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Altruism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412511/difference-in-neural-response-to-social-exclusion-observation-and-subsequent-altruism-between-adolescents-and-adults
#1
Béatrice Tousignant, Fanny Eugène, Katia Sirois, Philip L Jackson
Empathy and prosocial behaviors toward peers promote successful social development and creation of significant long-term relationships, but surprisingly little is known about the maturation of these skills during the period of adolescence. As the majority of studies have used questionnaires or pain observation paradigms, it remains unknown whether the empathic response of adolescents differs from that of adults in a paradigm that is closer to everyday life. In the current study, fMRI was used to examine the neural correlates of social exclusion observation and subsequent prosocial behavior in 20 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) and 20 adults (aged 22-30 years) while playing a ball-tossing game with what they believed to be real individuals...
April 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408120/quantifying-population-preferences-around-vaccination-against-severe-but-rare-diseases-a-conjoint-analysis-among-french-university-students-2016
#2
Joy Seanehia, Carole Treibich, Christine Holmberg, Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, Valerie Casin, Jocelyn Raude, Judith E Mueller
BACKGROUND: Several concepts are available to explain vaccine decision making by individual and inter-individual factors, including risk perception, social conformism and altruism. However, only a few studies have quantified the weight of these determinants in vaccine acceptance. Using a conjoint analysis tool, we aimed at eliciting preferences in a student population regarding vaccination against a rare, severe and rapidly evolving hypothetical disease, similar to meningococcal serogroup C meningitis or measles...
April 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386424/genetic-polymorphisms-between-altruism-and-selfishness-close-to-the-hamilton-threshold-rb%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c
#3
Richard M Sibly, Robert N Curnow
Genes that in certain conditions make their carriers altruistic are being identified, and altruism and selfishness have shown to be heritable in man. This raises the possibility that genetic polymorphisms for altruism/selfishness exist in man and other animals. Here we characterize some of the conditions in which genetic polymorphisms may occur. We show for dominant or recessive alleles how the positions of stable equilibria depend on the benefit to the recipient, b, and the cost to the altruist, c, for diploid altruists helping half or full sibs, and haplodiploid altruists helping sisters...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373540/reach-and-speed-of-judgment-propagation-in-the-laboratory
#4
Mehdi Moussaïd, Stefan M Herzog, Juliane E Kämmer, Ralph Hertwig
In recent years, a large body of research has demonstrated that judgments and behaviors can propagate from person to person. Phenomena as diverse as political mobilization, health practices, altruism, and emotional states exhibit similar dynamics of social contagion. The precise mechanisms of judgment propagation are not well understood, however, because it is difficult to control for confounding factors such as homophily or dynamic network structures. We introduce an experimental design that renders possible the stringent study of judgment propagation...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369796/value-orientations-and-social-attitudes-in-the-holistic-milieu
#5
Franz Höllinger
Based on a representative population survey for Germany this article investigates whether engagement in holistic activities is associated with privatized lifestyles and lack of social responsibility or with countercultural orientations and base-democratic political commitment. To analyse this question, respondents who are engaged in holistic activities are divided into three groups that are compared with each other as well as with Christians and non-religious people. The findings show that the three holistic groups are characterized by clearly different attitudinal patterns: Respondents engaged in body-mind-spirit activities have an affinity to self-directed ways of life, post-materialism and environmentalism...
April 1, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364967/-does-the-french-big-five-inventory-evaluate-facets-other-than-the-big-five-factors
#6
R Courtois, J-M Petot, B Lignier, G Lecocq, O Plaisant
INTRODUCTION: The Big Five Inventory (BFI) developed by John et al. (1991) is one of the most widely accepted tools for assessing dimensions of personality. It comprises 44 items that assess five broad dimensions of personality (the Big Five Factors): Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness to experience. Based on correlations with the facets described in the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R), another Big Five assessment tool with 240 items and 6 facets per dimension, Soto and John (2009) showed that the dimensions in the BFI could be divided into two facets each (ten facets altogether)...
