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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040007/probing-birth-order-effects-on-narrow-traits-using-specification-curve-analysis
#1
Julia M Rohrer, Boris Egloff, Stefan C Schmukle
The idea that birth-order position has a lasting impact on personality has been discussed for the past 100 years. Recent large-scale studies have indicated that birth-order effects on the Big Five personality traits are negligible. In the current study, we examined a variety of more narrow personality traits in a large representative sample ( n = 6,500-10,500 in between-family analyses; n = 900-1,200 in within-family analyses). We used specification-curve analysis to assess evidence for birth-order effects across a range of models implementing defensible yet arbitrary analytical decisions (e...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039706/associations-of-self-presentation-on-facebook-with-mental-health-and-personality-variables-a-systematic-review
#2
Conal Twomey, Gary O'Reilly
Many investigations of the associations of self-presentation on Facebook with mental health and personality variables exist, but their findings have not yet been synthetized. We therefore carried out a narrative synthesis of 21 observational studies (combined N = 7,573) obtained from a systematic search of four academic databases. Significant self-presentation associations were yielded for self-esteem, perceived social support, social anxiety, well-being, depression, bipolar/mania, stress, self-consciousness, and insecure attachment...
October 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033878/the-actor-partner-similarity-effects-of-personality-and-interactions-with-gender-and-relationship-duration-among-chinese-emerging-adults
#3
Yixin Zhou, Kexin Wang, Shuang Chen, Jianxin Zhang, Mingjie Zhou
Understanding personality effects and their role in influencing relationship quality, varied according to gender and relationship duration, could help us better understand close relationships. Participants were Chinese dating dyads and were asked to complete both the Big Five Inventory and Perceived Relationship Quality Component scales. Males and those who had a long-term relationship perceived better relationship quality; individuals who scored higher on agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability enjoyed better relationship quality; gender and/or relationship duration moderated the actor effect of extraversion and the partner effects of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness on relationship quality...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027412/-research-advances-in-secondary-development-of-chinese-patent-medicines-based-on-quality-by-design-concept
#4
Xing-Chu Gong, Teng Chen, Hai-Bin Qu
Quality by design (QbD) concept is an advanced pharmaceutical quality control concept. The application of QbD concept in the research and development of pharmaceutical processes of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) mainly contains five parts, including the definition of critical processes and their evaluation criteria, the determination of critical process parameters and critical material attributes, the establishment of quantitative models, the development of design space, as well as the application and continuous improvement of control strategy...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027200/do-personality-traits-mediate-the-relationship-between-childhood-abuse-and-migraine-an-exploration-of-the-relationships-in-young-adults-using-the-add-health-dataset
#5
Monita Karmakar, Jon D Elhai, Aliaksandr A Amialchuk, Gretchen E Tietjen
BACKGROUND: Personality traits (especially neuroticism) and childhood maltreatment have been independently related to many negative health outcomes later in life, including migraine. Studies have also shown the association between childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality traits. The mediating role of personality traits on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression, psychological distress, and alcohol dependence has been extensively studied. However, this type of mediation has not been studied in the case of the development of migraine...
October 13, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022186/response-distortion-on-personality-tests-in-applicants-comparing-high-stakes-to-low-stakes-medical-settings
#6
Jeromy Anglim, Stefan Bozic, Jonathon Little, Filip Lievens
The current study examined the degree to which applicants applying for medical internships distort their responses to personality tests and assessed whether this response distortion led to reduced predictive validity. The applicant sample (n = 530) completed the NEO Personality Inventory whilst applying for one of 60 positions as first-year post-graduate medical interns. Predictive validity was assessed using university grades, averaged over the entire medical degree. Applicant responses for the Big Five (i...
October 11, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985865/personality-traits-within-a-pediatric-surgery-fellowship-applicant-pool
#7
Rajaie Hazboun, Samuel Rodriguez, Arul Thirumoorthi, Joanne Baerg, Donald Moores, Edward P Tagge
BACKGROUND: The Big Five framework examines five factors that represent a description of human personality. These factors correlate with success measures and job satisfaction. The Big Five Inventory is a 44-item instrument designed to measure the Big Five framework. Our aim was to document the distribution of Big Five personality traits among Pediatric Surgery fellowship applicants, compare with community norms, surgical residents, between genders, and correlate to the fellowship match results...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983151/on-self-love-and-outgroup-hate-opposite-effects-of-narcissism-on-prejudice-via-social-dominance-orientation-and-right-wing-authoritarianism
#8
Aleksandra Cichocka, Kristof Dhont, Arti P Makwana
Previous research has obtained mixed findings as to whether feelings of self-worth are positively or negatively related to right-wing ideological beliefs and prejudice. We propose to clarify the link between self-worth and ideology by distinguishing between narcissistic and non-narcissistic self-evaluations as well as between different dimensions of ideological attitudes. Four studies, conducted in three different socio-political contexts: the UK (Study 1, N = 422), the US (Studies 2 and 3, Ns = 471 and 289, respectively), and Poland (Study 4, N = 775), investigated the associations between narcissistic and non-narcissistic self-evaluations, social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and ethnic prejudice...
