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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931214/how-effective-are-volunteers-at-supporting-people-in-their-last-year-of-life-a-pragmatic-randomised-wait-list-trial-in-palliative-care-elsa
#1
Catherine Walshe, Steven Dodd, Matt Hill, Nick Ockenden, Sheila Payne, Nancy Preston, Guillermo Perez Algorta
BACKGROUND: Clinical care alone at the end of life is unlikely to meet all needs. Volunteers are a key resource, acceptable to patients, but there is no evidence on care outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether support from a social action volunteer service is better than usual care at improving quality of life for adults in the last year of life. METHODS: A pragmatic, multi-centre wait-list controlled trial, with participants randomly allocated to receive the volunteer support intervention either immediately or after a 4 week wait...
December 9, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930807/exploring-flybase-data-using-quicksearch
#2
Steven J Marygold, Giulia Antonazzo, Helen Attrill, Marta Costa, Madeline A Crosby, Gilberto Dos Santos, Joshua L Goodman, L Sian Gramates, Beverley B Matthews, Alix J Rey, Jim Thurmond
FlyBase (flybase.org) is the primary online database of genetic, genomic, and functional information about Drosophila species, with a major focus on the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. The long and rich history of Drosophila research, combined with recent surges in genomic-scale and high-throughput technologies, mean that FlyBase now houses a huge quantity of data. Researchers need to be able to rapidly and intuitively query these data, and the QuickSearch tool has been designed to meet these needs...
December 8, 2016: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930761/transoral-robotic-surgery-assisted-endoscopy-with-primary-site-detection-and-treatment-in-occult-mucosal-primaries
#3
Kyle M Hatten, Bert W O'Malley, Andres M Bur, Mihir R Patel, Christopher H Rassekh, Jason G Newman, Steven B Cannady, Ara A Chalian, Benjamin L Hodnett, Alexander Lin, John N Lukens, Roger B Cohen, Joshua M Bauml, Kathleen T Montone, Virginia A Livolsi, Gregory S Weinstein
Importance: Management of cervical lymph node metastasis without a known primary tumor is a diagnostic and treatment challenge for head and neck oncologists. Identification of the occult mucosal primary tumor minimizes the morbidity of treatment. Objective: To analyze the role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in facilitating the identification of a primary tumor site for patients presenting with squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP). In addition, we assessed treatment deintensification by determining the number of patients who did not undergo definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy...
December 8, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930727/airway-microbiota-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-clinically-well-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#4
Theresa A Laguna, Brandie D Wagner, Cynthia B Williams, Mark J Stevens, Charles E Robertson, Cole W Welchlin, Catherine E Moen, Edith T Zemanick, Jonathan K Harris
BACKGROUND: Upper airway cultures guide the identification and treatment of lung pathogens in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, this may not fully reflect the spectrum of bacteria present in the lower airway. Our objectives were to characterize the airway microbiota using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from asymptomatic CF infants during the first year of life and to investigate the relationship between BALF microbiota, standard culture and clinical characteristics. METHODS: BALF, nasopharyngeal (NP) culture and infant pulmonary function testing data were collected at 6 months and one year of age during periods of clinical stability from infants diagnosed with CF by newborn screening...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930312/metal-dependence-and-branched-rna-cocrystal-structures-of-the-rna-lariat-debranching-enzyme-dbr1
#5
Nathaniel E Clark, Adam Katolik, Kenneth M Roberts, Alexander B Taylor, Stephen P Holloway, Jonathan P Schuermann, Eric J Montemayor, Scott W Stevens, Paul F Fitzpatrick, Masad J Damha, P John Hart
Intron lariats are circular, branched RNAs (bRNAs) produced during pre-mRNA splicing. Their unusual chemical and topological properties arise from branch-point nucleotides harboring vicinal 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. The 2',5'-bonds must be hydrolyzed by the RNA debranching enzyme Dbr1 before spliced introns can be degraded or processed into small nucleolar RNA and microRNA derived from intronic RNA. Here, we measure the activity of Dbr1 from Entamoeba histolytica by using a synthetic, dark-quenched bRNA substrate that fluoresces upon hydrolysis...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930280/development-of-electronic-medical-record-based-rounds-report-results-in-improved-resident-efficiency-more-time-for-direct-patient-care-and-education-and-less-resident-duty-hour-violations
#6
Phillip B Ham, Toby Anderton, Ryan Gallaher, Mike Hyrman, Erika Simmerman, Annamalai Ramanathan, David Fallaw, Steven Holsten, Charles Gordon Howell
Surgeons frequently report frustration and loss of efficiency with electronic medical record (EMR) systems. Together, surgery residents and a programmer at Augusta University created a rounds report (RR) summarizing 24 hours of vitals, intake/output, labs, and other values for each inpatient that were previously transcribed by hand. The objective of this study was to evaluate the RRs effect on surgery residents. Surgery residents were queried to assess the RRs impact. Outcome measures were time spent preparing for rounds, direct patient care time, educational activity time, rates of incorrect/incomplete data on rounds, and rate of duty hour violations...
