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Altruism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664969/putting-a-premium-on-altruism-a-social-discounting-experiment-with-south-african-university-students
#1
Frederik Booysen, Sevias Guvuriro, Alistair Munro, Tshepo Moloi, Celeste Campher
This paper reports on a social discounting experiment conducted with university students in South Africa. In line with other social discounting task experiments, participants identify target individuals at different degrees of intimacy in their social network and then make 10 choices involving sums of money for themselves or their targets. For an altruism premium to exist, senders' donations to recipients should be positive, statistically and economically significant, and independent of relationship closeness...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659341/impediments-to-effective-altruism-the-role-of-subjective-preferences-in-charitable-giving
#2
Jonathan Z Berman, Alixandra Barasch, Emma E Levine, Deborah A Small
Charity could do the most good if every dollar donated went to causes that produced the greatest welfare gains. In line with this proposition, the effective-altruism movement seeks to provide individuals with information regarding the effectiveness of charities in hopes that they will contribute to organizations that maximize the social return of their donation. In this research, we investigated the extent to which presenting effectiveness information leads people to choose more effective charities. We found that even when effectiveness information is made easily comparable across options, it has a limited impact on choice...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643220/mesotocin-influences-pinyon-jay-prosociality
#3
J F Duque, W Leichner, H Ahmann, J R Stevens
Many species exhibit prosocial behaviour, in which one individual's actions benefit another individual, often without an immediate benefit to itself. The neuropeptide oxytocin is an important hormonal mechanism influencing prosociality in mammals, but it is unclear whether the avian homologue mesotocin plays a similar functional role in birds. Here, we experimentally tested prosociality in pinyon jays ( Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus ), a highly social corvid species that spontaneously shares food with others. First, we measured prosocial preferences in a prosocial choice task with two different pay-off distributions: Prosocial trials delivered food to both the subject and either an empty cage or a partner bird, whereas Altruism trials delivered food only to an empty cage or a partner bird (none to subject)...
April 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621313/relative-solidarity-conceptualising-communal-participation-in-genomic-research-among-potential-research-participants-in-a-developing-sub-saharan-african-setting
#4
Olubunmi Ogunrin, Kerry Woolfall, Mark Gabbay, Lucy Frith
OBJECTIVE: As genomic research gathers momentum in sub-Saharan Africa, it has become increasingly important to understand the reasons why individuals wish to participate in this kind of medical research. Against the background of communitarianism conceived as typical of African communities, it is often suggested that individuals consent to participate on the grounds of solidarity and to further the common good. In this paper, we seek to explore this contention by presenting data from focus groups with potential research participants about what would influence their decisions to participate in genomic research...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618294/a-research-note-on-the-influence-of-relationship-length-and-sex-on-preferences-for-altruistic-and-cooperative-mates
#5
Manpal Singh Bhogal, Niall Galbraith, Ken Manktelow
Previous literature suggests that altruism may have evolved as a sexually selectable trait. Recent research suggests that women seek altruistic traits for long-term, not short-term relationships, as altruism can serve as an honest signal of one's character. We tested this hypothesis by asking 102 participants to complete a modified version of Buss's Mate Preferences Questionnaire. We found that women placed higher importance on altruism in a mate compared to men, and this preference was greater when seeking a long-term mate, compared to a short-term mate...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618271/harmful-or-helpful-a-systematic-review-of-how-those-bereaved-through-suicide-experience-research-participation
#6
Karl Andriessen, Karolina Krysinska, Brian Draper, Michael Dudley, Philip B Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Many of the bereaved through suicide are interested in participating in postvention studies. However, there is a contradiction between the positive experiences of research participation and concerns raised by ethical boards. AIMS: To review studies on the experience of research participation by those bereaved through suicide, including initial contact with the study and its short- and long-term impacts. METHOD: Systematic searches in Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, as well as Google Scholar identified 12 papers reporting on 11 studies...
