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Inflammation and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673722/density-spectral-array-of-bis-vista%C3%A2-monitoring-system-in-a-functional-hemispherectomy
#1
C Luis, E Vilà, L Moltó, A Pardo, J L Fernández Candila, S Pacreu
We present the case of an adult patient with drug-resistant epilepsy caused by extensive inflammation in the right cerebral hemisphere. She was scheduled to undergo right functional hemispherectomy, which is common in pediatric surgery, but about which few studies have been published with respect to adult patients. During the intraoperative period, the density spectral array of the bilateral bispectral index (BIS) VISTATM monitoring system was used. We observed a power increase in low frequency (0.1-4Hz) and alpha bands (8-12Hz) in the right hemisphere, where the epileptogenic focus was...
April 16, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672844/longitudinal-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-toward-identification-of-optimal-treatment-windows
#2
Duc-Loc Nguyen, Catriona Wimberley, Charles Truillet, Benoit Jego, Fabien Caillé, Géraldine Pottier, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Viviane Bouilleret
OBJECTIVE: Mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of drug-resistant partial epilepsy, with a specific history that often begins with status epilepticus due to various neurological insults followed by a silent period. During this period, before the first seizure occurs, a specific lesion develops, described as unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). It is still challenging to determine which drugs, administered at which time point, will be most effective during the formation of this epileptic process...
April 19, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653194/chronic-agomelatine-treatment-prevents-comorbid-depression-in-the-post-status-epilepticus-model-of-acquired-epilepsy-through-suppression-of-inflammatory-signaling
#3
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Milena Atanasova, Nikolai Lazarov
Inflammatory signal molecules are suggested to be involved in the mechanism underlying comorbid depression in epilepsy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the novel antidepressant agomelatine, a potent melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and serotonin 5HT2C receptor antagonist, can prevent depressive symptoms developed during the chronic epileptic phase by suppressing an inflammatory response. Chronic treatment with agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated an hour after the kainate acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and maintained for a period of 10 weeks in Wistar rats...
April 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649013/eeg-patterns-in-patients-with-calcified-neurocysticercosis-with-or-without-hippocampal-atrophy
#4
Naoum P Issa, Mark J Sedler, Victor J Del Brutto, Elizabeth Darsan, Lucía Milla, Jessica Montes, Mauricio Zambrano, Oscar H Del Brutto
PURPOSE: To assess whether hippocampal atrophy develops in conjunction with clinical or subclinical epileptiform or encephalopathic activity in subjects with neurocysticercosis (NCC). METHODS: Using a population-based and nested case-control study design, scalp EEGs and brain MRIs were performed in Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, who have imaging-confirmed NCC (case patients), as well as in age- and sex-matched NCC-free control subjects. RESULTS: Sixty-two case patients and 62 control subjects were included...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642863/risk-of-seizures-after-immunization-in-children-with-epilepsy-a-risk-interval-analysis
#5
Karina A Top, Paula Brna, Lingyun Ye, Bruce Smith
BACKGROUND: In children with epilepsy, fever and infection can trigger seizures. Immunization can also induce inflammation and fever, which could theoretically trigger a seizure. The risk of seizure after immunization in children with pre-existing epilepsy is not known. The study objective was to determine the risk of medically attended seizure after immunization in children with epilepsy < 7 years of age. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of children < 7 years of age with epilepsy in Nova Scotia, Canada from 2010 to 2014...
April 11, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590637/the-role-of-the-microrna-146a-complement-factor-h-interleukin-1%C3%AE-mediated-inflammatory-loop-circuit-in-the-perpetuate-inflammation-of-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Tao-Ran Li, Yan-Jie Jia, Chao Ma, Wen-Ying Qiu, Qun Wang, Xiao-Qiu Shao, Rui-Juan Lv
Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, it is unclear how the perpetuate inflammation develops. Some recent studies have suggested the possible involvement of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) in the modulation of inflammatory signaling occurring in TLE. To understand how miR-146a modulates inflammatory signaling in TLE, we investigated the role of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), miR-146a and human complement factor H (CFH) in the perpetuate inflammation in rat models of chronic TLE and U251 cells...
March 23, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579552/proliferative-hippocampal-activity-in-a-group-of-patients-with-rasmussen-s-encephalitis-neuronal-glial-and-bdnf-tissue-expression-correlations
#7
Elane N Magno
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare and devastating unilateral inflammatory brain disease that causes severe and intractable partial epilepsy. It has been shown that epilepsy and subsequent inflammation have deleterious influence on hippocampal cell survival and neurogenesis, but this still has not been systematically explored in human tissue. In this study, we investigated the correlation between inflammation and epilepsy as well as the rates of hippocampal gliogenesis and neurogenesis in a pediatric group of six patients with RE and six control cases...
