia Merelli, Julio Cesar Garcia Rodriguez, Jaume Folch, Marcelo R Regueiro, Antoni Camins, Lazarowski Alberto
Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated with NDG. Since other pathologies such as refractory epilepsy, brain infections, or hereditary diseases such as "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation", also lead to chronic brain inflammation with loss of neural cells, NDG can be said to affect all ages...
January 10, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291240/meta-analysis-of-micrornas-dysregulated-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-of-animal-models-of-epilepsy
#19
Prashant K Srivastava, Paolo Roncon, Katarzyna Lukasiuk, Jan A Gorter, Eleonora Aronica, Asla Pitkänen, Enrico Petretto, Michael R Johnson, Michele Simonato
The identification of mechanisms transforming normal to seizure-generating tissue after brain injury is key to developing new antiepileptogenic treatments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may act as regulators and potential treatment targets for epileptogenesis. Here, we undertook a meta-analysis of changes in miRNA expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) following an epileptogenic insult in three epilepsy models. We identified 26 miRNAs significantly differentially expressed during epileptogenesis, and five differentially expressed in chronic epilepsy...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247482/commonalities-in-epileptogenic-processes-from-different-acute-brain-insults-do-they-translate
#20
REVIEW
Pavel Klein, Raymond Dingledine, Eleonora Aronica, Christophe Bernard, Ingmar Blümcke, Detlev Boison, Martin J Brodie, Amy R Brooks-Kayal, Jerome Engel, Patrick A Forcelli, Lawrence J Hirsch, Rafal M Kaminski, Henrik Klitgaard, Katja Kobow, Daniel H Lowenstein, Phillip L Pearl, Asla Pitkänen, Noora Puhakka, Michael A Rogawski, Dieter Schmidt, Matti Sillanpää, Robert S Sloviter, Christian Steinhäuser, Annamaria Vezzani, Matthew C Walker, Wolfgang Löscher
The most common forms of acquired epilepsies arise following acute brain insults such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, or central nervous system infections. Treatment is effective for only 60%-70% of patients and remains symptomatic despite decades of effort to develop epilepsy prevention therapies. Recent preclinical efforts are focused on likely primary drivers of epileptogenesis, namely inflammation, neuron loss, plasticity, and circuit reorganization. This review suggests a path to identify neuronal and molecular targets for clinical testing of specific hypotheses about epileptogenesis and its prevention or modification...
December 15, 2017: Epilepsia
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