April 5, 2018: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611768/patient-perspectives-on-compensation-for-biospecimen-donation
#7
Samuel C Allen, Minisha Lohani, Kristopher A Hendershot, Travis R Deal, Taylor White, Margie D Dixon, Rebecca D Pentz
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether biospecimen donors believe they should receive compensation. This is the first study to report biospecimen donors' views on compensation and can potentially improve informed consent and recruitment practices. METHODS: Researchers asked patients undergoing surgical removal of tissue to donate biological materials to a biobank at their pre-surgical appointment or in the preoperative clinic of the Emory University Hospital...
April 3, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611455/increasing-vaccination-putting-psychological-science-into-action
#8
Noel T Brewer, Gretchen B Chapman, Alexander J Rothman, Julie Leask, Allison Kempe
Vaccination is one of the great achievements of the 20th century, yet persistent public-health problems include inadequate, delayed, and unstable vaccination uptake. Psychology offers three general propositions for understanding and intervening to increase uptake where vaccines are available and affordable. The first proposition is that thoughts and feelings can motivate getting vaccinated. Hundreds of studies have shown that risk beliefs and anticipated regret about infectious disease correlate reliably with getting vaccinated; low confidence in vaccine effectiveness and concern about safety correlate reliably with not getting vaccinated...
December 2017: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603818/altruism-honesty-and-religiosity-in-nursing-students
#9
Fiona Timmins, Carole King, Jan M A de Vries, Martin Johnson, John Cullen, Carol Haigh
BACKGROUND: Nursing is informed by values that guide care ethos and activities. Embodiment of these core values, has become a matter of concern. Reports outlining deficiencies in health care followed by polemics in nursing journals have called into question whether nursing students are sufficiently motivated by values and educated in their application. This paper explores these values among undergraduate nursing students in the Republic of Ireland. Considering the strong religious tradition in health care in Ireland, religiosity was also included...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602452/male-pattern-hair-loss-taking-one-for-the-team-the-selfless-gene
#10
Chika Edward Uzoigwe, Luis Carlos Sanchez Franco, Ignacio Gascon Conde, Adrian Sanchez Campoy
Male pattern hair loss (MPHL) is exceedingly common. It is characterised by onset in early adulthood and progression with age. It has a strong heritable component. The reason for its existence remains unexplained. Given that MPHL is progressive and has its earliest manifestations in young adults it may be a barometer of age. Here we suggest that MPHL may have atavistically allowed women in our species and ancestor species to select younger (but not necessarily the youngest) adult mates. Evidence suggests that conceptions by younger fathers are more likely to lead to live births and less likely to result in miscarriage...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595308/the-association-between-religiousness-and-children-s-altruism-the-role-of-the-recipient-s-neediness
#11
Hagit Sabato, Tehila Kogut
We examined the role of the recipient's neediness as a moderator in the relation between children's household religiosity and prosocial behavior. Examining the behavior of children (2nd and 5th graders) from religious and nonreligious households in the dictator game, we found that the extent of sharing did not differ significantly between the 2 groups when the recipient was not described as needy. However, when the recipient was presented as a poor (needy) child, the religious group exhibited significantly more sharing behavior...
March 29, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593107/social-enforcement-depending-on-the-stage-of-colony-growth-in-an-ant
#12
Hiroyuki Shimoji, Tomonori Kikuchi, Hitoshi Ohnishi, Noritsugu Kikuta, Kazuki Tsuji
Altruism is a paradox in Darwinian evolution. Policing is an important mechanism of the evolution and maintenance of altruism. A recently developed dynamic game model incorporating colony demography and inclusive fitness predicts that, in hymenopteran social insects, policing behaviour enforcing reproductive altruism in group members depends strongly on the colony growth stage, with strong policing as the colony develops and a relaxation of policing during the reproductive phase. Here, we report clear evidence supporting this prediction...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590516/organ-transplantation-and-the-uniform-anatomical-gift-act-a-fifty-year-perspective
#13
Blair L Sadler, Alfred M Sadler
Fifty years ago this summer, the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act was adopted by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and approved by the American Bar Association. The UAGA has provided a sound and stable legal platform on which to base an effective nationwide organ donation system. The cardinal principles of altruism, autonomy, and public trust are still important. At a time when confidence and trust in our government and many private institutions has declined, maintaining trust and confidence in our health care system and its commitment to "first, do no harm" has never been more important...
