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Altruism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927733/participant-and-public-involvement-in-refining-a-peer-volunteering-active-aging-intervention-project-ace-active-connected-engaged
#1
Janet Withall, Janice L Thompson, Kenneth R Fox, Mark Davis, Selena Gray, Jolanthe de Koning, Liz Lloyd, Graham Parkhurst, Afroditi Stathi
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle among older adults is strong, yet only a small proportion of older people meet physical activity recommendations. A synthesis of evidence identified "best bet" approaches, and this study sought guidance from end-user representatives and stakeholders to refine one of these, a peer-volunteering active aging intervention. METHODS: Focus groups with 28 older adults and four professional volunteer managers were conducted...
December 7, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926908/community-perceptions-of-biobanking-participation-a-qualitative-study-among-mexican-americans-in-three-texas-cities
#2
Natalia I Heredia, Sarah Krasny, Larkin L Strong, Laura Von Hatten, Lynne Nguyen, Belinda M Reininger, Lorna H McNeill, María E Fernández
BACKGROUND: Most biospecimens in the US are collected from non-Hispanic Whites, limiting the generalizability of findings. There is a need to increase participation in biobanking among ethnic and racial minorities. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to identify factors that may influence Mexican-American individuals' willingness to participate in biobanking. METHODS: We conducted 15 focus groups in three Texas cities with Mexican-American individuals, in both Spanish and English...
December 8, 2016: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925368/reflections-on-the-encouragement-of-altruism-in-dental-education
#3
A C L Holden
Dental ethics and professionalism are often relegated to being taught on the coat-tails of other disciplines, if they are taught at all. The assumption that students develop professionalism as a by-product of other learned competencies in dentistry is well documented to be false, and yet, little has been done in many institutions to deal with this. This article seeks to propose that altruism should be championed in dental education and that traditional learning through the preaching of professional codes is not the appropriate way to achieve this...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920340/-the-church-of-online-support-examining-the-use-of-blogs-among-family-caregivers-of-persons-with-dementia
#4
Joel G Anderson, Elizabeth Hundt, Morgan Dean, Jessica Keim-Malpass, Ruth Palan Lopez
Many individuals, including dementia caregivers, use blogs to share their experiences. These blogs contain rich narratives representing an untapped resource for understanding the psychosocial impact of caring for a person with dementia at the family level. The present study used blogs written by caregivers of persons with dementia to explore how these individuals leveraged this medium as part of the caregiving experience. Blogs written by self-identified informal caregivers of persons with dementia were identified using a systematic search method, and data were analyzed using a qualitative thematic analysis...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Family Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914993/-solid-paediatricians-in-fluid-times-reviving-professionalism
#5
Carmen Martínez González, María Tasso Cereceda, Marta Sánchez Jacob, Isolina Riaño Galán
Professionalism is rarely taught formally. It is learned by osmosis through the hidden curriculum: a set of attitudes that each one of us transmits unconsciously to students, medical residents, and colleagues. All of us are a model or counter-model of professionalism through a series of values that have been the pillars of our profession since Hippocrates. Values that do not seem to be strong enough to pass our time. There are specific factors of the 21st century such as the financial crisis, the highly technical nature of medicine, bureaucratisation or trivialisation of the medical process that could explain, but not justify, the decline in the values of our profession: Empathy, integrity, solidarity, the altruism, or confidentiality...
November 30, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912773/china-s-health-assistance-to-africa-opportunism-or-altruism
#6
REVIEW
Shuang Lin, Liangmin Gao, Melissa Reyes, Feng Cheng, Joan Kaufman, Wafaa M El-Sadr
China has made substantial health commitments to Africa in the past several decades. However, while much has been written regarding China-Africa aid overall, relatively little attention has been given to China's health aid. To better understand these investments, we provide an overview of the current framework and characteristics of China's health aid to Africa. China's health assistance has been perceived by some as opportunistic, largely as a demonstration of China's engagement in "soft power" and an attempt to enhance its access to natural resources and political favors by African countries...
December 3, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885543/realism-and-impartiality-making-sustainability-effective-in-decision-making
#7
Miquel Bastons, Jaume Armengou
There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), considering it to be a proposal for changing the assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: (1) what effects we should consider and (2) how we should assess them...
