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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092410/big-five-personality-characteristics-are-associated-with-depression-subtypes-and-symptom-dimensions-of-depression-in-older-adults
#1
A M L Koorevaar, J M Hegeman, F Lamers, A D F Dhondt, R C van der Mast, M L Stek, H C Comijs
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations of personality characteristics with both subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression in older adults. METHODS: Three hundred and seventy-eight depressed older adults participated in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons. Personality characteristics were assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression were determined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS)...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073333/how-orthogonal-are-the-big-two-of-social-perception-on-the-curvilinear-relation-between-agency-and-communion
#2
Roland Imhoff, Alex Koch
Humans make sense of their social environment by forming impressions of others that allow predicting others' actions. In this process of social perception, two types of information carry pivotal importance: other entities' communion (i.e., warmth and trustworthiness) and agency (i.e., status and power). Although commonly thought of as orthogonal dimensions, we propose that these Big Two of social perception are curvilinearly related. Specifically, as we delineate from four different theoretical explanations, impressions of communion should peak at average agency, while entities too high or too low on agency should be perceived as low on communion...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063318/radial-metal-concentration-profiles-in-trees-growing-on-highly-contaminated-soils
#3
Pierre-Jean Superville, Niels de Winter, Anh Tuan Phung, Nicolas Proix, Willy Baeyens, Yue Gao
The soil around Metaleurop, a big smelter, is heavily contaminated by Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu. In order to compare the impact of different soil amendments on the metal availability to trees, the polluted soil section was divided in a reference parcel and two others with either sulfo-calcic or silico-aluminous ash amendments. Five different tree species were planted on the parcels and the uptake of heavy metals in these trees was studied. Total and labile metal fractions were assessed in each of the 3 parcels. The mobility and assimilation of the metals was highest in the non-amended, reference soil parcel which had the lowest pH, organic matter and carbonate content...
December 31, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062926/selecting-for-creativity-and-innovation-potential-implications-for-practice-in-healthcare-education
#4
Fiona Patterson, Lara Dawn Zibarras
The ability to innovate is an important requirement in many organisations. Despite this pressing need, few selection systems in healthcare focus on identifying the potential for creativity and innovation and so this area has been vastly under-researched. As a first step towards understanding how we might select for creativity and innovation, this paper explores the use of a trait-based measure of creativity and innovation potential, and evaluates its efficacy for use in selection for healthcare education. This study uses a sample of 188 postgraduate physicians applying for education and training in UK General Practice...
January 6, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057113/-monitoring-and-research-on-pathogen-spectrum-in-patients-with-acute-diarrhea-from-sentinel-hospital-of-zhejiang-province-during-2009-to-2014
#5
S F Zheng, F Yu, X Chen, D W Cui, X Z Yang, G L Xie, Y Y Wang, J X Yu, Z J Li, Y Chen
Objective: To explore pathogen spectrum constitution of acute diarrhea in outpatient and emergency of Zhejiang Province, and provide basis for treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Methods: During January 2009 to December 2014, we selected seven sentinel hospitals in different regions of Zhejiang, monitored and researched on pathogen spectrum in patients with acute diarrhea from outpatient and emergency. We recorded patients' personal basic information, the main symptoms and signs, and collected stool samples (5 g)...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055273/higher-scores-in-the-extraversion-personality-trait-are-associated-with-a-functional-polymorphism-in-the-per3-gene-in-healthy-subjects
#6
Karen M Jiménez, Angela J Pereira-Morales, Diego A Forero
A polymorphism in the PER3 (period circadian clock 3) gene has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and endophenotypes. We evaluated the possible association of personality domains with the PER3 polymorphism in a sample of healthy subjects: 271 individuals were evaluated with the Big Five Inventory and genotyped for the PER3 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. We found a significant association between the PER3 polymorphism and the extraversion personality trait (p = 0.0093). The 5/5 genotype carriers showed higher scores for extraversion...
