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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925114/the-occurrence-of-external-causes-in-childhood-in-emergency-care-epidemiological-aspects-brazil-2014
#1
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Mércia Gomes Oliveira de Carvalho, Laura Augusta Barufaldi, Jovina Quintes Avanci, Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal
Objective: To describe emergency care for external causes in childhood, age group 0-9 years, in Brazilian capitals, collected from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA) Survey in 2014. Methods: To review data from the VIVA survey conducted in public emergency services in 24 Brazilian capitals. Variables analyzed were gender, age group (0-1 years, 2-5 years and 6-9 years), race/skin color, type of events and injuries, aggressors and other. Results: Eight thousand five hundred eighty-eight children received care, of which 8,164 (95%) were victims of accidents and 424 (5%) of violence...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918669/the-within-season-distribution-of-external-training-and-racing-workload-in-professional-male-road-cyclist
#2
Alan J Metcalfe, Paolo Menaspà, Vincent Villerius, Marc Quod, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Andrew D Govus, Chris R Abbiss
PURPOSE: To describe the within-season external workloads of professional male road cyclists for optimal training prescription. METHODS: Training and racing of four international competitive professional male cyclists (age 24 ± 2 y, body mass 77.6 ± 1.5 kg) were monitored for 12 months prior to the world team time trial championships. Three within-season phases leading up to the team time trial world championships on 20(th) Sept 2015 were defined as phase one (Oct - Jan), phase two (Feb - May) and phase three (June - Sept)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874992/on-the-road-to-health-equity-incorporating-culture-into-research
#3
EDITORIAL
Rosa M Gonzalez-Guarda, June Carrington
The increased mobility of people between and within countries throughout history has contributed to the diversification of populations worldwide. Despite the recent worldwide economic crisis, migration to both Northern and Southern regions in the world and from rural to urban areas has reached all-time highs (United Nations 2013). As a result, local communities have become increasingly diverse with individuals within these communities representing a myriad of races, ethnic groups, countries of origin, languages, religions, socioeconomic strata, histories, and lived experiences...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760278/hazard-characteristics-and-patterns-of-environmental-injustice-household-level-determinants-of-environmental-risk-in-miami-florida
#4
Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins, Jayajit Chakraborty, Marilyn Montgomery
Limited systematic comparative knowledge exists about patterns of environmental injustices in exposure to varied natural and technological hazards. To address this gap, we examine how hazard characteristics (i.e., punctuated event/suddenness of onset, frequency/magnitude, and divisibility) influence relationships between race/ethnicity, nativity, socioeconomic status (SES), older age, housing tenure, and residential hazard exposure. Sociodemographic data come from a random sample survey of 602 residents of the tricounty Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (Florida)...
October 19, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720128/deviation-from-goal-pace-body-temperature-and-body-mass-loss-as-predictors-of-road-race-performance
#5
William M Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Luke N Belval, Robert A Huggins, Rebecca L Stearns, Douglas J Casa
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pacing, gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), and percent body mass loss (%BML) on relative race performance during a warm weather 11.3km road race. DESIGN: Observational study of a sample of active runners competing in the 2014 Falmouth Road Race. METHODS: Participants ingested a TGI pill and donned a GPS enabled watch with heart rate monitoring capabilities prior to the start of the race...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716495/examining-racial-bias-as-a-potential-factor-in-pedestrian-crashes
#6
Courtney Coughenour, Sheila Clark, Ashok Singh, Eudora Claw, James Abelar, Joshua Huebner
INTRODUCTION: In the US people of color are disproportionately affected by pedestrian crashes. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for racial bias in driver yielding behaviors at midblock crosswalks in low and high income neighborhoods located in the sprawling metropolitan area of Las Vegas, NV. METHODS: Participants (1 white, 1 black female) crossed at a midblock crosswalk on a multilane road in a low income and a high income neighborhood. Trained observers recorded (1) number of cars that passed in the nearest lane before yielding while the pedestrian waited near the crosswalk at the curb (2) number of cars that passed through the crosswalk with the pedestrian in the same half of the roadway...