November 24, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882629/average-cost-pricing-and-dynamic-selection-incentives-in-the-hospital-sector
#8
Mathias Kifmann, Luigi Siciliani
This study investigates dynamic incentives to select patients for hospitals that are remunerated according to a prospective payment system of the diagnosis-related group (DRG) type. Using a model with patients differing in severity within a DRG, we show that price dynamics depend on the extent of hospital altruism and the relation between patients' severity and benefit. Upwards and downwards price movements over time are both possible. In a steady state, DRG prices are unlikely to give optimal incentives to treat patients...
November 24, 2016: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879109/altruistic-aging-the-evolutionary-dynamics-balancing-longevity-and-evolvability
#9
Minette Herrera, Aaron Miller, Joel Nishimura
Altruism is typically associated with traits or behaviors that benefit the population as a whole, but are costly to the individual. We propose that, when the environment is rapidly changing, senescence (age-related deterioration) can be altruistic. According to numerical simulations of an agent-based model, while long-lived individuals can outcompete their short lived peers, populations composed of long-lived individuals are more likely to go extinct during periods of rapid environmental change. Moreover, as in many situations where other cooperative behavior arises, senescence can be stabilized in a structured population...
April 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869317/how-to-make-a-sterile-helper
#10
Philip A Downing, Charlie K Cornwallis, Ashleigh S Griffin
The sterile worker castes found in the colonies of social insects are often cited as archetypal examples of altruism in nature. The challenge is to explain why losing the ability to mate has evolved as a superior strategy for transmitting genes into future generations. We propose that two conditions are necessary for the evolution of sterility: completely overlapping generations and monogamy. A review of the literature indicates that when these two conditions are met we consistently observe the evolution of sterile helpers...
November 21, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854495/interactions-between-body-and-social-awareness-in-yoga
#11
Francesca Fiori, Salvatore M Aglioti, Nicole David
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Bodily processes have been intimately linked to social-cognitive and affective functions, such as compassion and empathy. Yet, little is known about how awareness of bodily processes influences social awareness and vice versa, especially in nonobservational but experiential investigations. This study investigated the relationship between psychometrically reported body and social awareness (including altruism, empathy, perspective-taking, and compassion) in 90 yoga and yoga-/mediation-naive control participants...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835675/group-membership-modulates-the-neural-circuitry-underlying-third-party-punishment
#12
Rosalba Morese, Daniela Rabellino, Fabio Sambataro, Felice Perussia, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Bruno G Bara, Francesca M Bosco
This research aims to explore the neural correlates involved in altruistic punishment, parochial altruism and anti-social punishment, using the Third-Party Punishment (TPP) game. In particular, this study considered these punishment behaviors in in-group vs. out-group game settings, to compare how people behave with members of their own national group and with members of another national group. The results showed that participants act altruistically to protect in-group members. This study indicates that norm violation in in-group (but not in out-group) settings results in increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction, brain regions involved in the mentalizing network, as the third-party attempts to understand or justify in-group members' behavior...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833570/phenotypic-dimensions-of-spirituality-implications-for-mental-health-in-china-india-and-the-united-states
#13
Clayton H McClintock, Elsa Lau, Lisa Miller
While the field of empirical study on religion and spirituality in relation to mental health has rapidly expanded over the past decade, little is known about underlying dimensions of spirituality cross-culturally conceived. We aimed to bridge this gap by inductively deriving potential universal dimensions of spirituality through a large-scale, multi-national data collection, and examining the relationships of these dimensions with common psychiatric conditions. Five-thousand five-hundred and twelve participants from China, India, and the United States completed a two-hour online survey consisting of wide-ranging measures of the lived experience of spirituality, as well as clinical assessments...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826413/parental-regret-regarding-children-s-vaccines-the-correlation-between-anticipated-regret-altruism-coping-strategies-and-attitudes-toward-vaccines
#14
Yaira Hamama-Raz, Eyal Ginossar-David, Menachem Ben-Ezra
