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Big Five

Paul Brunault, Pierre-Henri Ducluzeau, Robert Courtois, Céline Bourbao-Tournois, Irène Delbachian, Christian Réveillère, Nicolas Ballon
BACKGROUND: The "food addiction" phenotype identifies a subpopulation of individuals experiencing substance-dependence symptoms toward specific foods. In the current debate on whether the "food addiction" phenotype should be considered as an addictive disorder, assessment of the personality traits associated with this phenotype would provide arguments for or against the "food addiction" phenotype and its inclusion in the "substance-related and addictive disorder" category...
February 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Nicholas H Dodman, Dorothy C Brown, James A Serpell
Behavioral problems are a major source of poor welfare and premature mortality in companion dogs. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between owners' personality and psychological status and the prevalence and/or severity of their dogs' behavior problems. However, the mechanisms responsible for these associations are currently unknown. Other studies have detected links between the tendency of dogs to display behavior problems and their owners' use of aversive or confrontational training methods...
2018: PloS One
Sebastiano Costa, Nadia Barberis, Rosalba Larcan, Francesca Cuzzocrea
Researchers have become increasingly interested in investigating the role of the psychological aspects related to the perception of cervical screening barriers. This study investigates the influence of trait EI on perceived cervical screening barriers. Furthermore, this study investigates the incremental validity of trait EI beyond the Big Five, as well as emotion regulation in the perceived barrier towards the Pap test as revealed in a sample of 206 Italian women that were undergoing cervical screening. Results have shown that trait EI is negatively related to cervical screening barriers...
February 13, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Aurelie Aben, Lieven De Wilde, Nadine Hollevoet, Carlos Henriquez, Marc Vandeweerdt, Koen Ponnet, Alexander Van Tongel
BACKGROUND: The etiology of tennis elbow is multifactorial. Overuse of the wrist extensors along with anatomic factors, such as flexibility problems, aging, and poor blood circulation, may play a role. This study investigated whether patients with tennis elbow have a different psychological profile compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Patients with clinical signs of tennis elbow, consulting at the Ghent University Hospital between September 2015 and January 2017, were offered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire about Big Five personality traits, perfectionism, anxiety, depression, work satisfaction, and working conditions...
March 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Qian Zhang, Yan Ge, Weina Qu, Kan Zhang, Xianghong Sun
Traffic safety climate is defined as road users' attitudes and perceptions of traffic in a specific context at a given point in time. The current study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the Traffic Climate Scale (TCS) and to explore its relation to drivers' personality and dangerous driving behavior. A sample of 413 drivers completed the Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Chinese version of the TCS, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and a demographic questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to confirm a three-factor (external affective demands, internal requirements and functionality) solution of the TCS...
February 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Pardis Pakshir, Boris Hinz
Scarring is part of the normal healing response to tissue injury in all organs and required to rapidly repair acute damages, mostly with extracellular matrix. A variety of different cells are activated into myofibroblasts to produce and remodel the scar matrix. Temporal and spatial coordination of myofibroblast activities with inflammatory macrophages is crucial for the controlled healing process. Miscommunication can result in either insufficient (chronic) or exacerbated (fibrotic) repair. In addition to soluble biochemical signals and intercellular contacts, cell-to-cell communication is mediated by biophysical and chemical signals transmitted through the extracellular matrix...
January 30, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Balsam Noueiri, Nahla Nassif, Riad Bacho
Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the behavior of Lebanese pediatricians regarding children's oral health. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study including 100 Lebanese pediatricians was performed. They answered 11 questions. Three variables were taken into consideration: The number of years in practice, the place and the type of practice. Results: The answers were tabulated according to the latter three subdivisions. 97.7% of pediatricians who have been practicing for more than 5years reported inquiring about whether a child is taking a milk/juice bottle overnight as compared to 76...
October 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Jan Ott
The Heritage Foundation and the Fraser Institute measure economic freedom in nations using indices with ten and five indicators respectively. Eight of the Heritage indicators and four of the Fraser-indicators are about specific types of institutional quality, like rule of law, the protection of property, and the provision of sound money. More of these is considered to denote more economic freedom. Both indices also involve indicators of 'big government', or levels of government activities. More of that is seen to denote less economic freedom...
2018: Social Indicators Research
Lina Humbeck, Sebastian Weigang, Till Schäfer, Petra Mutzel, Oliver Koch
A common issue during drug design and development is the discovery of novel scaffolds for protein targets. On the one hand the chemical space of purchasable compounds is rather limited and on the other hand artificially generated molecules suffer from a grave lack of accessibility in practice. Therefore, we generated a novel virtual library of small molecules which are synthesizable from purchasable educts, called CHIPMUNK (CHemically feasible In silico Public Molecular UNiverse Knowledge base). Altogether CHIPMUNK covers over 95 million compounds and encompasses regions of the chemical space that are not covered by existing databases...
February 1, 2018: ChemMedChem
Claudia Katharina Häußermann, Bettina Ziegelmann, Peter Rosenkranz
Reproduction in Varroa destructor exclusively takes place within the sealed honey bee brood cell and is, therefore, limited by the duration of the postcapping period. Oogenesis, ontogenetic development and mating must be optimized to ensure the production of as many mated daughter mites as possible. One adult male mite has to mate with up to five sister mites and transfer 30-40 spermatozoa to each female. We analyzed the production and transfer of male spermatozoa during a reproductive cycle by counting all spermatozoa in the genital tracts of the male and daughter mites in 80 worker brood cells at defined times after cell capping...
