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Inflammation and epilepsy

Bo Liu, Fei Li, Jingshan Shi, Danli Yang, Yuanyuan Deng, Qihai Gong
Gastrodin (GAS), which is extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has long been used to improve stroke, epilepsy, dizziness and dementia. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of GAS on subacute phase cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of GAS on cerebral I/R injury in rats. The rats were pretreated with GAS by gavage for 7 days followed by I/R surgery, and were then treated with GAS for 7 days after I/R surgery...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kenneth I Strauss, Kost V Elisevich
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy patients have distinct immune/inflammatory cell profiles and inflammatory mediator levels in the blood. Although the neural origin of inflammatory cells and mediators has been implied, few studies have measured these inflammatory components in the human brain itself. This study examines the brain levels of chemokines (8), cytokines (14), and vascular injury mediators (3) suspected of being altered in epilepsy. METHODS: Soluble protein extracts of fresh frozen resected hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal cortex from 58 medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy subjects and 4 nonepileptic neurosurgical subjects were assayed for 25 inflammation-related mediators using ultrasensitive low-density arrays...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Richard Q Loi, Kelly M Leyden, Akshara Balachandra, Vedang Uttarwar, Donald J Hagler, Brianna M Paul, Anders M Dale, Nathan S White, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become a popular tool for delineating the location and extent of white matter injury in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, DTI yields nonspecific measures that are confounded by changes occurring within both the intracellular and extracellular environments. This study investigated whether an advanced diffusion method, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) could provide a more robust measure of white matter injury in TLE relative to DTI due to RSI's ability to separate intraaxonal diffusion (i...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsia
Sarah Aminoff Kelley, Eric Heath Kossoff
Electrical status epilepticus of sleep (ESES), with the activation of profuse amounts of epileptiform discharges in sleep, may lead to intractable epilepsy and neurocognitive decline in children. Numerous varied treatments including antiseizure medications, steroids, and surgery have been investigated as possible treatment options. The ketogenic diet (KD) is an additional treatment option which may add to our treatment armamentarium for ESES. The KD may theoretically improve ESES by affecting GABA systems and reducing inflammation...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
M Y Al-Shorbagy, Noha N Nassar
In the present study, the role of octreotide (OCT) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling as well as in acute convulsion models was evaluated. Mice were allocated in groups as (1) control saline; (2) acute PTZ (PTZ-a; 60 mg/kg, i.p.), as a single convulsive dose; and (3) kindled (PTZ-k) receiving nine subconvulsive doses of PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 17 days. Groups 4-7 received either valproic acid (VPA) 50 mg/kg or OCT (50 μg/kg, Sandostatin®) 30 min by oral gavage before PTZ-a or PTZ-k. The median seizure stage, latency onset of first stage 4/5 seizures, and incidence of convulsing animals were recorded...
October 1, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Feyza Alyu, Miriş Dikmen
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterised with seizures. The aetiology of the most generalised epilepsies cannot be explicitly determined and the seizures are pronounced to be genetically determined by disturbances of receptors in central nervous system. Besides, neurotransmitter distributions or other metabolic problems are supposed to involve in epileptogenesis. Lack of adequate data about pharmacological agents that have antiepileptogenic effects point to need of research on this field...
October 3, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
P Przyborowska, Z Adamiak, P Holak, Y Zhalniarovich
The intention of the comparison of both low and high field was to examine which anatomical brain structures of cats were visible on low field images, as in clinical veterinary practice, 3 Tesla (T) magnets were of limited availability. The research was performed on 20 European short-haired male and female cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2-4 kg. 0.25 T magnetic resonance images of neurocranium were acquired in all using T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR) of 4010 ms and echo time (TE) of 90 ms in dorsal and transverse plane, and T2-weighted fast spine echo sequences with TR of 4290 ms and TE of 120 ms in sagittal plane...