July 2017: European Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980877/higher-order-traits-and-happiness-in-the-workplace-the-importance-of-occupational-project-scale-for-the-evaluation-of-characteristic-adaptations
#9
Pelin Buruk, Ömer Faruk Şimşek, Ercan Kocayörük
This study attempts to explain the relationship between job satisfaction and the Big Two, Stability and Plasticity, which are the higher-order traits of Big Five. Occupational Project, a narrative construct, was considered a mediator variable in this relationship. Occupational Project consists of affective and cognitive evaluations of an individual's work life as a project in terms of the completed (past), the ongoing (present) and the prospective (future) parts. The survey method was applied to a sample of 253 participants...
October 5, 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980831/the-hexaco-personality-inventory-validation-and-psychometric-properties-in-the-serbian-language
#10
Janko Međedović, Petar Čolović, Bojana M Dinić, Snežana Smederevac
The aim of this research is to validate the HEXACO model of personality in the Serbian language through psychometric validation of the 100-item version of the HEXACO-PI-R. The research was conducted on 2 independent samples, the first comprising 1,217 participants from a community sample (55.5% females; average age = 31.77 years), and the second 345 undergraduate students (65% females; average age = 21 years). Besides the HEXACO-PI-R, 2 questionnaires were applied for the purposes of convergent validation: the Big Five Plus Two (BF+2), measuring 7 lexical personality dimensions (applied in Sample 1), and the Big Five Inventory (BFI; applied in Sample 2)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980826/novel-insights-into-item-keying-valence-effect-using-latent-difference-ld-modeling-analysis
#11
Chester Chun Seng Kam
Responses to positively and negatively worded items are not always consistent, a behavioral pattern known as the item valence method effect. The current research employed latent difference (LD) modeling (Pohl, Steyer, & Kraus, 2008 ) to help determine explanations of the method effect. Respondents were more likely to reject negative characteristics (measured by negatively worded items) than to accept positive ones (measured by positively worded items), and supplementary analysis showed that this tendency was associated with social desirability response style...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977769/trypanosoma-cruzi-and-leishmania-sp-infection-in-wildlife-from-urban-rainforest-fragments-in-northeast-brazil
#12
Indira Trüeb, Ricardo D Portela, Carlos R Franke, Ianei O Carneiro, Gilmar J Ribeiro, Rodrigo P Soares, Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo
Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania sp. are important protozoan parasites for humans and animals in the Americas, causing Chagas disease and cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. These vector-borne diseases affect permanent and transient populations in developing tropical countries that exhibit favorable conditions for the perpetuation of the parasite cycle. Our objective was to investigate the occurrence of infection with these parasites in wild animals from urban rainforest fragments in the city of Salvador, the largest city in the northeast region of Brazil...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971417/internet-addiction-of-young-greek-adults-psychological-aspects-and-information-privacy
#13
P Grammenos, N A Syrengela, E Magkos, A Tsohou
The main goal of this study is to examine the Internet addiction status of Greek young adults, aged from 18 to 25, using Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and self-administered questionnaires. In addition this paper assesses the psychological traits of addicted persons per addiction category, using the big five factor model tool to study the user's personality and analyze the components that lead a person to become Internet addicted. Furthermore, we found an association between addicted people and the five factors from the Big Five Factor Model; i...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967157/outcome-of-day-treatment-for-older-adults-with-affective-disorders-an-observational-pre-post-design-of-two-transdiagnostic-approaches
#14
S D M van Dijk, R Bouman, J C A E Lam, R den Held, S P J van Alphen, R C Oude Voshaar
OBJECTIVE: First, to evaluate the outcome of 2 transdiagnostic day treatment programs. A 20-week psychotherapeutic day treatment (PDT) and an activating day treatment (ADT) program delivered in blocks of 4 weeks with a maximum of 24 weeks with respect to depression, anxiety, and hypochondriasis. Second, to explore the impact of cognitive impairment and personality pathology on treatment outcome. METHODS: The course of depression (Inventory of Depressive Symptoms), anxiety (Geriatric Anxiety Inventory), and hypochondriasis (Whitley Index) were evaluated by linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, level of education, and alcohol usage among 49 patients (mean age 65 years, 67% females) receiving PDT and among 61 patients (mean age 67...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951816/the-dark-cube-dark-character-profiles-and-ocean