October 4, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712198/performance-and-physiological-effects-of-different-descending-strategies-for-cross-country-mountain-biking
#7
Matthew C Miller, Paul W Macdermid, Phil W Fink, Stephen R Stannard
This study investigated the performance-related feasibility and physiological benefits of purposefully eliminating propulsive work while descending in mountain biking and compared values to those measured during road descending. Participants cycled uphill on a road at race pace before descending over three conditions (off-road pedalling; off-road coasting; road coasting). Relatively low power output during off-road pedalling was associated with a greater oxygen uptake (p < .01) when compared with off-road coasting despite no difference in vibration exposure (p > ...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706375/mortality-and-potential-years-of-life-lost-by-road-traffic-injuries-in-brazil-2013
#8
Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade, Maria Helena Prado de Mello-Jorge
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries three years after the beginning of the Decade of Action for Traffic Safety. METHODS: We analyzed the data of the Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM - Mortality Information System) related to road traffic injuries, in 2013. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates for Brazil and geographic regions. We calculated, for the Country, the proportional mortality according to age groups, education level, race/skin color, and type or quality of the victim while user of the public highway...
October 3, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660400/how-do-individual-level-sociodemographics-and-neighbourhood-level-characteristics-influence-residential-location-behaviour-in-the-context-of-the-food-and-built-environment-findings-from-25%C3%A2-years-of-follow-up-in-the-cardia-study
#9
Pasquale E Rummo, David K Guilkey, James M Shikany, Jared P Reis, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how diet-related and activity-related amenities relate to residential location behaviour. Understanding these relationships is essential for addressing residential self-selection bias. METHODS: Using 25 years (6 examinations) of data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n=11 013 observations) and linked neighbourhood-level data from the 4 CARDIA baseline cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oakland, California, USA), we characterised participants' neighbourhoods as having low, average or high road connectivity and amenities using non-hierarchical cluster analysis...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547544/fast-men-slow-more-than-fast-women-in-a-10-kilometer-road-race
#10
Robert O Deaner, Vittorio Addona, Rickey E Carter, Michael J Joyner, Sandra K Hunter
Background. Previous studies have demonstrated that men are more likely than women to slow in the marathon (footrace). This study investigated whether the sex difference in pacing occurs for a shorter race distance. Materials & Methods. Data were acquired from the Bolder Boulder 10 km road race for the years 2008-2013, which encompassed 191,693 performances. There were two pacing measures, percentage change in pace of the first 3 miles relative to the final 3.2 miles and percentage change in pace of the first mile relative to the final 5...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500236/renal-function-in-kidney-and-liver-transplant-recipients-after-a-130-km-road-cycling-race
#11
Giovanni Mosconi, Giulio Sergio Roi, Valentina Totti, Marco Zancanaro, Alessandra Tacconi, Paola Todeschini, Eric Ramazzotti, Rocco Di Michele, Manuela Trerotola, Carlo Donati, Alessandro Nanni Costa
BACKGROUND: A few patients, after receiving solid organ transplantation, return to performing various sports and competitions; however, at present, data no study had evaluated the effects of endurance cycling races on their renal function. METHODS: Race times and short form (36) health survey questionnaires of 10 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) and 8 liver transplant recipients (LTR) transplanted recipients involved in a road cycling race (130 km) were compared with 35 healthy control subjects (HCS), also taking laboratory blood and urine tests the day before the race, at the end of the race, and 18 to 24 hours after competing...
October 2015: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448603/bicycling-crashes-on-streetcar-tram-or-train-tracks-mixed-methods-to-identify-prevention-measures
#12
Kay Teschke, Jessica Dennis, Conor C O Reynolds, Meghan Winters, M Anne Harris
BACKGROUND: Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. METHODS: We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377913/residential-proximity-to-traffic-and-female-pubertal-development
#13
Laura A McGuinn, Robert W Voss, Cecile A Laurent, Louise C Greenspan, Lawrence H Kushi, Gayle C Windham
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been linked with several adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight, which are both related to onset of puberty. No studies to date have investigated the association between TRAP and altered pubertal timing. OBJECTIVE: Determine the association between residential proximity to traffic, as a marker of long-term TRAP exposure, and age at pubertal onset in a longitudinal study of girls...