February 1, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Ning Yang, Daoguo Yang, Guoqi Zhang, Liangbiao Chen, Dongjing Liu, Miao Cai, Xuejun Fan
The effects of graphene stacking are investigated by comparing the results of methane adsorption energy, electronic performance, and the doping feasibility of five dopants (i.e., B, N, Al, Si, and P) via first-principles theory. Both zigzag and armchair graphenes are considered. It is found that the zigzag graphene with Bernal stacking has the largest adsorption energy on methane, while the armchair graphene with Order stacking is opposite. In addition, both the Order and Bernal stacked graphenes possess a positive linear relationship between adsorption energy and layer number...
February 1, 2018: Sensors
Meredith A Bucher, Douglas B Samuel
Although there has been widespread consensus on the use of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality functioning in personality research, there are various, diverse models of the lower order traits of the FFM domains. Given the usefulness of these finer grained traits, it is imperative to integrate facets proposed across a variety of models and eventually reach consensus on the lower level traits of the FFM. Due to its depth and coverage, the Abridged Big Five-Dimensional Circumplex (AB5C) model potentially provides a useful framework for organizing various faceted models due to its conceptual organization and inclusiveness...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Andrew P Reimer, Elizabeth A Madigan
Veracity, one of the five V's used to describe big data, has received attention when it comes to using electronic medical record data for research purposes. In this perspective article, we discuss the idea of data veracity and associated concepts as it relates to the use of electronic medical record data and administrative data in research. We discuss the idea that electronic medical record data are "good enough" for clinical practice and, as such, are "good enough" for certain applications. We then propose three primary issues to attend to when establishing data veracity: data provenance, cross validation, and context...
January 1, 2018: Health Informatics Journal
Reuben Ng, Becca Levy
Although pettiness, defined as the tendency to get agitated over trivial matters, is a facet of neuroticism which has negative health implications, no measure exists. The goal of the current study was to develop, and validate a short pettiness scale. In Study 1 (N = 2136), Exploratory Factor Analysis distilled a one-factor model with five items. Convergent validity was established using the Big Five Inventory, DASS, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale. As predicted, pettiness was positively associated with neuroticism, depression, anxiety and stress but negatively related to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, life satisfaction and resilience...
2018: PloS One
Maria Kleinstäuber, Cornelia Weise, Gerhard Andersson, Thomas Probst
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the Big Five personality traits predict the outcome of Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) and whether they moderate the outcome between ICBT and face-to-face group cognitive behavioural therapy (GCBT). DESIGN: This study investigated the Big Five personality traits as predictors and moderators of the outcome (tinnitus handicap) in a trial comparing ICBT and GCBT for chronic tinnitus. STUDY SAMPLE: N = 84 patients with chronic tinnitus were randomised to either ICBT (n = 41) or GCBT (n = 43)...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
Benjamin P Chapman, Lewis R Goldberg
The traditional focus of work on personality and behavior has tended toward "major outcomes" such as health or antisocial behavior, or small sets of behaviors observable over short periods in laboratories or in convenience samples. In a community sample, we examined a wide set (400) of mundane, incidental or "every day" behavioral acts, the frequencies of which were reported over the past year. Using an exploratory methodology similar to genomic approaches (relying on the False Discovery Rate) revealed 26 prototypical acts for Intellect, 24 acts for Extraversion, 13 for Emotional Stability, nine for Conscientiousness, and six for Agreeableness...
October 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Petar Čolović, Snežana Smederevac, Milan Oljača, Željka Nikolašević, Dušanka Mitrović
The need for a research and practical tool, such as a short, reliable, and valid personality assessment test, suggests researchers to create shortened versions of original instruments. Reinforcement sensitivity questionnaire (RSQ) was created in line with some basic premises of revised Reinforcement sensitivity theory, which proposes three motivational and emotional systems: Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), responsible for scanning environment for potential threats, Behavioral activation system (BAS), responsible for aproaching behavior, and the Fight/Flight/Freeze system (FFFS), responsible for behavior in the present threat...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Psychology
Liyue Guo, Mahmud Abdimuratovich Muminov, Guanglei Wu, Xiaotian Liang, Caihong Li, Jie Meng, Lijun Li, Da Cheng, Yanjie Song, Xian Gu, Jianshe Zhao, Gaoming Jiang
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, physical methods such as insect-trapping to control pests are being paid more and more attentions. In order to make clear how to combine pesticides with insect-trapping lamp reasonably and how much pesticide amount can be cut down, five treatments: (1) CK, only used pesticides; (2) LM, only used insect-trapping lamp; (3) LM1, insect-trapping lamp + one time pesticides (4) LM2, insect-trapping lamp + two times pesticides; (5) LM3, insect-trapping lamp + three times pesticides were arranged in a winter wheat -summer maize rotation system of Eastern China...
January 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
Ted Schwaba, Wiebke Bleidorn
In this study, we examined trajectories of Big Five personality development in the 5 years before and after retirement. Our sample was composed of 690 retirees (ages 51-81) and a propensity-score matched comparison group of 532 nonretirees drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal study of the Netherlands. Participants contributed data across a maximum of 6 measurement waves over a period of 7 years. In the month after retirement, participants experienced sudden increases in openness and agreeableness followed by gradual declines in these traits over the next 5 years...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Effy Vayena, Tobias Haeusermann, Afua Adjekum, Alessandro Blasimme
Digital health encompasses a wide range of novel digital technologies related to health and medicine. Such technologies rely on recent advances in the collection and analysis of ever increasing amounts of data from both patients and healthy citizens. Along with new opportunities, however, come new ethical and policy challenges. These range from the need to adapt current evidence-based standards, to issues of privacy, oversight, accountability and public trust as well as national and international data governance and management...
January 29, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
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