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Altruism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214825/effects-of-pride-and-regret-on-geriatric-depression-a-cross-cultural-study-with-mixed-methods-approaches
#1
Othelia E Lee, Seungah Ryu
Pride and regret are self-conscious emotions that develop later in life and become a source of emotional struggle. This cross-cultural study examined the effect of the content and intensity of self-conscious emotions on Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) scores. Among a convenience sample of 234 older adults (130 in the United States and 104 in South Korea), the contents and intensities of both life regrets and pride were examined. Although a greater variety of regrets was cited by Americans, overall Korean respondents reported higher intensity of regret...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190750/the-joint-effect-of-personality-traits-and-perceived-stress-on-pedestrian-behavior-in-a-chinese-sample
#2
Tingting Zheng, Weina Qu, Yan Ge, Xianghong Sun, Kan Zhang
While improper pedestrian behavior has become an important factor related to road traffic fatalities, especially in developing countries, the effects of personality traits and/or stress on pedestrian behavior have been rarely reported. The current study explored the joint effects of five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness, neuroticism, normlessness and altruism) and global perceived stress (measured with the Perceived Stress Scale-10) on pedestrian behavior (measured with the Pedestrian Behavior Scale) in 311 Chinese individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190538/research-altruism-as-motivation-for-participation-in-community-centered-environmental-health-research
#3
Jennifer S Carrera, Phil Brown, Julia Green Brody, Rachel Morello-Frosch
Protection of human subjects in research typically focuses on extrinsic rather than intrinsic motivations for participation in research. Recent sociological literature on altruism suggests that multiple kinds of altruism exist and are grounded in a sense of connection to common humanity. We interviewed participants in eight community-centered research studies that sampled for endocrine disrupting compounds and that shared research findings with participants. The results of our analysis of participation in these studies indicate that altruistic motivations were commonly held...
November 21, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187094/organ-donation-registration-and-decision-making-among-current-blood-donors-in-the-netherlands
#4
Eva-Maria Merz, Katja van den Hurk, Wim L A M de Kort
INTRODUCTION: In the Netherlands, there is a constant shortage in donor organs, resulting in long waiting lists. The decision to register as organ donor is associated with several demographic, cultural, and personal factors. Previous research on attitudes and motivations toward blood and organ donations provided similar results. RESEARCH QUESTION: The current study investigated demographic, cultural, and personal determinants of organ donation registration among current Dutch blood donors...
September 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171333/twelve-tips-for-implementing-effective-service-learning
#5
Denese Playford, Susan Bailey, Colleen Fisher, Ania Stasinska, Lewis Marshall, Michele Gawlinski, Susan Young
Service learning is an educational methodology that facilitates transformation of students' knowledge, attitudes and attitudes around holistic care through work with community organizations. To implement academically, defensible service learning requires faculty endorsement, consideration of course credit, an enthusiastic champion able to negotiate agreements with organizations, organizations' identification of their own projects so they are willing to both fund and supervise them, curricular underpinning that imparts the project skills necessary for success, embedding at a time when students' clinical identity is being formed, small packets of curriculum elements delivered "just in time" as students engage with their project, flexible online platform/s, assessment that is organically related to the project, providing cross cultural up-skilling, and focused on the students' responsibility for their own product...
November 24, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164993/comparative-effects-of-meditation-and-exercise-on-physical-and-psychosocial-health-outcomes-a-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
Meghan K Edwards, Paul D Loprinzi
OBJECTIVE: No review papers have examined studies that have directly compared non-active forms of meditation with exercise to evaluate effects on physical or psychosocial outcomes, which was the purpose of this paper. METHODS: Studies were included if they had a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, included a non-active form of meditation and exercise as intervention arms, and evaluated physical or psychosocial outcomes. The quality of included RCTs was rated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials...