September 25, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Nicholas H Varvel, Jonas J Neher, Andrea Bosch, Wenyi Wang, Richard M Ransohoff, Richard J Miller, Raymond Dingledine
The generalized seizures of status epilepticus (SE) trigger a series of molecular and cellular events that produce cognitive deficits and can culminate in the development of epilepsy. Known early events include opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and astrocytosis accompanied by activation of brain microglia. Whereas circulating monocytes do not infiltrate the healthy CNS, monocytes can enter the brain in response to injury and contribute to the immune response. We examined the cellular components of innate immune inflammation in the days following SE by discriminating microglia vs...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vinícius Vieira, Dreicy Glassmann, Paula Marafon, Patricia Pereira, Rosane Gomez, Adriana Simon Coitinho
Epilepsy is a disorder that affects 1-2% of the population and a significant percentage of these patients do not respond to anticonvulsant drugs available in the market suggesting the need to investigate new pharmacological treatments. Several studies have shown that inflammation occurs during epileptogenesis and may contribute to the development and progression of epilepsy, demonstrating increased levels of pro-inflammatory interleukins in animal models and human patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory diclofenac sodium on the severity of seizures and levels of pro-inflammatory interleukins in animals with kindling model induced by PTZ...
August 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
J van Scheppingen, D W M Broekaart, T Scholl, M R J Zuidberg, J J Anink, W G Spliet, P C van Rijen, T Czech, J A Hainfellner, M Feucht, A Mühlebner, E A van Vliet, E Aronica
BACKGROUND: The proteasome is a multisubunit enzyme complex involved in protein degradation, which is essential for many cellular processes. During inflammation, the constitutive subunits are replaced by their inducible counterparts, resulting in the formation of the immunoproteasome. METHODS: We investigated the expression pattern of constitutive (β1, β5) and immunoproteasome (β1i, β5i) subunits using immunohistochemistry in malformations of cortical development (MCD; focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) IIa and b, cortical tubers from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and mild MCD (mMCD))...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Arijit Ghosh, Fang Chen, Abhimanyu Thakur, Hao Hong
Cysteinyl leukotrienes are a group of the inflammatory lipid molecules well known as mediators of inflammatory signaling in the allergic diseases. Although they are traditionally known for their role in allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and others, recent advances in the field of biomedical research highlighted the role of these inflammatory mediators in a broader range of diseases such as in the inflammation associated with the central nervous system (CNS) disorders, vascular inflammation (atherosclerotic), and in cancer...
August 19, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Esra Türe, Tülay Kamaşak, Merve Cora, Sevim Şahin, Elif Acar Arslan, Neşe Kaklıkaya, Ali Cansu
PURPOSE: Infantile spasm is an age-dependent epileptic syndrome seen in infancy or early childhood. Although studies have investigated the epilepsy-cytokine relationship, there has been insufficient research into the relation between cytokines and infantile spasm. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of infantile spasm by investigating cytokine levels before and 1month after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in patients diagnosed with the condition...
October 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Layla E Borham, Amal M Mahfoz, Ibrahim A A Ibrahim, Naiyer Shahzad, Abeer Ahmed ALrefai, Amira A Labib, Bassam Bin Sef, Abdulrahmman Alshareef, Meshal Khan, Ali Milibary, Saeed Al Ghamdi
Evidence shows that inflammatory and immune processes within the brain might account for the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Therefore, developing new antiepileptic drugs that can modulate seizures through mechanisms other than traditional drugs is required for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. This study aims to determine the relationship between brain inflammation and epilepsy, to examine the contribution of some biochemical parameters involved in brain inflammation, and to address the effect of pharmacological interventions using some anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs in an experimental epilepsy model...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Nikolett Lénárt, David Brough, Ádám Dénes
The role of inflammation in neurological disorders is increasingly recognised. Inflammatory processes are associated with the aetiology and clinical progression of migraine, psychiatric conditions, epilepsy, cerebrovascular diseases, dementia and neurodegeneration, such as seen in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Both central and systemic inflammatory actions have been linked with the development of brain diseases, suggesting that complex neuro-immune interactions could contribute to pathological changes in the brain across multiple temporal and spatial scales...
