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Altruism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701979/protecting-the-environment-for-self-interested-reasons-altruism-is-not-the-only-pathway-to-sustainability
#1
Stefano De Dominicis, P Wesley Schultz, Marino Bonaiuto
Concerns for environmental issues are important drivers of sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, and can be differentiated between those with a self-enhancing (egoistic) vs. self-transcendent (biospheric) psychological foundation. Yet to date, the dominant approach for promoting pro-environmental behavior has focused on highlighting the benefits to others or nature, rather than appealing to self-interest. Building on the Inclusion Model for Environmental Concern, we argue that egoistic and biospheric environmental concerns, respectively, conceptualized as self-interest and altruism, are hierarchically structured, such that altruism is inclusive of self-interest...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699394/stepping-out-of-the-shadows-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-phenomenological-hermeneutic-study-of-older-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-caring-for-a-therapy-dog
#2
Anna Swall, Britt Ebbeskog, Carina Lundh Hagelin, Ingegerd Fagerberg
PURPOSE: Living with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can involve a person being unable to recall and convey information in daily life. There are several ways to provide person-centred care to older people with AD, e.g. by empowering them in a situation. The use of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with a therapy dog in the care of people with dementia is increasing, with the presence of a therapy dog being described as improving, among other things, the well-being and socialization of the person...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699275/the-concepts-of-asymmetric-and-symmetric-power-can-help-resolve-the-puzzle-of-altruistic-and-cooperative-behaviour
#3
Tim Phillips
Evolutionary theory predicts competition in nature yet altruistic and cooperative behaviour appears to reduce the ability to compete in order to help others compete better. This evolutionary puzzle is usually explained by kin selection where close relatives perform altruistic and cooperative acts to help each other and by reciprocity theory (i.e. direct, indirect and generalized reciprocity) among non-kin. Here, it is proposed that the concepts of asymmetry and symmetry in power and dominance are critical if we are ever to resolve the puzzle of altruism and cooperation towards non-kin...
July 11, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697119/when-guild-interests-and-professional-obligations-collide
#4
Howard Minkoff, Jeffrey Ecker
Physicians who work in medical organizations are called on to fulfill two roles: guild members who work to advance physician interests (eg, lobbying for tort reform) and professional society members who work to advance patient interests (eg, developing clinical guidelines). Most often, physicians' self-interest and their interest in patient well-being align. When they do not, members of a guild or profession may justify the prioritization of self-interest with a form of motivated reasoning (a process wherein physicians weigh data differently depending on whether it supports their a priori beliefs)...
July 7, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696302/harm-to-self-outweighs-benefit-to-others-in-moral-decision-making
#5
Lukas J Volz, B Locke Welborn, Matthias S Gobel, Michael S Gazzaniga, Scott T Grafton
How we make decisions that have direct consequences for ourselves and others forms the moral foundation of our society. Whereas economic theory contends that humans aim at maximizing their own gains, recent seminal psychological work suggests that our behavior is instead hyperaltruistic: We are more willing to sacrifice gains to spare others from harm than to spare ourselves from harm. To investigate how such egoistic and hyperaltruistic tendencies influence moral decision making, we investigated trade-off decisions combining monetary rewards and painful electric shocks, administered to the participants themselves or an anonymous other...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662653/motivations-for-participating-in-a-non-interventional-gender-based-violence-survey-in-a-low-income-setting-in-south-africa
#6
Yandisa Sikweyiya, Mzikazi Nduna, Nwabisa Shai, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Qualitative study of motivations to participate in research into violence and other sensitive issues can help interpretation of findings from community based quantitative surveys. It is equally important to conduct research that may enable a deeper understanding on what motivates people to participate in GBV studies. To date, not much research has been conducted to investigate the factors that influence non-enrolment and enrolment in GBV studies from the viewpoint of the real participants...
June 29, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653040/prospective-thinking-and-decision-making-in-primary-school-age-children
#7
Elisabetta Lombardi, Cinzia Di Dio, Ilaria Castelli, Davide Massaro, Antonella Marchetti
In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642530/oral-health-concrete-example-of-altruism
#8
J Aukett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640237/broad-consent-for-health-care-embedded-biobanking-understanding-and-reasons-to-donate-in-a-large-patient-sample
#9
Gesine Richter, Michael Krawczak, Wolfgang Lieb, Lena Wolff, Stefan Schreiber, Alena Buyx
PurposeTo facilitate ethically acceptable and practically successful health care-embedded biobanking, the attitudes and understanding of patients and their motivation to participate need to be explored.MethodsA questionnaire study was conducted among 760 outpatients of a northern German university hospital to assess their awareness of, and motivation for giving broad consent to health care-embedded biobanking, also addressing the issue of feedback on individual-level research findings.ResultsThe overall willingness to give broad consent was high (86...
June 22, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639407/factorial-structure-and-construct-validity-of-an-italian-version-of-the-fears-of-compassion-scales-a%C3%A2-study-on-non-clinical-subjects
#10
Francesco Dentale, Nicola Petrocchi, Michele Vecchione, Claudia Biagioli, Accursio Gennaro, Cristiano Violani
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at investigating the factorial structure and the construct validity of the Italian translation of the Fears of Compassion (FC) Scales in a non-clinical sample (i.e., Fear of Compassion From Others [FCFO], Fear of Compassion Towards Others [FCTO] and Fear of Self-Compassion [FSC]). An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on all the items to investigate the dimensionality of the FC scales. To assess construct validity, correlations between the FC scales and a series of construct-related measures were analysed...