November 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161208/power-that-builds-others-and-power-that-breaks-effects-of-power-and-humility-on-altruism-and-incivility-in-female-employees
#7
David J Yoon, Steven M Farmer
Building on the approach/inhibition theory of power and the situated focus theory of power, we examine the roles of positional and personal power on altruism and incivility in workplace dyads. Results from a field study in daycare centers showed that legitimate power (a dimension of positional power) was positively associated with incivility. In contrast, personal power-referent power and expert power-was positively associated altruism and was negatively associated with incivility. Referent power was a stronger predictor of both altruism and incivility for individuals with low humility than those with high humility...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154584/digital-altruists-resolving-key-questions-about-the-empathy-altruism-hypothesis-in-an-internet-sample
#8
William H B McAuliffe, Daniel E Forster, Joachner Philippe, Michael E McCullough
Researchers have identified the capacity to take the perspective of others as a precursor to empathy-induced altruistic motivation. Consequently, investigators frequently use so-called perspective-taking instructions to manipulate empathic concern. However, most experiments using perspective-taking instructions have had modest sample sizes, undermining confidence in the replicability of results. In addition, it is unknown whether perspective-taking instructions work because they increase empathic concern or because comparison conditions reduce empathic concern (or both)...
November 20, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150417/using-facebook-to-recruit-young-australian-men-into-a-cross-sectional-human-papillomavirus-study
#9
Roopa Das, Dorothy A Machalek, Edmund G Molesworth, Suzanne M Garland
BACKGROUND: Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. METHODS: We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146826/social-preferences-of-future-physicians
#10
Jing Li, William H Dow, Shachar Kariv
We measure the social preferences of a sample of US medical students and compare their preferences with those of the general population sampled in the American Life Panel (ALP). We also compare the medical students with a subsample of highly educated, wealthy ALP subjects as well as elite law school students and undergraduate students. We further associate the heterogeneity in social preferences within medical students to the tier ranking of their medical schools and their expected specialty choice. Our experimental design allows us to rigorously distinguish altruism from preferences regarding equality-efficiency tradeoffs and accurately measure both at the individual level rather than pooling data or assuming homogeneity across subjects...
November 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142226/people-with-higher-interoceptive-sensitivity-are-more-altruistic-but-improving-interoception-does-not-increase-altruism
#11
Richard M Piech, Daniela Strelchuk, Jake Knights, Jonathan V Hjälmheden, Jonas K Olofsson, Jane E Aspell
People consistently show preferences and behaviors that benefit others at a cost to themselves, a phenomenon termed altruism. We investigated if perception of one's body signals - interoception - may be underlying such behaviors. We tested if participants' sensitivity to their own heartbeat predicted their decision on a choice between self-interest and altruism, and if improving this sensitivity through training would make participants more altruistic. Across these two experiments, interoceptive sensitivity predicted altruism measured through monetary generosity...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127597/development-of-a-practical-outcome-measure-to-account-for-individual-differences-in-quality-of-life-appraisal-the-brief-appraisal-inventory
#12
Bruce D Rapkin, Iliana Garcia, Wesley Michael, Jie Zhang, Carolyn E Schwartz
BACKGROUND: The present study evaluated the distributional and structural characteristics and explanatory power of the 23-item Brief Appraisal Inventory (BAI), a more practical appraisal measure for use in clinical research and practice. METHODS: A heterogeneous, online cohort of chronic disease patients and caregivers completed the BAI, along with demographics, comorbidities, PROMIS-10, and the Brief NEO Personality Inventory. Principal components, bivariate, and linear and logistic regression analyses addressed BAI item distributions, structure, and construct validity...