March 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579005/a-pediatric-service-learning-program-in-physical-therapy-education
#14
Yu-Jen Hou, Wen-Yu Liu, Yang-Hua Lin, Hen-Yu Lien, Alice M K Wong, Chien-Min Chen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this report was to describe a pediatric service-learning program in entry-level physical therapy (PT) education in Taiwan. KEY POINTS: To meet the needs of the local community and provide preclinical service-learning experience to PT students with people with physical disability, a service-learning program of a 2-day camp for children with cerebral palsy (CP) was developed in 2012. To date, 356 entry-level PT students have participated in this program, serving 286 children and their families...
April 2018: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573423/toxic-money-or-paid-altruism-the-meaning-of-payments-for-identity-release-gamete-donors
#15
Leah Gilman
Public discourses commonly frame gamete, organ and other forms of bodily donation as altruistic 'gifts'. However, despite on-going debates about the ethics of payments to donors, few studies have examined the views of donors themselves regarding the meaning of payments and their compatibility (or not) with understandings of these practices as gifts. This article addresses this issue, analysing 24 in-depth interviews with UK identity-release gamete donors. It was crucial to all participants that their donation be viewed as fundamentally other-oriented, motivated by the desire to help others...
March 24, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559527/reply-to-gilbert-on-the-relationship-between-association-and-altruism
#16
Changcao Wang, Xin Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547363/reputations-count-why-benchmarking-performance-is-improving-health-care-across-the-world
#17
Gwyn Bevan, Alice Evans, Sabina Nuti
This paper explores what motivates improved health care performance. Previously, many have thought that performance would either improve via choice and competition or by relying on trust and altruism. But neither assumption is supported by available evidence. So instead we explore a third approach of reciprocal altruism with sanctions for unacceptably poor performance and rewards for high performance. These rewards and sanctions, however, are not monetary, but in the form of reputational effects through public reporting of benchmarking of performance...
March 16, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544144/-we-are-the-heroes-because-we-are-ready-to-die-for-this-country-participants-decision-making-and-grounded-ethics-in-an-ebola-vaccine-clinical-trial
#18
Angus Fayia Tengbeh, Luisa Enria, Elizabeth Smout, Thomas Mooney, Mike Callaghan, David Ishola, Bailah Leigh, Deborah Watson-Jones, Brian Greenwood, Heidi Larson, Shelley Lees
The 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic presented a challenging setting in which to carry out clinical trials. This paper reports findings from social science research carried out in Kambia, Northern Sierra Leone during first year of an Ebola vaccine trial (August 2015-July 2016). The social science team collected data through ethnographic observation, 42 in depth interviews; 4 life narratives; 200 exit interviews; 31 key informant interviews; and 8 focus group discussions with trial participants and community members not enrolled in the trial...
March 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536374/ethical-dilemmas-and-reflexivity-in-qualitative-research
#19
Anne-Marie Reid, Jeremy M Brown, Julie M Smith, Alexandra C Cope, Susan Jamieson
CONTEXT: For medical education researchers, a key concern may be the practicalities of gaining ethical approval where this is a national or local requirement. However, in qualitative studies, where the dynamics of human interaction pervade, ethical considerations are an ongoing process which continues long after approval has been granted. Responding to ethical dilemmas arising 'in the moment' requires a reflexive approach whereby the researcher questions his/her own motivations, assumptions and interests...
March 13, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532485/facilitators-and-barriers-for-rhd-immunized-women-to-become-and-remain-anti-d-donors
#20
Yolentha Maria Slootweg, Johanna Maria Koelewijn, Wim L de Kort, Masja de Haas, Eva-Maria Merz
BACKGROUND: The successful introduction of prophylaxis with anti-RhD immunoglobulin has resulted in a significant decline of pregnancy-related RhD immunizations but also has decreased the availability of naturally immunized women as (new) anti-D donors. An influx of new donors is necessary to maintain a sufficient pool of anti-D donors. We investigated motivators, barriers, and predictors for anti-D donorship in RhD-immunized women. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A mixed-methods design was applied, including focus group discussions and questionnaires...
March 12, 2018: Transfusion
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