BACKGROUND: Parental hesitancy for recommended childhood vaccines is a growing public health concern influenced by various factors. This study aimed to explore regret regarding parental decisions to vaccinate their children via possible correlations between anticipated regret, altruism, coping strategies, and parents' attitudes toward the vaccination of their children. METHODS: The study was conducted during 2014 in Israel. Data were collected via snowballing methodology (i...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821875/impact-of-episodic-thinking-on-altruism
#15
Richard Yi, Alison Pickover, Allison M Stuppy-Sullivan, Sydney Baker, Reid D Landes
Episodic future thinking, which refers to the use of prospective imagery to concretely imagine oneself in future scenarios, has been shown to reduce delay discounting (enhance self-control). A parallel approach, in which prospective imagery is used to concretely imagine other's scenarios, may similarly reduce social discounting (i.e., enhance altruism). In study 1, participants engaged in episodic thinking about the self or others, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. Reductions in social discounting were observed as a function of episodic thinking about others, though an interaction with order was also observed...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814502/psychological-resilience-in-u-s-military-veterans-a-2-year-nationally-representative-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Kayla Isaacs, Natalie P Mota, Jack Tsai, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Joan M Cook, Paul D Kirwin, John H Krystal, Steven M Southwick, Robert H Pietrzak
Although many cross-sectional studies have examined the correlates of psychological resilience in U.S. military veterans, few longitudinal studies have identified long-term predictors of resilience in this population. The current prospective cohort study utilized data from a nationally representative sample of 2157 U.S. military veterans who completed web-based surveys in two waves (2011 and 2013) as part of the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Cluster analysis of cumulative lifetime exposure to potentially traumatic events and Wave 2 measures of current symptoms of posttraumatic stress, major depressive, and generalized anxiety disorders was performed to characterize different profiles of current trauma-related psychological symptoms...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812415/human-altruistic-tendencies-vary-with-both-the-costliness-of-selfless-acts-and-socioeconomic-status
#17
Cyril C Grueter, Jesse A Ingram, James W Lewisson, Olivia R Bradford, Melody Taba, Rebecca E Coetzee, Michelle A Sherwood
Altruism toward strangers is considered a defining feature of humans. However, manifestation of this behaviour is contingent on the costliness of the selfless act. The extent of altruistic tendencies also varies cross-culturally, being more common in societies with higher levels of market integration. However, the existence of local variation in selfless behaviour within populations has received relatively little empirical attention. Using a 'lost letter' design, we dropped 300 letters (half of them stamped, half of them unstamped) in 15 residential suburbs of the greater Perth area that differ markedly in socioeconomic status...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803840/experiences-and-psychosocial-impact-of-west-africa-ebola-deployment-on-us-health-care-volunteers
#18
Robyn Gershon, Liza A Dernehl, Ezinne Nwankwo, Qi Zhi, Kristine Qureshi
BACKGROUND:  This qualitative study was designed to assess health care volunteers' experiences and psychosocial impacts associated with deployment to the West Africa Ebola epidemic. METHODS: In 2015, using snowball sampling, 16 US health care volunteers who had recently returned from West Africa were recruited for this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect information associated with each phase of deployment (pre, peri, and post). RESULTS: Participants reported that they were motivated to volunteer because of a sense of responsibility and feelings of empathy and altruism...
September 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796826/revisiting-psychological-mechanisms-in-the-anthropology-of-altruism
#19
Joseph Hackman, Shirajum Munira, Khaleda Jasmin, Daniel Hruschka
Anthropologists have long been interested in the reasons humans choose to help some individuals and not others. Early research considered psychological mediators, such as feelings of cohesion or closeness, but more recent work, largely in the tradition of human behavioral ecology, shifted attention away from psychological measures to clearer observables, such as past behavior, genetic relatedness, affinal ties, and geographic proximity. In this paper, we assess the value of reintegrating psychological measures-perceived social closeness-into the anthropological study of altruism...
October 28, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795455/blood-soy-milk-and-vitality-the-wartime-origins-of-blood-banking-in-china-1943-45
#20
Wayne Soon
This article examines the multiple meanings of blood transfusion and banking in modern China through the history of the first Chinese blood bank, established by the Overseas Chinese in 1943 to solicit blood for the war effort. Through investigating the attitudes of Chinese soldiers and civilians toward the blood bank, this article argues for the multiplicity of motivations underpinning society's attitudes toward blood banking and donation. Cultural notions of blood were an important but not the sole factor in their consideration...
2016: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
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