November 10, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120196/psychopathy-and-heroism-in-first-responders-traits-cut-from-the-same-cloth
#13
Christina L Patton, Sarah Francis Smith, Scott O Lilienfeld
Some scholars have posited that certain traits associated with psychopathy-namely, fearlessness, boldness, and willingness to take risks-are associated with greater engagement in heroic and altruistic acts; nevertheless, this conjecture has received little empirical attention. We examined the relations among psychopathic traits, heroism, altruism, workplace deviance, and leadership in first-responder (n = 138) and civilian (n = 104) samples recruited by means of an online platform. Across samples, fearless dominance, boldness, sensation seeking, and several other psychopathy-related variables were positively and significantly associated with everyday heroism and altruism...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113015/subfamily-dependent-alternative-reproductive-strategies-in-worker-honey-bees
#14
Boris Yagound, Michael Duncan, Nadine C Chapman, Benjamin P Oldroyd
Functional worker sterility is the defining feature of insect societies. Yet, workers are sometimes found reproducing in their own or foreign colonies. The proximate mechanisms underlying these alternative reproductive phenotypes are key to understanding how reproductive altruism and selfishness are balanced in eusocial insects. In this study we show that in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies the social environment of a worker, i.e. the presence and relatedness of the queens in a worker's natal colony and in surrounding colonies, significantly influences her fertility and drifting behaviour...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105091/links-between-contexts-and-middle-to-late-childhood-social-emotional-development
#15
Jeffrey Duong, Catherine P Bradshaw
Guided by the social-emotional learning (SEL) framework, we studied developmental trajectory patterns of five key competency outcomes spanning middle through late childhood: altruism, empathy, self-efficacy, aggression, and hyperactivity. We then assessed their links to middle childhood home, parental, and community contexts. Data from the Institute of Education Sciences' Social and Character Development Program, which comprised nearly 2,400 elementary school students who were followed from Grades 3 through 5, were analyzed using growth mixture modeling...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093697/children-s-inequity-aversion-in-procedural-justice-context-a-comparison-of-advantageous-and-disadvantageous-inequity
#16
Xiaoju Qiu, Jing Yu, Tingyu Li, Nanhua Cheng, Liqi Zhu
There are two forms of unfairness widely studied in resource allocation settings: disadvantageous inequity (DI) in which one receives less than the partner and advantageous inequity (AI) in which one receives more than the other. We investigated children's aversion to AI and DI in a procedural justice context. Children of 4-, 6-, and 8- years old were asked to spin a wheel (procedure) to decide how to allocate two different rewards with others. In each condition, they chose between a fair procedure providing equal chances for the two parties to get the bigger reward, and an unfair procedure (either a disadvantageous procedure in the DI condition, or an advantageous procedure in the AI condition)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093143/observed-altruism-in-dental-students-an-experiment-using-the-ultimatum-game
#17
Parker A S Crutchfield, Justin S Jarvis, Terry L Olson, Matthew S Wilson
The conventional wisdom in dental and medical education is that dental and medical students experience "ethical erosion" over the duration of dental and medical school. There is some evidence for this claim, but in the case of dental education the evidence consists entirely of survey research, which does not measure behavior. The aim of this study was to measure the altruistic behavior of dental students in order to fill the significant gap in knowledge of how students are disposed to behave, rather than how they are disposed to think...
November 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079809/differential-inter-subject-correlation-of-brain-activity-when-kinship-is-a-variable-in-moral-dilemma
#18
Mareike Bacha-Trams, Enrico Glerean, Robin Dunbar, Juha M Lahnakoski, Elisa Ryyppö, Mikko Sams, Iiro P Jääskeläinen
Previous behavioural studies have shown that humans act more altruistically towards kin. Whether and how knowledge of genetic relatedness translates into differential neurocognitive evaluation of observed social interactions has remained an open question. Here, we investigated how the human brain is engaged when viewing a moral dilemma between genetic vs. non-genetic sisters. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, a movie was shown, depicting refusal of organ donation between two sisters, with subjects guided to believe the sisters were related either genetically or by adoption...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070724/amygdala-midbrain-connectivity-indicates-a-role-for-the-mammalian-parental-care-system-in-human-altruism
#19
Kristin M Brethel-Haurwitz, Katherine O'Connell, Elise M Cardinale, Maria Stoianova, Sarah A Stoycos, Leah M Lozier, John W VanMeter, Abigail A Marsh
Costly altruism benefitting a stranger is a rare but evolutionarily conserved phenomenon. This behaviour may be supported by limbic and midbrain circuitry that supports mammalian caregiving. In rodents, reciprocal connections between the amygdala and the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) are critical for generating protective responses toward vulnerable and distressed offspring. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether these regions play a role in supporting costly altruism in humans...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070721/threat-and-parochialism-in-intergroup-relations-lab-in-the-field-evidence-from-rural-georgia
#20
Max Schaub
Competition between groups is widely considered to foster cooperation within groups. Evidence from laboratory experiments hints at the existence of a proximate mechanism by which humans increase their level of cooperation with their ingroup when faced with an external threat. Further work suggests that ingroup cooperation should go along with aggressive behaviour towards the outgroup, although these theories are at odds with others that see high investments in outgroup relations as important means of stabilizing intergroup relations...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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