January 5, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045302/using-personality-neuroscience-to-study-personality-disorder
#7
Samantha V Abram, Colin G DeYoung
Personality neuroscience integrates techniques from personality psychology and neuroscience to elucidate the neural basis of individual differences in cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. This endeavor is pertinent not only to our understanding of healthy personality variation, but also to the aberrant trait manifestations present in personality disorders and severe psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on the advances and limitations of neuroimaging methods with respect to personality neuroscience...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043540/nationwide-hiv-mdr-tb-survey-in-japan-and-collaborative-study-in-the-philippines
#8
Toshio Hattori, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Hideaki Nagai, Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Elizabeth Telan, Marietta B Solante
BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection in Japan is low, careful monitoring of these two diseases is necessary. We conducted a nationwide survey on multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB (2011-2013) and HIV-TB (2007-2014) to understand the mode of prevention and the effect of therapy. A study on MDR-TB and HIV in San Lazaro Hospital (SLH) in the Philippines was also conducted. These studies introduced an international collaborative study against the global epidemics of HIV-TB/MDR-TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035671/unique-associations-between-big-five-personality-aspects-and-multiple-dimensions-of-well-being
#9
Jessie Sun, Scott Barry Kaufman, Luke D Smillie
OBJECTIVE: Personality traits are associated with well-being, but the precise correlates vary across well-being dimensions and within each Big Five domain. This study is the first to examine the unique associations between the Big Five aspects (rather than facets) and multiple well-being dimensions. METHOD: Two samples of U.S. participants (Total N = 706, Mage = 36.17, 54% female) recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed measures of the Big Five aspects and subjective, psychological, and PERMA well-being...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019121/personality-emotional-qualities-of-leisure-and-subjective-well-being-in-the-elderly
#10
Patricia Kahlbaugh, Loreen Huffman
In this study, we examined personality traits of older adults and their emotional experiences associated with engaging in specific leisure activities. Older individuals (17 males, 32 females), ages ranging from 65 to 97 years (mean age 74), completed measures of Big Five personality traits, positive and negative affect, subjective well-being (SWB), independent functioning, and an emotion-activity inventory. As expected, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to experience were related to positive affect, while Neuroticism was related to negative affect...
January 1, 2016: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018381/model-assisted-estimation-of-the-genetic-variability-in-physiological-parameters-related-to-tomato-fruit-growth-under-contrasted-water-conditions
#11
Dario Constantinescu, Mohamed-Mahmoud Memmah, Gilles Vercambre, Michel Génard, Valentina Baldazzi, Mathilde Causse, Elise Albert, Béatrice Brunel, Pierre Valsesia, Nadia Bertin
Drought stress is a major abiotic stress threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding mechanisms governing water and carbon accumulations and identifying genes, QTLs and phenotypes, that will enable trade-offs between fruit growth and quality under Water Deficit (WD) condition is a crucial challenge for breeders and growers. In the present work, 117 recombinant inbred lines of a population of Solanum lycopersicum were phenotyped under control and WD conditions. Plant water status, fruit growth and composition were measured and data were used to calibrate a process-based model describing water and carbon fluxes in a growing fruit as a function of plant and environment...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013324/legislation-regulating-availability-of-breast-cancer-treatment-with-particular-focus-on-prophylactic-mastectomy
#12
Paulina Rolska, Jolanta Łapa
Breast cancer is one of the most common diseases in the Polish society. In 2015, around 17,000 Polish women were diagnosed with this type of cancer. A comparison of relative survival rates for different European countries shows that the Polish oncological care system is inefficient in terms of breast cancer treatment. Women in Poland have substantially lower chances of surviving the first five years a er being diagnosed than women in most other European countries. An inspiration, and at the same time the main theme of the paper is assessing the availability of a controversial treatment, i...