March 29, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359425/contribution-of-group-therapeutic-factors-to-the-outcome-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-patients-with-panic-disorder
#7
Andressa Behenck, Ana Cristina Wesner, Débora Finkler, Elizeth Heldt
BACKGROUND: Investigating the contribution of therapeutic factors arising from the collective nature or group therapy to treat mental disorders may help therapists maximize the outcome of therapy. Studies about the role of therapeutic factors in cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for panic disorder (PD) patients are still scarce. OBJECTIVES: To identify the therapeutic factors rated as the most useful by patients during CBGT. Also, we aimed to investigate the relationship between patient rating of therapeutic factors and specific stages of CBGT...
April 2017: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327219/intelligence-competitive-altruism-and-clever-silliness-may-underlie-bias-in-academe
#8
Guy Madison, Edward Dutton, Charlotta Stern
Why is social bias and its depressing effects on low-status or low-performing groups exaggerated? We show that the higher intelligence of academics has at best a very weak effect on reducing their bias, facilitates superficially justifying their biases, and may make them better at understanding the benefits of social conformity in general and competitive altruism specifically. We foresee a surge in research examining these mechanisms and recommend, meanwhile, reviving and better observing scientific ideals.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315154/appealing-to-altruism-may-not-work-but-don-t-give-up-hope
#9
Christopher Moriates, David Ring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301701/enrolling-in-clinical-research-while-incarcerated-what-influences-participants-decisions
#10
Paul P Christopher, Lorena G Garcia-Sampson, Michael Stein, Jennifer Johnson, Josiah Rich, Charles Lidz
As a 2006 Institute of Medicine report highlights, surprisingly little empirical attention has been paid to how prisoners arrive at decisions to participate in modern research. With our study, we aimed to fill this gap by identifying a more comprehensive range of factors as reported by prisoners themselves during semistructured interviews. Our participants described a diverse range of motives, both favoring and opposing their eventual decision to join. Many are well-recognized considerations among nonincarcerated clinical research participants, including a desire for various forms of personal benefit, altruism, and concern about study risks and inconveniences...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301323/deciphering-the-modulatory-role-of-oxytocin-in-human-altruism
#11
René Hurlemann, Nina Marsh
Unlike any other species, humans frequently engage in altruistic behaviors by which they increase another individual's welfare even if this implies personal costs. The psychological motives underlying altruistic behaviors remain diverse, ranging from the ability to reciprocate trust and cooperation to bonding and empathizing with family members or even genetically unrelated others. This article explores the neuroendocrine architecture of altruism by emphasizing the crucial role of the evolutionarily highly conserved peptide hormone oxytocin as a modulator of cooperative behaviors including empathy-driven altruism...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298243/the-gender-gap-in-relation-to-happiness-and-preferences-in-married-couples-after-childbirth-evidence-from-a-field-experiment-in-rural-ghana
#12
Yusuke Kamiya, Bright Akpalu, Emmanuel Mahama, Emmanuel Kwesi Ayipah, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Abraham Hodgson, Akira Shibanuma, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Masamine Jimba
BACKGROUND: How does the gap in preferences between married couples affect their happiness after childbirth? Are couples that share similar preferences happier? In recent years, gender, marriage, and happiness have been considered to be key issues in public health research. Although much research has examined the happiness status of married couples, practically no study has explored the gender gap in relation to happiness and the preferences of married couples after childbirth. Therefore, our study was conducted to assess the association between the preference gap and the happiness status among married couples in the afterbirth period...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284989/punishment-in-the-form-of-shared-cost-promotes-altruism-in-the-cooperative-dilemma-games
#13
Chunyan Zhang, Yuying Zhu, Zengqiang Chen, Jianlei Zhang
One phenomenon or social institution often observed in multi-agent interactions is the altruistic punishment, i.e. the punishment of unfair behavior by others at a personal cost. Inspired by the works focusing on punishment and the intricate mechanism behind it, we theoretically study the strategy evolution in the framework of two-strategy game models with the punishment on defectors, moreover, the cost of punishing will be evenly shared among the cooperators. Theoretical computations suggest that larger punishment on defectors or smaller punishment cost incurred by cooperators will enhance the fixation of altruistic cooperation in the population...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282393/free-to-help-an-experiment-on-free-will-belief-and-altruism
#14
Job Harms, Kellie Liket, John Protzko, Vera Schölmerich
How does belief in free will affect altruistic behavior? In an online experiment we undermine subjects' belief in free will through a priming task. Subjects subsequently conduct a series of binary dictator games in which they can distribute money between themselves and a charity that supports low-income people in developing countries. In each decision task, subjects choose between two different distributions, one of which is more generous towards the charity. In contrast to previous experiments that report a negative effect of undermining free will on honest behavior and self-reported willingness to help, we find an insignificant average treatment effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281423/an-imaginary-legal-conundrum-a-reply-to-the-response-by-mahomed-n%C3%A3-thling-slabbert-and-pepper
#15
D Jordaan
In their original article on the subject of research using human biological material, Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper advanced the notion that the law regarding ownership of human biological material is uncertain, and proposed that our country's healthcare policy of altruism be changed to mandatory profit-sharing by research participants. In my critique article, I took issue with the notion that the relevant law is uncertain, and suggested that Mahomed et al. failed to present a convincing argument in support of the proposed policy change from altruism to profit-sharing...