March 23, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566716/overexpression-of-zinc-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-suppressed-seizures-and-seizure-related-neuroflammation-in-pentylenetetrazol-kindled-rats
#8
Ying Liu, Teng Wang, Xi Liu, Yuetao Wen, Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Xin Wei, Xueying Ding, Lijuan Mo, Maojia Yin, Xinjie Tan, Lifen Chen
BACKGROUND: Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a 42-kDa protein reported as an anti-inflammatory adipocytokine. Evidences from clinical and experimental studies revealed that brain inflammation plays important roles in epileptogenesis and seizure. Interestingly, closely relationship between ZAG and many important inflammatory mediators has been proven. Our previous study identified ZAG in neurons and found that ZAG is decreased in epilepsy and interacts with TGFβ and ERK. This study aimed to investigate the role of ZAG in seizure and explore its effect on seizure-related neuroinflammation...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565957/association-of-higher-migraine-risk-among-female-and-younger-chronic-osteomyelitis-patients-evidence-from-a-taiwan-cohort-of-one-million
#9
Jiunn-Horng Chen, Shih-Chi Wu, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chia-Hung Kao, Chun-Hung Tseng, Chon-Haw Tsai
BACKGROUND: Inflammation may trigger migraine development through neurovascular reactions in the brain. Most of the migraine patients, particularly the younger ones, do not have any risk factors for this disease. Hence, we assessed whether chronic osteomyelitis (COM), a chronic inflammatory disease, increases the risk of migraine. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the risk of migraine among female and middle-age COM patients with a large patient sample. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in this study...
March 2018: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521117/neurocysticercosis-the-good-the-bad-and-the-missing
#10
Arturo Carpio, Agnès Fleury, Matthew L Romo, Ronaldo Abraham
Neurocysticercosis (NC) is a neglected disease that contributes substantially to neurological morbidity/mortality in lower-income countries and increasingly among high-income countries due to migration. Many advances have been made in understanding NC, but unanswered questions remain Areas covered: This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, immunology, diagnosis, treatment, and eradication of NC. Expert commentary: The global NC prevalence remains unknown and needs proper ascertainment. Further understanding of the pathophysiology of extraparenchymally located cysts is needed to improve management...
April 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506554/effects-of-dexamethasone-on-the-li-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy-protection-against-hippocampal-inflammation-and-astrogliosis
#11
Adriana Fernanda K Vizuete, Fernanda Hansen, Elisa Negri, Marina Concli Leite, Diogo Losch de Oliveira, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of partial epilepsy and is accompanied, in one third of cases, by resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AED). Most AED target neuronal activity modulated by ionic channels, and the steroid sensitivity of these channels has supported the use of corticosteroids as adjunctives to AED. Assuming the importance of astrocytes in neuronal activity, we investigated inflammatory and astroglial markers in the hippocampus, a key structure affected in TLE and in the Li-pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497358/diffusion-basis-spectrum-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-detect-hippocampal-inflammation-and-dendritic-injury-in-a-virus-induced-mouse-model-of-epilepsy
#12
Jie Zhan, Tsen-Hsuan Lin, Jane E Libbey, Peng Sun, Zezhong Ye, Chunyu Song, Michael Wallendorf, Honghan Gong, Robert S Fujinami, Sheng-Kwei Song
Hippocampal CA1 inflammation and dendritic loss are common in epilepsy. Quantitative detection of coexisting brain inflammation and injury could be beneficial in monitoring disease progression and assessing therapeutic efficacy. In this work, we used conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, known to detect axonal injury and demyelination) and a novel diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI, known to detect axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation) to detect hippocampal CA1 lesions resulting from neuronal dendritic injury/loss and concomitant inflammation in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced seizure mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477036/mechanisms-of-epileptogenesis-and-preclinical-approach-to-antiepileptogenic-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Krzysztof Łukawski, Marta Andres-Mach, Mirosław Czuczwar, Jarogniew J Łuszczki, Krzysztof Kruszyński, Stanisław J Czuczwar
The prevalence of epilepsy is estimated 5-10 per 1000 population and around 70% of patients with epilepsy can be sufficiently controlled by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Epileptogenesis is the process responsible for converting normal into an epileptic brain and mechanisms responsible include among others: inflammation, neurodegeneration, neurogenesis, neural reorganization and plasticity. Some AEDs may be antiepileptiogenic (diazepam, eslicarbazepine) but the correlation between neuroprotection and inhibition of epileptogenesis is not evident...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464573/intrinsic-inflammation-is-a-potential-anti-epileptogenic-target-in-the-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-model
#14
Seon-Ah Chong, Silvia Balosso, Catherine Vandenplas, Gregory Szczesny, Etienne Hanon, Kasper Claes, Xavier Van Damme, Bénédicte Danis, Jonathan Van Eyll, Christian Wolff, Annamaria Vezzani, Rafal M Kaminski, Isabelle Niespodziany