September 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929709/safety-of-buprenorphine-transdermal-system-in-the-management-of-pain-in-older-adults
#7
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Robert B Raffa, Zachary Marcum, Salvatore Colucci, Steven R Ripa
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether buprenorphine transdermal system (BTDS; Butrans®) is an option for the treatment of chronic pain in older adults. METHODS: This retrospective analysis of 16 placebo- and active-controlled and uncontrolled studies (N=6566) evaluated the safety and tolerability profile in patients exposed to BTDS and compared the safety profiles associated with BTDS treatment in older patients ≥ 65 years of age (65 to 98 years) and younger patients < 65 years of age (18 to 64 years)...
December 8, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929422/co-administration-of-lipid-nanoparticles-and-sub-unit-vaccine-antigens-is-required-for-increase-in-antigen-specific-immune-responses-in-mice
#8
Elizabeth A Thoryk, Gokul Swaminathan, Steven Meschino, Kara S Cox, Marian Gindy, Danilo R Casimiro, Andrew J Bett
A vast body of evidence suggests that nanoparticles function as potent immune-modulatory agents. We have previously shown that Merck proprietary Lipid NanoParticles (LNPs) markedly boost B-cell and T-cell responses to sub-unit vaccine antigens in mice. To further evaluate the specifics of vaccine delivery and dosing regimens in vivo, we performed immunogenicity studies in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using two model antigens, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Ovalbumin (OVA), respectively. To assess the requirement for co-administration of antigen and LNP for the elicitation of immune responses, we evaluated immune responses after administering antigen and LNP to separate limbs, or administering antigen and LNP to the same limb but separated by 24 h...
December 6, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927967/the-common-r71h-g230a-r293q-human-tmem173-is-a-null-allele
#9
Seema Patel, Steven M Blaauboer, Heidi R Tucker, Samira Mansouri, Juan Sebastian Ruiz-Moreno, Lutz Hamann, Ralf R Schumann, Bastian Opitz, Lei Jin
TMEM173 encodes MPYS/STING and is an innate immune sensor for cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) playing a critical role in infection, inflammation, and cancer. The R71H-G230A-R293Q (HAQ) of TMEM173 is the second most common human TMEM173 allele. In this study, using data from the 1000 Genomes Project we found that homozygous HAQ individuals account for ∼16.1% of East Asians and ∼2.8% of Europeans whereas Africans have no homozygous HAQ individuals. Using B cells from homozygous HAQ carriers, we found, surprisingly, that HAQ/HAQ carriers express extremely low MPYS protein and have a decreased TMEM173 transcript...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926792/the-transcription-factor-pparalpha-is-overexpressed-and-is-associated-with-a-favourable-prognosis-in-idh-wildtype-primary-glioblastoma
#10
H R Haynes, P White, K M Hares, J Redondo, K C Kemp, W G B Singleton, C L Killick-Cole, J R Stevens, K Garadi, S Guglani, A Wilkins, K M Kurian
AIMS: PPARα agonists are in current clinical use as hypolipidaemic agents and show significant antineoplastic effects in human glioblastoma models. To date however, the expression of PPARα in large-scale glioblastoma data sets has not been examined. We aimed to investigate the expression of the transcription factor PPARα in primary glioblastoma, the relationship between PPARα expression and patients' clinicopathological features and other molecular markers associated with gliomagenesis...
