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Jugui Dai, Yiqiang Zhang, Victor Shi
There has been an urgent challenge for environmental protection due to issues like population increase, climate change, and pollution. To address this challenge, sustained human cooperation is critical. However, how cooperation in human beings evolves is one of the 125 most challenging scientific questions, as announced by Science in its 125th anniversary. In this paper, we contribute to answering this question by building an economic game model based on indirect reciprocity and altruism behavior. In our model, there are three types of participants: cooperator, defector, and discriminator...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gulhan Erkus, Leyla Dinc
This study aimed to examine the professional values of nurses in Turkey. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 310 nurses employed at public, university, and private hospitals between May-June 2015. Data were collected using a data collection form and the Nurses' Professional Values Scale-Revised, and they were analysed using descriptive statistics. Associations between socio-demographic variables and mean scores were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Nurses had higher scores on perception of professional values, and education level and years of professional experience were associated with higher scores...
May 2018: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Shui Hung Wong, Amy Yin Man Chow
The posthumous organ donation reasoned action scale (PODRAS) may be the first multidimensional scale measuring individuals' perceptions, which is developed based on the Theory of Reasoned Action and guided by empirical data. This study moves further to validate the scale and examine its psychometric properties. Two hundred and twenty-one university students participated in the study. Results suggested that the scale has a structure with six dimensions: Mutilation and Imperfectness, Legacy for Family, Altruism, Detachment, Eradication of Hope, and Burden on Family...
January 1, 2018: Omega
Rui Han, Lin Wei, Jingping Li, Ding Zhang, Hongliang Li
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate OCB among physicians in China and explore whether their job satisfaction mediates the association between doctor-patient relationship (DPR) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 1400 physicians in Shaanxi, China in 2014. The subjects were selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling methodology. The self-administered questionnaires included OCB Scale, DDPRQ, and PJSQ...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Ben Saunders
It has traditionally been assumed that organ donation must be altruistic, though the necessity of altruistic motivations has recently been questioned. Few, however, have questioned whether altruism is always a good motive. This paper considers the possibility that excessive altruism, or self-abnegation, may be intrinsically bad. How this may be so is illustrated with reference to Tom Hurka's account of the value of attitudes, which suggests that disproportionate love of one's own good-either excessive or deficient-is intrinsically bad...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Birgit Braun, Christian Weinland, Johannes Kornhuber, Bernd Lenz
Aims: To compare religious denomination, religiosity, guilt, altruism and forgiveness between alcohol-dependent patients and healthy control subjects and to prospectively investigate their relationship to the disorder's 24-month course following in-patient withdrawal treatment. Method: This study in Franconia (a mainly Christian protestant region of southern Germany) applied six questionnaires to evaluate religiosity, guilt, altruism and forgiveness in 166 alcohol-dependent in-patients during withdrawal and compared findings with that of 240 healthy controls...
April 18, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Omar Tonsi Eldakar, J Oliver Kammeyer, Nikhil Nagabandi, Andrew C Gallup
Altruism presents an evolutionary paradox, as altruistic individuals are good for the group yet vulnerable to exploitation by selfish individuals. One mechanism that can effectively curtail selfishness within groups is punishment. Here, we show in an evolutionary game-theoretical model that punishment can effectively evolve and maintain high levels of altruism in the population, yet not all punishment strategies were equally virtuous. Unlike typical models of social evolution, we explicitly altered the extent to which individuals vary in their power over others, such that powerful individuals can more readily punish and escape the punishment of others...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Mohammad Ali Jahani, Shahrbanoo Mahmoudjanloo, Fatemeh Hoseini Rostami, Hosein Ali Nikbakht, Ghahraman Mahmoudi
Studying the role of employees as the base of an organization on achieving organizational goals has increased in recent years [1]. To have better organizational citizens, organizations should encourage their staff [2]. As the most powerful form of organizational behavior, organizational citizenship is more influential than organizational cooperation [3]. Studies have shown that cooperative behavior, such as the citizenship behavior results in easier organizational communication, promoting organizational planning, improving inter-personal cooperation and developing better organizational climate, directly influence staff satisfaction, work life quality, service-provision, job commitment and financial output [4]...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Nicholas G Davies, Andy Gardner
Monogamy is associated with sibling-directed altruism in multiple animal taxa, including insects, birds and mammals. Inclusive-fitness theory readily explains this pattern by identifying high relatedness as a promoter of altruism. In keeping with this prediction, monogamy should promote the evolution of voluntary sterility in insect societies if sterile workers make for better helpers. However, a recent mathematical population-genetics analysis failed to identify a consistent effect of monogamy on voluntary worker sterility...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
A Akabayashi, E Nakazawa, R Ozeki-Hayashi, K Tomiyama, K Mori, R A Demme, A Akabayashi
BACKGROUND: Twenty years have passed since the 1997 enactment of the Organ Transplant Law in Japan, but the number of deceased donors remains extremely low. In this study we examine why deceased donation has continued to remain so infrequent. METHODS: This investigation was a secondary analysis of published data from the Japan Organ Transplant Network, 2016 Fact Book of Organ Transplantation in Japan, and International Registry on Organ Donation and Transplantation...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Fereshteh Ahmadi, Pelin Erbil, Nader Ahmadi, Önver A Cetrez
The present paper looks at the influence of culture on Turkish cancer patients' use of meaning-making coping, paying particular attention to religious, spiritual, and existential coping methods. Data were collected using an interview study (n = 25, 18 women, age range 20-71). Individuals were recruited at an oncology center and a psychiatry clinic in Istanbul. The main focus of the study has been on existential meaning-making coping, which is characterized by finding power inside oneself, altruism, family love, a search for meaning by contemplating philosophical issues, and having a positive life perspective (shukran-thankfulness)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Branka Restek-Petrović, Nina Mayer, Majda Grah
Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan" in Zagreb, Croatia, offers an outpatient Early intervention programme for patients with psychotic disorders (RIPEPP), consisting of psychoeducational workshops and group psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychodynamic group psychotherapy presents a unique conceptual format not offered by other types of psychotherapy, and it is especially useful for population of patients with psychotic disorders. During group work, gradual establishment of communication and interactions, and creating a network of relations through experiences of corrective emotional symbiosis, affect the constellation of internal objects and relationships between members, and their restructuring...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
David A Moskowitz, Christopher P Garcia
Across much of the gay and bisexual male research on sexual position self-label (i.e., calling oneself a top, bottom, or versatile), there exist two commonalities: (1) studies tend to focus almost entirely on individual, relationally single androphilic men; (2) studies rarely account for relationships and relationship dynamics. In response, we explored the role of self-label over sexual and relationship satisfaction among gay and bisexual partnered men. Specifically, we looked at whether adopted sexual position identities were consonant or dissonant (i...