June 22, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622010/-are-you-in-or-are-you-out-moral-appeals-to-the-public-in-organ-donation-poster-campaigns-a-multimodal-and-ethical-analysis
#11
Solveig L Hansen, Marthe I Eisner, Larissa Pfaller, Silke Schicktanz
Organ transplantation is a well-established practice in modern medicine. However, many countries, especially those with an opt-in regulation, face the problem of low donation numbers. Respective public campaigns attempt to increase the number of donors by swaying public opinion with the use of carefully selected bits of information. Germany serves as a case study for an opt-in country investing approximately €7.5 million/year in the distribution of respective campaigns. To address diverse populations, large-scale posters in various public spaces still display a multitude of moral messages for organ donation...
June 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621962/-language-manipulation-surrogacy-altruism
#12
José Miguel Serrano Ruiz-Calderón
The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″...
May 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608971/the-experiences-of-pregnant-women-in-an-interventional-clinical-trial-research-in-pregnancy-ethics-ripe-study
#13
Angela Ballantyne, Susan Pullon, Lindsay Macdonald, Christine Barthow, Kristen Wickens, Julian Crane
There is increasing global pressure to ensure that pregnant women are responsibly and safely included in clinical research in order to improve the evidence base that underpins healthcare delivery during pregnancy. One supposed barrier to inclusion is the assumption that pregnant women will be reluctant to participate in research. There is however very little empirical research investigating the views of pregnant women. Their perspective on the benefits, burdens and risks of research is a crucial component to ensuring effective recruitment...
July 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602394/reputational-concerns-with-altruistic-providers
#14
Pau Olivella, Luigi Siciliani
We study a model of reputational concerns when doctors differ in their degree of altruism and they can signal their altruism by their (observable) quality. When reputational concerns are high, following the introduction or enhancement of public reporting, the less altruistic (bad) doctor mimics the more altruistic (good) doctor. Otherwise, either a separating or a semi-separating equilibrium arises: the bad doctor mimics the good doctor with probability less than one. Pay-for-performance incentive schemes are unlikely to induce crowding out, unless some dimensions of quality are unobservable...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600644/women-s-experiences-of-participating-in-a-prospective-longitudinal-postpartum-depression-study-insights-for-perinatal-mental-health-researchers
#15
Heather J Andrighetti, Alicia Semaka, Jehannine C Austin
Barriers to recruitment for research on mental illness include participant distrust of researchers and social stigma. Though these issues may be acutely important in perinatal mental health research, they remain unexplored in this context. In order to inform strategies to more fully engage women in perinatal mental health research, we explored the motivations and experiences of women with a history of major depressive disorder who participated in a prospective longitudinal research study on postpartum depression (PPD)...
August 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595063/motivations-for-volunteers-in-food-rescue-nutrition
#16
T Y Mousa, J H Freeland-Graves
OBJECTIVE: A variety of organizations redistribute surplus food to low-income populations through food rescue nutrition. Why volunteers participate in these charitable organizations is unclear. The aim of this study is to document the participation and motivations of volunteers who are involved specifically in food rescue nutrition. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. METHODS: In phase 1, a new instrument, Motivations to Volunteer Scale, was developed and validated in 40 participants (aged ≥18 years)...
June 5, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592287/naloxone-and-the-inner-city-youth-experience-nicye-a-community-based-participatory-research-study-examining-young-people-s-perceptions-of-the-bc-take-home-naloxone-program
#17
Keren Mitchell, S Elise Durante, Katrina Pellatt, Chris G Richardson, Steve Mathias, Jane A Buxton
BACKGROUND: Take home naloxone (THN) programs reduce mortality by training bystanders to respond to opioid overdoses. Clinical observation by the health care team at the Inner City Youth (ICY) program indicated that young adults appeared to enthusiastically participate in the THN program and developed improved relationships with staff after THN training. However, we found a dearth of literature exploring the experiences of young adults with THN programs. This study set out to address this gap and identify suggestions from the young adults for program improvement...
June 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578452/multilevel-mutation-selection-systems-and-set-valued-duals
#18
Donald A Dawson
A class of measure-valued processes which model multilevel multitype populations undergoing mutation, selection, genetic drift and spatial migration is considered. We investigate the qualitative behaviour of models with multilevel selection and the interaction between the different levels of selection. The basic tools in our analysis include the martingale problem formulation for measure-valued processes and a generalization of the function-valued and set-valued dual representations introduced in Dawson-Greven (Spatial Fleming-Viot models with selection and mutation...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566126/survey-on-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-about-blood-donation-among-continuing-medical-education-cme-students-in-sichuan-province-china
#19
Lei Gao, Qiang Wang
The study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among continuing medical education students in Sichuan.This study was carried out on 841 continuing medical education students using a self-administered structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software.Among the 800 students, 424 were donors and 417 were non-donors The score of knowledge (mean11.71±2.22 VS 8.46±3.27) and attitude (mean 9.19±2.42 VS 7.08±2.02) in donors were statistically significant higher than the non-donors...
May 10, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556481/if-you-needed-an-organ-transplant-would-you-have-one-the-effect-of-reciprocity-priming-and-mode-of-delivery-on-organ-donor-registration-intentions-and-behaviour
#20
Ronan E O'Carroll, Lorna Haddow, Laura Foley, Jody Quigley
OBJECTIVE: There are approximately 6,500 people on the UK national transplant waiting list, around 400 of whom die every year. Only 35% of the UK population are currently on the organ donation register. We report two studies examining whether a reciprocity prime, in which participants were asked whether they would accept a donated organ, increased organ donation intentions and behaviour. DESIGN: Between-participants, randomized controlled design. METHODS: In two studies, participants who were not currently registered organ donors took part either face-to-face or online and were randomly allocated to a reciprocity prime or control condition...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
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