December 7, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926687/an-initiative-to-standardize-the-identification-of-and-acute-response-to-postoperative-lower-extremity-neurological-deficits-effects-on-provider-knowledge-confidence-and-communication-skills
#11
Peter B Derman, Sravisht Iyer, Matthew Garner, Steven Orr, Karla J Felix, Allison Goldberg, Titilayo Ologhobo, Minlun Wu, Laura Robbins, Charles Cornell
BACKGROUND: Although relatively uncommon, neurological deficits following hip and knee arthroplasty can have permanent and debilitating consequences. This study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of an educational curriculum aimed at standardizing the identification of and acute response to postoperative neurological deficits in the inpatient setting, specifically with respect to improvements in clinician knowledge, confidence levels, and communication skills. METHODS: A multidisciplinary committee at a single, high-volume academic institution created an algorithm delineating the appropriate clinical actions and escalation procedures in the setting of a postoperative neurological deficit for each clinical practitioner involved in care for patients who undergo arthroplasty...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924394/does-peritoneal-flap-closure-technique-following-transabdominal-preperitoneal-tapp-inguinal-hernia-repair-make-a-difference-in-postoperative-pain-a-long-term-quality-of-life-comparison
#12
Samuel W Ross, Steven A Groene, Tanu Prasad, Amy E Lincourt, Kent W Kercher, Vedra A Augenstein, B Todd Heniford
BACKGROUND: Transabdominal, preperitoneal (TAPP), laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (IHR) requires the creation of a peritoneal flap (PF) that must be closed after mesh placement. Our previous study indicated that sutured PF closure resulted in less short-term postoperative pain at 2 and 4 weeks compared to tacks and staples. Therefore, the aim of this follow-up study was to compare short-term QOL with a greater sample size and long-term QOL at 2 years by method of PF closure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective institutional hernia-specific database was assessed for all adult TAPP IHRs from July 2012 to May 2015...
December 6, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924075/histone-variants-on-the-move-substrates-for-chromatin-dynamics
#13
Paul B Talbert, Steven Henikoff
Most histones are assembled into nucleosomes behind the replication fork to package newly synthesized DNA. By contrast, histone variants, which are encoded by separate genes, are typically incorporated throughout the cell cycle. Histone variants can profoundly change chromatin properties, which in turn affect DNA replication and repair, transcription, and chromosome packaging and segregation. Recent advances in the study of histone replacement have elucidated the dynamic processes by which particular histone variants become substrates of histone chaperones, ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers and histone-modifying enzymes...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923544/niemann-pick-disease-type-c-and-roscoe-brady
#14
REVIEW
Marc C Patterson, Steven U Walkley
The Niemann-Pick family of diseases was poorly understood until Roscoe Brady and his colleagues began their investigations in the 1960s. Following Brady's discovery of the defect in acid sphingomyelinase in Niemann-Pick disease, types A and B, Peter Pentchev, a senior scientist in the group, launched a series of investigations of an unusual lipid storage disease in a spontaneous mouse model. These led initially to identification of the cholesterol trafficking defect in the mouse, and then in human Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC)...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923325/a-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-laden-porcine-small-intestinal-submucosa-extracellular-matrix-construct-promotes-myomucosal-regeneration-of-the-tongue
#15
Qilin Xu, Rabie M Shanti, Qunzhou Zhang, Steven B Cannady, Bert W O'Malley, Anh D Le
In the oral cavity, the tongue is the anatomic subsite most commonly involved by invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Current treatment protocols often require significant tissue resection to achieve adequate negative margins and optimal local tumor control. Reconstruction of the tongue while preserving and/or restoring its critical vocal, chewing, and swallowing functions remains one of the major challenges in head and neck oncologic surgery. We investigated the in vitro feasibility of fabricating a novel combinatorial construct using porcine small intestinal submucosa extracellular matrix (SIS-ECM) and human gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) as a GMSC/SIS-ECM tissue graft for the tongue reconstruction...