June 1, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Antonio A Arechar, Maryam Kouchaki, David G Rand
We had participants play two sets of repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (RPD) games, one with a large continuation probability and the other with a small continuation probability, as well as Dictator Games (DGs) before and after the RPDs. We find that, regardless of which is RPD set is played first, participants typically cooperate when the continuation probability is large and defect when the continuation probability is small. However, there is an asymmetry in behavior when transitioning from one continuation probability to the other...
March 2018: Games
Lavjay Butani, Alyssa Bogetz, Jennifer Plant
PURPOSE: To explore the types of exemplary professional behaviors and the facilitators and barriers to professional behavior discussed by student-mentor dyads during appreciative inquiry (AI) dialogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a qualitative analysis of AI narratives discussing exemplary professional practice written by third-year medical students following a dialog with mentors. Narratives were thematically analyzed using directed content analysis to explore the types of exemplary professional behaviors discussed and the facilitators and barriers to professional practice...
May 25, 2018: Medical Teacher
Lilia Cervantes, Sara Richardson, Rajeev Raghavan, Nova Hou, Romana Hasnain-Wynia, Matthew K Wynia, Catherine Kleiner, Michel Chonchol, Allison Tong
Background: In the United States, nearly half of undocumented immigrants with end-stage kidney disease receive hemodialysis only when they are evaluated in an emergency department and are found to have life-threatening renal failure ("emergency-only hemodialysis" [EOHD]). These patients experience psychosocial distress and much higher mortality than patients receiving regularly scheduled hemodialysis, but little is known about how providing EOHD affects the clinicians involved...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Christina N Rogers, Amy P Ross, Shweta P Sahu, Ethan R Siegel, Jeromy M Dooyema, Mary Ann Cree, Edward G Stopa, Larry J Young, James K Rilling, H Elliott Albers, Todd M Preuss
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are involved in the regulation of complex social behaviors across a wide range of taxa. Despite this, little is known about the neuroanatomy of the OT and AVP systems in most non-human primates, and less in humans. The effects of OT and AVP on social behavior, including aggression, mating, and parental behavior, may be mediated primarily by the extensive connections of OT- and AVP-producing neurons located in the hypothalamus with the basal forebrain and amygdala, as well as with the hypothalamus itself...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Nikolaos Askitas
This paper suggests a new way to think about a famous question: what explains cooperation in nature and in particular in humans? I argue that, for an evolutionary biologist as well as a quantitative social scientist, the triangle of two 'teammates' in the presence of a predator (passing and shooting in two-on-one situations) is one of the fundamental conceptual building-blocks for understanding these phenomena because in such a situation the fact that life is packaged in many distinct enclosures (and not in one big monolithic blob) can unfold its comparative advantage...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
Katharine Dow
This article examines how the British press represented Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards in the story of the birth of the first 'test-tube baby', Louise Brown. In 1978, the British press represented the birth of Louise Brown as both a success and a source of hope. The main pairs of protagonists in this story were Steptoe and Edwards and Lesley and John Brown, who metonymically represented British science and infertile couples, respectively. In the dominant 'success' narrative of the birth of Louise Brown as depicted in the British press in 1978, Edwards and Steptoe seemed to embody 'British' values of industriousness, perseverance, altruism, ingenuity and teamwork...
June 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
Philippe Svandra
Despite a particularly difficult approach, Emmanuel Levinas remains a philosopher who « speaks » quite naturally to caregivers. The reason is simple ; he is interested in an issue that has long been hidden in philosophy, but that directly affects care : vulnerability.However, it seems that his thinking has too often been watered down. By presenting it as a form of benevolent altruism, the radical, even subversive, aspect of the approach that he proposes to us is erased. Indeed, Levinassian responsibility is experienced first of all as a rupture, a violence that makes me the « hostage of others...
March 2018: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
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