February 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277924/follow-your-heart-development-of-an-evidence-based-campaign-empowering-older-women-with-hiv-to-participate-in-a-large-scale-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-trial
#16
Markella V Zanni, Kathleen Fitch, Corinne Rivard, Laura Sanchez, Pamela S Douglas, Steven Grinspoon, Laura Smeaton, Judith S Currier, Sara E Looby
BACKGROUND: Women's under-representation in HIV and cardiovascular disease (CVD) research suggests a need for novel strategies to ensure robust representation of women in HIV-associated CVD research. OBJECTIVE: To elicit perspectives on CVD research participation among a community-sample of women with or at risk for HIV, and to apply acquired insights toward the development of an evidence-based campaign empowering older women with HIV to participate in a large-scale CVD prevention trial...
March 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274987/the-university-of-north-carolina-medical-center-pharmacy-resident-leadership-certificate-program
#17
Kayley Lyons, Danielle Griggs, Rachel Lebovic, Mary E Roth, David A South, Chad Hatfield
PURPOSE: The development and implementation of a certificate program for pharmacy residents are described. SUMMARY: University of North Carolina (UNC) Medical Center met the call for increased efforts in the area of pharmacy residency leadership training through the design, implementation, and evaluation of a leadership certificate program. The purpose of the UNC certificate program is to develop leaders who will serve others, improve their communities, and advance the profession...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273587/generous-to-whom-the-influence-of-oxytocin-on-social-discounting
#18
Narun Pornpattananangkul, Junfeng Zhang, Qiaoyu Chen, Bing Cai Kok, Rongjun Yu
Oxytocin is thought to play an essential role in pro-social behaviors, such as generosity and altruism, in humans. Yet, most research in humans that demonstrated the pro-social effect of oxytocin had participants interact with partners who were total strangers to them. In real life, however, people often interact with others varying in social relatedness with them (a concept known as social distance), ranging from their parents to total strangers. Here we employed the social-discounting framework to investigate whether the effect of oxytocin on prosociality depends on the social distance between the participants and their interaction partners...
February 20, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268203/effects-of-altruism-and-burnout-on-driving-behavior-of-bus-drivers
#19
Xia Shi, Liang Zhang
Personality traits predict driving behaviors. However, the mechanism underlying this relationship has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers. The current study investigated the relationship between altruistic personality and aberrant driving behaviors, and the potential role of burnout. A total of 194 bus drivers completed questionnaires including measures of altruism, burnout and aberrant driving behaviors (aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors, and lapses). The results showed that altruism was negatively correlated with burnout, and with all the four subcategories of aberrant driving behavior...
March 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251864/typologies-of-altruistic-and-financial-motivations-for-research-participation
#20
Lisa J Chin, Jacqueline A Berenson, Robert L Klitzman
Questions arise concerning participants' motives in risky studies, such as HIV vaccine trials (HVTs). We interviewed in-depth 20 gay/bisexual men. Participants described both altruistic and nonaltruistic motives. Altruistic motivations emerged primarily, with nine typologies: (a) cultural, (b) community related, (c) familial, (d) religious, (e) professional, (f) political (e.g., HIV activism), (g) moral (e.g., making up for past wrongs), (h) existential (e.g., providing sense of meaning), and (i) other psychological (e...
October 2016: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
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