October 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Francesca Boscia, Gulnaz Begum, Giuseppe Pignataro, Rossana Sirabella, Ornella Cuomo, Antonella Casamassa, Dandan Sun, Lucio Annunziato
Sodium dynamics are essential for regulating functional processes in glial cells. Indeed, glial Na(+) signaling influences and regulates important glial activities, and plays a role in neuron-glia interaction under physiological conditions or in response to injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Emerging studies indicate that Na(+) pumps and Na(+) -dependent ion transporters in astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes regulate Na(+) homeostasis and play a fundamental role in modulating glial activities in neurological diseases...
October 2016: Glia
Abdalla M El-Mowafy, Mohamed M Katary, Chelsey Pye, Ahmed S Ibrahim, Ahmed A Elmarakby
BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatic injury is a hallmark adverse reaction to Valproate (VPA), a common used drug in the management of numerous CNS disorders, including epilepsy. DHA has a myriad of health benefits, including renal- and hepato-protective effects. Unfortunately, however, the underpinnings of such liver-pertinent VPA- and DHA-actions remain largely undefined. Accordingly, this study attempted to unveil the cellular and molecular triggers whereby VPA evokes, while DHA abates, hepatotoxicity...
July 2016: Heliyon
Antos Shakhbazau, Michael Potapnev
Stem cell therapy for incurable central nervous system disorders has long been viewed as a promising therapeutic option. In this review, we discuss the existing data and approaches on cell transplantation in the context of the neural differentiation potential of adult autologous stem cells, focusing on those of mesenchymal origin as easily accessible and well studied. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous cell population with a remarkable therapeutic plasticity, demonstrated by their ability to dampen inflammation, inhibit pathogenic immune responses and secrete neuroprotective factors...
October 2016: Cytotherapy
Irene Navalpotro-Gómez, Rosa María Vivanco-Hidalgo, Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Santiago Medrano-Martorell, Francisco Alameda-Quitllet, Gloria Villalba-Martínez, Jaume Roquer
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (IHCP) is an uncommon disease of unknown etiology characterized by thickening of the cerebral dura mater with possible associated inflammation. The most frequently described clinical symptoms include headache, cranial nerve palsy, and cerebellar dysfunction. Epilepsy and/or status epilepticus as main presentation is very uncommon. CASE PRESENTATION: Two consecutive cases are presented of patients manifesting focal status epilepticus secondary to IHCP, with clinical, laboratory [blood test and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis], neuroradiologic [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)], and therapeutic data...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Kiran S Toti, Danielle Osborne, Antonella Ciancetta, Detlev Boison, Kenneth A Jacobson
Adenosine kinase (AdK) inhibitors raise endogenous adenosine levels, particularly in disease states, and have potential for treatment of seizures, neurodegeneration, and inflammation. On the basis of the South (S) ribose conformation and molecular dynamics (MD) analysis of nucleoside inhibitors bound in AdK X-ray crystallographic structures, (S)- and North (N)-methanocarba (bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) derivatives of known inhibitors were prepared and compared as human (h) AdK inhibitors. 5'-Hydroxy (34, MRS4202 (S); 55, MRS4380 (N)) and 5'-deoxy 38a (MRS4203 (S)) analogues, containing 7- and N(6)-NH phenyl groups in 7-deazaadenine, robustly inhibited AdK activity (IC50 ∼ 100 nM), while the 5'-hydroxy derivative 30 lacking the phenyl substituents was weak...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Frieda A Koopman, Sangeeta S Chavan, Sanda Miljko, Simeon Grazio, Sekib Sokolovic, P Richard Schuurman, Ashesh D Mehta, Yaakov A Levine, Michael Faltys, Ralph Zitnik, Kevin J Tracey, Paul P Tak
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous, prevalent, chronic autoimmune disease characterized by painful swollen joints and significant disabilities. Symptomatic relief can be achieved in up to 50% of patients using biological agents that inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other mechanisms of action, but there are no universally effective therapies. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in animal models...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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