September 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293505/leukocyte-subset-changes-in-response-to-a-164-km-road-cycle-ride-in-a-hot-environment
#14
Hui-Ying Luk, Amy L McKenzie, Anthony A Duplanty, Ronald G Budnar, Danielle Levitt, Alex Fernandez, Elaine C Lee, Lawrence E Armstrong, Jakob L Vingren
The purpose of this observational study was to determine the circulating leukocyte subset response to completing the 2013 Hotter'N Hell Hundred recreational 164-km road cycle event in a hot and humid environmental condition. Twenty-eight men and four women were included in this study. Whole blood samples were obtained 1-2 hours before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the event. Electronic sizing/sorting and cytometry were used to determine complete blood counts (CBC) including neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte subsets...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242983/does-pedestrian-danger-mediate-the-relationship-between-local-walkability-and-active-travel-to-work
#15
Sandy J Slater, Lisa Nicholson, Haytham Abu Zayd, Jamie Friedman Chriqui
BACKGROUND: Environmental and policy factors play an important role in influencing people's lifestyles, physical activity (PA), and risks for developing obesity. Research suggests that more walkable communities are needed to sustain lifelong PA behavior, but there is a need to determine what local built environment features facilitate making being active the easy choice. PURPOSE: This county-level study examined the association between local walkability (walkability and traffic calming scales), pedestrian danger, and the percent of adults who used active transport to work...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186918/comparison-of-gastrointestinal-and-rectal-temperatures-during-recovery-after-a-warm-weather-road-race
#16
Yuri Hosokawa, William M Adams, Rebecca L Stearns, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT: It has been well established that gastrointestinal temperature (TGI) tracks closely with rectal temperature (TREC) during exercise. However, the field use of TGI pills is still being examined, and little is known about how measurements obtained using these devices compare during recovery after exercise in warm weather. OBJECTIVE: To compare TGI and TREC in runners who completed an 11.3-km warm-weather road race and determine if runners with higher TGI and TREC present with greater passive cooling rates during recovery...
May 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164556/low-birth-weight-and-air-pollution-in-california-which-sources-and-components-drive-the-risk
#17
Olivier Laurent, Jianlin Hu, Lianfa Li, Michael J Kleeman, Scott M Bartell, Myles Cockburn, Loraine Escobedo, Jun Wu
INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with exposure to air pollution, but there is a need to clarify which sources and components are most likely responsible. This study investigated the associations between low birth weight (LBW, <2500g) in term born infants (≥37 gestational weeks) and air pollution by source and composition in California, over the period 2001-2008. METHODS: Complementary exposure models were used: an empirical Bayesian kriging model for the interpolation of ambient pollutant measurements, a source-oriented chemical transport model (using California emission inventories) that estimated fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM2...
July 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109968/can-solid-organ-transplanted-patients-perform-a-cycling-marathon-trends-in-kidney-function-parameters-in-comparison-with-healthy-subjects
#18
G Mosconi, M L Angelini, W Balzi, V Totti, G S Roi, M Cappuccilli, M Tonioli, D Storani, M Trerotola, A N Costa
BACKGROUND: Few solid-organ-transplanted patients (TP) perform regular sport activity. Poor data are available on the safety of intense and prolonged physical exercise on this population. The aim of the study was to evaluate kidney function parameters in a group of TP in comparison with healthy volunteers (HV) involved in a long-distance road cycling race: length 130 km and total uphill gradient, 1871 m. METHODS: Nineteen TP were recruited: 10 renal, 8 liver, and 1 heart and compared with 35 HV...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27093582/occupational-safety-conditions-of-bus-drivers-in-metro-manila-the-philippines
#19
Jewelle Ann Santos, Jinky Leilanie Lu
The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents...
April 19, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27036711/the-impact-of-exercise-induced-core-body-temperature-elevations-on-coagulation-responses
#20
Matthijs T W Veltmeijer, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, Wideke Barteling, Kitty Verbeek-Knobbe, Waander L van Heerde, Maria T E Hopman
OBJECTIVES: Exercise induces changes in haemostatic parameters and core body temperature (CBT). We aimed to assess whether exercise-induced elevations in CBT induce pro-thrombotic changes in a dose-dependent manner. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: CBT and haemostatic responses were measured in 62 participants of a 15-km road race at baseline and immediately after finishing. As haemostasis assays are routinely performed at 37°C, we corrected the assay temperature for the individual's actual CBT at baseline and finish in a subgroup of n=25...
March 12, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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