December 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923219/nonoperative-versus-operative-treatment-of-displaced-ankle-fractures-in-diabetics
#16
Andrew J Lovy, James Dowdell, Aakash Keswani, Steven Koehler, Jaehon Kim, Steven Weinfeld, David Joseph
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for complications related to displaced ankle fractures. Limited literature exists comparing complication rates in nonoperative versus operative treatment of displaced ankle fractures in diabetics. No study has highlighted the natural history of nonoperative treatment of displaced ankle fractures in diabetics. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult ankle fractures from September 2011 through December 2014. Inclusion was limited to ambulatory adults (>18 years) with closed, displaced (widened mortise) ankle fractures with diabetes mellitus...
November 14, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922578/facet-joint-violation-during-percutaneous-pedicle-screw-placement-a-comparison-of-two-techniques
#17
Oliver Tannous, Ehsan Jazini, Tristan B Weir, Kelley E Banagan, Eugene Y Koh, D Greg Anderson, Daniel E Gelb, Steven C Ludwig
STUDY DESIGN: A comparative study of facet joint violation (FJV) using two percutaneous surgical techniques. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of iatrogenic FJV and medial pedicle wall breach between two methods of percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation in the thoracic and lumbar spine. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Variable iatrogenic damage to the facet joints has been reported to occur with percutaneous pedicle screw techniques, compared with the open approach, which has been associated with adjacent segment disease...
December 2, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922498/inclusion-body-myositis
#18
Steven A Greenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is an enigmatic progressive disease of skeletal muscle. This review provides a summary of the clinical and pathophysiologic aspects of IBM. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of diagnostic blood testing for IBM followed from the discovery of a B-cell pathway in IBM muscle and circulating autoantibodies against NT5C1A, further establishing IBM's status as an autoimmune disease. The key role of cytotoxic T cells in IBM is further supported by the identification of a link between IBM and T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922461/ipsilateral-ophthalmic-and-cerebral-infarctions-after-cosmetic-polylactic-acid-injection-into-the-forehead
#19
Ashwinee Ragam, Steven A Agemy, Sarita B Dave, Azita S Khorsandi, Rudrani Banik
A 55-year-old woman developed no light perception vision in her right eye 5 days after an injection of polylactic acid cosmetic filler into her right forehead. Diffuse corneal edema and anterior chamber inflammation prohibited any view to the posterior segment to identify the cause of her profound vision loss. MRI of the orbits with diffusion-weighted imaging showed hyperintensity of the right optic nerve with signal reduction on apparent diffusion coefficient mapping, consistent with ischemia. Our patient also was found to have acute infarctions in the distribution of the right anterior cerebral artery on MRI of the brain despite having no permanent focal neurologic deficits aside from vision loss...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922026/percutaneous-gastrostomy-device-for-the-treatment-of-class-ii-and-class-iii-obesity-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Christopher C Thompson, Barham K Abu Dayyeh, Robert Kushner, Shelby Sullivan, Alan B Schorr, Anastassia Amaro, Caroline M Apovian, Terrence Fullum, Amir Zarrinpar, Michael D Jensen, Adam C Stein, Steven Edmundowicz, Michel Kahaleh, Marvin Ryou, J Matthew Bohning, Gregory Ginsberg, Christopher Huang, Daniel D Tran, Joseph P Glaser, John A Martin, David L Jaffe, Francis A Farraye, Samuel B Ho, Nitin Kumar, Donna Harakal, Meredith Young, Catherine E Thomas, Alpana P Shukla, Michele B Ryan, Miki Haas, Heidi Goldsmith, Jennifer McCrea, Louis J Aronne
OBJECTIVES: The AspireAssist System (AspireAssist) is an endoscopic weight loss device that is comprised of an endoscopically placed percutaneous gastrostomy tube and an external device to facilitate drainage of about 30% of the calories consumed in a meal, in conjunction with lifestyle (diet and exercise) counseling. METHODS: In this 52-week clinical trial, 207 participants with a body-mass index (BMI) of 35.0-55.0 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with AspireAssist plus Lifestyle Counseling (n=137; mean BMI was 42...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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