2016: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009013/global-microbial-carbonate-proliferation-after-the-end-devonian-mass-extinction-mainly-controlled-by-demise-of-skeletal-bioconstructors
#13
Le Yao, Markus Aretz, Jitao Chen, Gregory E Webb, Xiangdong Wang
Microbial carbonates commonly flourished following mass extinction events. The end-Devonian (Hangenberg) mass extinction event is a first-order mass extinction on the scale of the 'Big Five' extinctions. However, to date, it is still unclear whether global microbial carbonate proliferation occurred after the Hangenberg event. The earliest known Carboniferous stromatolites on tidal flats are described from intertidal environments of the lowermost Tournaisian (Qianheishan Formation) in northwestern China. With other early Tournaisian microbe-dominated bioconstructions extensively distributed on shelves, the Qianheishan stromatolites support microbial carbonate proliferation after the Hangenberg extinction...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005431/lung-development-and-aging
#14
Andrew Bush
The onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can arise either from failure to attain the normal spirometric plateau or from an accelerated decline in lung function. Despite reports from numerous big cohorts, no single adult life factor, including smoking, accounts for this accelerated decline. By contrast, five childhood risk factors (maternal and paternal asthma, maternal smoking, childhood asthma and respiratory infections) are strongly associated with an accelerated rate of lung function decline and COPD...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994979/diet-of-the-endangered-big-headed-turtle-platysternon-megacephalum
#15
Yik-Hei Sung, Billy C H Hau, Nancy E Karraker
Populations of the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum are declining at unprecedented rates across most of its distribution in Southeast Asia owing to unsustainable harvest for pet, food, and Chinese medicine markets. Research on Asian freshwater turtles becomes more challenging as populations decline and basic ecological information is needed to inform conservation efforts. We examined fecal samples collected from P. megacephalum in five streams in Hong Kong to quantify the diet, and we compared the germination success of ingested and uningested seeds...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991626/impact-of-distributions-on-the-archetypes-and-prototypes-in-heterogeneous-nanoparticle-ensembles
#16
Michael Fernandez, Hugh F Wilson, Amanda S Barnard
The magnitude and complexity of the structural and functional data available on nanomaterials requires data analytics, statistical analysis and information technology to drive discovery. We demonstrate that multivariate statistical analysis can recognise the sets of truly significant nanostructures and their most relevant properties in heterogeneous ensembles with different probability distributions. The prototypical and archetypal nanostructures of five virtual ensembles of Si quantum dots (SiQDs) with Boltzmann, frequency, normal, Poisson and random distributions are identified using clustering and archetypal analysis, where we find that their diversity is defined by size and shape, regardless of the type of distribution...
December 19, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977220/how-distinctive-are-morningness-and-eveningness-from-the-big-five-factors-of-personality-a-meta-analytic-investigation
#17
Anastasiya A Lipnevich, Marcus Credè, Elisabeth Hahn, Frank M Spinath, Richard D Roberts, Franzis Preckel
This study explores relations between measures of individuals' circadian preferences and the Big Five. To this end, we compared a model of circadian preferences that acknowledges morningness (M) and eveningness (E) as separate dimensions to that of a model that places M and E on a single continuum (M-E). Analyses of 620 correlations from 44 independent samples (N = 16,647) revealed weak to modest relations between both dimensions of circadian preferences and the Big Five personality traits. The strongest observed relation was found between Conscientiousness and M (ρ = ...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931909/the-big-five-personality-dimensions-and-mental-health-the-mediating-role-of-alexithymia
#18
Mohammad Atari, Mahsa Yaghoubirad
The role of personality constructs on mental health has attracted research attention in the last few decades. The Big Five personality traits have been introduced as parsimonious dimensions of non-pathological traits. The five-factor model of personality includes neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness to experience. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the Big Five dimensions and mental health considering the mediating role of alexithymia as an important emotional-processing construct...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927892/a-concept-wide-association-study-of-clinical-notes-to-discover-new-predictors-of-kidney-failure
#19
Karandeep Singh, Rebecca A Betensky, Adam Wright, Gary C Curhan, David W Bates, Sushrut S Waikar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identifying predictors of kidney disease progression is critical toward the development of strategies to prevent kidney failure. Clinical notes provide a unique opportunity for big data approaches to identify novel risk factors for disease. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We used natural language processing tools to extract concepts from the preceding year's clinical notes among patients newly referred to a tertiary care center's outpatient nephrology clinics and retrospectively evaluated these concepts as predictors for the subsequent development of ESRD using proportional subdistribution hazards (competing risk) regression...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927237/the-personality-inventory-for-dsm-5-short-form-pid-5-sf-psychometric-properties-and-association-with-big-five-traits-and-pathological-beliefs-in-a-norwegian-population
#20
Jens C Thimm, Stian Jordan, Bo Bach
BACKGROUND: With the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), an alternative model for personality disorders based on personality dysfunction and pathological personality traits was introduced. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) is a 220-item self-report inventory designed to assess the personality traits of this model. Recently, a short 100-item version of the PID-5 (PID-5-SF) has been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the score reliability and structure of the Norwegian PID-5-SF...
December 7, 2016: BMC Psychology
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