Understanding the mechanisms of epileptogenesis is essential to develop novel drugs that could prevent or modify the disease. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a promising target for therapeutic interventions to inhibit the epileptogenic process that evolves from traumatic brain injury. However, it remains unclear whether cytokine-related pathways, particularly TNFα signaling, have a critical role in the development of epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the role of innate inflammation in an in vitro model of post-traumatic epileptogenesis...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447051/targeting-crosstalk-between-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-and-nuclear-factor-kappa-beta-pathway-by-nrf2-activator-dimethyl-fumarate-in-epileptogenesis
#15
Neha Singh, Sheekha Vijayanti, Lekha Saha
Epilepsy is a complex, chronic neurological disorder characterized by increased and abnormal synchronization of neuronal electrical activity, which is manifested as seizures. It is associated with many comorbid conditions such as depression, anxiety, sleep disorder, psychiatric disorder etc. which consequently causes higher mortality rate. The understanding of its cellular and molecular mechanism is partial, because of which it remains an ongoing health problem, despite the increasing availability of newer antiepileptic drugs...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434537/how-can-a-ketogenic-diet-improve-motor-function
#16
REVIEW
Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio, Rudolf Hergesheimer, Philippe Corcia, Christian R Andres, Hélène Blasco
A ketogenic diet (KD) is a normocaloric diet composed by high fat (80-90%), low carbohydrate, and low protein consumption that induces fasting-like effects. KD increases ketone body (KBs) production and its concentration in the blood, providing the brain an alternative energy supply that enhances oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. In addition to its profound impact on neuro-metabolism and bioenergetics, the neuroprotective effect of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids and KBs involves pleiotropic mechanisms, such as the modulation of neuronal membrane excitability, inflammation, or reactive oxygen species production...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433947/antiglutamic-acid-decarboxylase-65-gad65-antibody-associated-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Ahmad Daif, Rimas V Lukas, Naoum P Issa, Adil Javed, Stephen VanHaerents, Anthony T Reder, James X Tao, Peter Warnke, Sandra Rose, Vernon L Towle, Shasha Wu
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody-associated encephalitis causes both acute seizures and chronic epilepsy with predominantly temporal lobe onset. This condition is challenging in diagnosis and management, and the incidence of GAD antibody (Ab)-related epilepsy could be much higher than commonly believed. Imaging and CSF evidence of inflammation along with typical clinical presentations, such as adult onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with unexplained etiology, should prompt testing for the diagnostic antibodies...
February 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432809/seizure-progression-and-inflammatory-mediators-promote-pericytosis-and-pericyte-microglia-clustering-at-the-cerebrovasculature
#18
Wendy Klement, Rita Garbelli, Emma Zub, Laura Rossini, Laura Tassi, Benoit Girard, Marine Blaquiere, Federica Bertaso, Julie Perroy, Frederic de Bock, Nicola Marchi
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular dysfunction and inflammation occur in experimental and clinical epilepsy. Here we asked whether pericytes, a pivotal cellular component of brain capillaries, undergo pathological modifications during experimental epileptogenesis and in human epilepsy. We evaluated whether pro-inflammatory cytokines, present in the brain during seizures, contribute to pericyte morphological modifications. METHODS: In vivo, unilateral intra-hippocampal kainic acid (KA) injections were performed in NG2DsRed/C57BL6 mice to induce status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS)...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426321/systemic-autoinflammation-with-intractable-epilepsy-managed-with-interleukin-1-blockade
#19
Allen D DeSena, Thuy Do, Grant S Schulert
BACKGROUND: Autoinflammatory disorders are distinguished by seemingly random episodes of systemic hyperinflammation, driven in particular by IL-1. Recent pre-clinical work has shown a key role for IL-1 in epilepsy in animal models, and therapies for autoinflammation including IL-1 blockade are proposed for refractory epilepsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report an adolescent female with signs of persistent systemic inflammation and epilepsy unresponsive to multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AED)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412101/decreased-erp57-expression-in-wag-rij-rats-thalamus-and-cortex-possible-correlation-with-absence-epilepsy
#20
Deniz Sahin, Sabriye Karadenizli, Murat Kasap, Berrin Oztas, Hale Maral Kir, Gurler Akpinar, Nurbay Ates
The role of intracellular proteins in the pathogenesis of absence epilepsy were mentioned. These proteins are thought to be related to energy generation, signal transduction, inflammation processes and membrane conductance. The investigation of protein profile of the genetically epileptic rat brains was the main subject of this study. For this, a 2D-gel electrophoresis based comparative proteome analysis was performed using thalamus tissue of genetic absence epileptic WAG/Rij and age matched Wistar rats. Regulated spots displaying differences in their abundance were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF...
February 6, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
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