#15
Danilo Garcia, Fernando R González Moraga
BACKGROUND: The Big Five traits (i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism: OCEAN) have been suggested to provide a meaningful taxonomy for studying the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Nevertheless, current research consists of mixed and inconsistent associations between the Dark Triad and OCEAN. Here we used the Dark Cube (Garcia & Rosenberg, 2016), a model of malevolent character theoretically based on Cloninger's biopsychosocial model of personality and in the assumption of a ternary structure of malevolent character...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947654/when-the-lyon-ized-chromosome-roars-ongoing-expression-from-an-inactive-x-chromosome
#16
REVIEW
Laura Carrel, Carolyn J Brown
A tribute to Mary Lyon was held in October 2016. Many remarked about Lyon's foresight regarding many intricacies of the X-chromosome inactivation process. One such example is that a year after her original 1961 hypothesis she proposed that genes with Y homologues should escape from X inactivation to achieve dosage compensation between males and females. Fifty-five years later we have learned many details about these escapees that we attempt to summarize in this review, with a particular focus on recent findings...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943673/a-statistical-framework-for-pathway-and-gene-identification-from-integrative-analysis
#17
Quefeng Li, Menggang Yu, Sijian Wang
In the era of big data, integrative analyses that pool data from different sources are now extensively conducted in order to improve performance. Among many interesting applications, genomics research is an area where integrative methods become popular tools to identify prognostic biomarkers for various diseases. In this paper, we propose such a framework for pathway and gene identification. Our method employs a hierarchical decomposition on genes' effects followed by a proper regularization to identify important pathways and genes across multiple studies...
April 2017: Journal of Multivariate Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938576/computational-prediction-of-human-disease-related-micrornas-by-path-based-random-walk
#18
Israel Mugunga, Ying Ju, Xiangrong Liu, Xiaoyang Huang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that are 21-25 nucleotides in length. In animals and plants, miRNAs target specific genes for degradation or translation repression. Discovering disease-related miRNA is fundamental for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases. The association between miRNA and a disease is mainly determined via biological investigation, which is complicated by increased biological information due to big data from different databases. Researchers have utilized different computational methods to harmonize experimental approaches to discover miRNA that articulates restrictively in specific environmental situations...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936609/a-hierarchical-testing-strategy-for-micropollutants-in-drinking-water-regarding-their-potential-endocrine-disrupting-effects-towards-health-related-indicator-values
#19
Jochen Kuckelkorn, Regine Redelstein, Timon Heide, Jennifer Kunze, Sibylle Maletz, Petra Waldmann, Tamara Grummt, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert
In Germany, micropollutants that (may) occur in drinking water are assessed by means of the health-related indicator value (HRIV concept), developed by the German Federal Environment Agency. This concept offers five threshold values (≤ 0.01 to ≤ 3 μg l(-1)) depending on availability and completeness of data regarding genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and germ cell-damaging potential. However, the HRIV concept is yet lacking integration of endocrine disruptors as one of the most prominent toxicological concerns in water bodies, including drinking water...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935617/the-adverse-drug-reactions-from-patient-reports-in-social-media-project-five-major-challenges-to-overcome-to-operationalize-analysis-and-efficiently-support-pharmacovigilance-process
#20
Cedric Bousquet, Badisse Dahamna, Sylvie Guillemin-Lanne, Stefan J Darmoni, Carole Faviez, Charles Huot, Sandrine Katsahian, Vincent Leroux, Suzanne Pereira, Christophe Richard, Stéphane Schück, Julien Souvignet, Agnès Lillo-Le Louët, Nathalie Texier
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Classical Pharmacovigilance process is limited by underreporting which justifies the current interest in new knowledge sources such as social media. The Adverse Drug Reactions from Patient Reports in Social Media (ADR-PRISM) project aims to extract ADRs reported by patients in these media. We identified 5 major challenges to overcome to operationalize the analysis of patient posts: (1) variable quality of information on social media, (2) guarantee of data privacy, (3) response to pharmacovigilance expert expectations, (4) identification of relevant information within Web pages, and (5) robust and evolutive architecture...
September 21, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
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