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Robert Böhm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Richard A I Bethlehem, Carrie Allison, Emma M van Andel, Alexander I Coles, Kym Neil, Simon Baron-Cohen
Why do people act altruistically? One theory is that empathy is a driver of morality. Experimental studies of this are often confined to laboratory settings, which often lack ecological validity. In the present study we investigated whether empathy traits predict if people will act altruistically in a real-world setting, 'in the wild'. We staged a situation in public that was designed to elicit helping, and subsequently measured empathic traits in those who either stopped to help or walked past and did not help...
October 19, 2016: Social Neuroscience
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Jian Hao, Yue Yang, Zhiwen Wang
Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred 22 young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Christian Young, Allison Tong, Hasantha Gunasekera, Simone Sherriff, Deanna Kalucy, Peter Fernando, Jonathan C Craig
AIM: To describe the perspectives of health professionals and communities on an innovative health service delivery project, Hearing EAr health and Language Services (HEALS). HEALS was a government funded initiative to improve access to specialist ear, nose and throat and speech pathology services for Aboriginal families living in metropolitan areas. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 health-care professionals (clinicians, health service managers and Aboriginal health workers) and 16 care givers of children who participated in HEALS...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Lisa Martin, Michelle Byrnes, Sarah McGarry, Suzanne Rea, Fiona Wood
Posttraumatic growth after burn is a relatively new area of study with only a small number of studies that have examined this phenomenon. It is important to understand the presentation of posttraumatic growth and coping in burn survivors, how it changes over time and the components which influence growth so that we can understand how to promote posttraumatic growth in burn survivors. The aim of this review was to assess these three parameters. Studies were identified through multiple databases with specific search terms to identify posttraumatic growth after burn...
October 12, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Joseph E Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Psychiatry
Haoli Zheng, Daqiang Huang, Shu Chen, Siqi Wang, Wenmin Guo, Jun Luo, Hang Ye, Yefeng Chen
Trust and trustworthiness are essential to an efficient economy and play crucial roles in social life. Previous evidence from behavioral experiments has revealed that the trustworthiness of individuals is closely related with their altruistic preference. It has been demonstrated that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is associated with decisions involving trustworthiness. Moreover, vmPFC lesion patients showed less trustworthiness and altruism than control subjects, indicating the indispensable role of this specific brain area in human social interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies" by Jason Hubbard, William T. Harbaugh, Sanjay Srivastava, David Degras and Ulrich Mayr (, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 11, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Task, Stimuli, and Procedures section. In the 1st sentence in the 6th paragraph, "Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires meant to reflected the Prosocial Disposition construct: the agreeableness scale from the Big F, which includes empathic concern and perspective-taking, and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
William Simkulet
Recently philosophers have proposed a wide variety of interventions referred to as 'moral enhancements'. Some of these interventions are concerned with helping individuals make more informed decisions; others, however, are designed to compel people to act as the intervener sees fit. Somewhere between these two extremes lie interventions designed to direct an agent's attention either towards morally relevant issues - hat-hanging - or away from temptations to do wrong - hat-hiding. I argue that these interventions fail to constitute genuine moral enhancement because, although they may result in more desirable outcomes - more altruism, more law-following, and/or less self-destructive behavior, they ignore a person's intentions, and often what makes an action right or wrong is the intent behind it...
November 2016: Bioethics
Wee Ling Heng, Thi Thu Ha Truong, Irena Wy Tham, Jialin Yick, Inn Yi Chiang, Tracy Sh Seck
INTRODUCTION: In Singapore, tissue donation is covered under the Medical (Therapy, Education and Research) Act. The objective of this study is to review the demographic and psychosocial factors, which may cause hesitation/unwillingness amongst healthcare professionals towards tissue donation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey comprising 18-items was conducted at the Singapore General Hospital and National Heart Centre Singapore. A total of 521 individuals participated in the survey...
August 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Wael Haddara, Lorelei Lingard
As an ideal, altruism has long enjoyed privileged status in medicine and medical education. As a practice, altruism is perceived to be in decline in the current generation. A number of educational efforts are underway to reclaim this "lost value" of medicine. In this paper we explore constructions of altruism over a defined period of time through a content analysis of the Canadian and Australian Medical Associations (CMA and AMA respectively) Codes of Ethics. We analyzed all editions of both Codes (1868-2004), using a content analysis approach, including thematic analysis...
September 26, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Angela Book, Tabitha Methot-Jones, Julie Blais, Ashley Hosker-Field, Anthony Volk, Beth A Visser, Nathalie Gauthier, Ronald R Holden, Madeleine T D'Agata
The present study was a direct test of the cheater-hawk hypothesis which argues that psychopathy is related to two potentially adaptive interpersonal strategies: cheating and aggression. As expected, the measures of cheater and hawk behaviors comprised a single factor, according to a maximum-likelihood factor analysis. As hypothesized, psychopathic traits exhibited large positive correlations with measures of both cheater (entitlement, exploitiveness, and short-term mating orientation) and hawk (vengeance and aggression) behaviors...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kebede Beyene, Trudi Aspden, Janie Sheridan
BACKGROUND: Prescription medicine sharing has been defined as the lending of medicines (giving prescription medicines to someone else) or borrowing of medicines (being given and using a medicine prescribed for another person). This qualitative study explored the views of patients, to elicit information regarding factors influencing medicine sharing behaviours, their experiences of the consequences of prescription medicine sharing, and their risk assessment strategies when deciding to share...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Alixandra Barasch, Jonathan Z Berman, Deborah A Small
Studies on crowding out document that incentives sometimes backfire-decreasing motivation in prosocial tasks. In the present research, we demonstrated an additional channel through which incentives can be harmful. Incentivized advocates for a cause are perceived as less sincere than nonincentivized advocates and are ultimately less effective in persuading other people to donate. Further, the negative effects of incentives hold only when the incentives imply a selfish motive; advocates who are offered a matching incentive (i...
September 8, 2016: Psychological Science
Joel S Brown
Humans have marvelled at the fit of form and function, the way organisms' traits seem remarkably suited to their lifestyles and ecologies. While natural selection provides the scientific basis for the fit of form and function, Darwin found certain adaptations vexing or particularly intriguing: sex ratios, sexual selection and altruism. The logic behind these adaptations resides in frequency-dependent selection where the value of a given heritable phenotype (i.e. strategy) to an individual depends upon the strategies of others...
September 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Garet P Lahvis
Natural selection favors individuals to act in their own interests, implying that wild animals experience a competitive psychology. Animals in the wild also express helping behaviors, presumably at their own expense and suggestive of a more compassionate psychology. This apparent paradox can be partially explained by ultimate mechanisms that include kin selection, reciprocity, and multilevel selection, yet some theorists argue such ultimate explanations may not be sufficient and that an additional "stake in others" is necessary for altruism's evolution...
September 7, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Péter Torzsa, Dalma Csatlós, Ajándék Eőry, Csenge Hargittay, Ferenc Horváth, Andrea László, Bernadett Márkus, András Mohos, László Kalabay, Zsuzsa Győrffy
INTRODUCTION: The changing of the family medicine can be observed in the New Millennium. Migration, the aging of the healers and informal payment are crucial to the human resource crisis of the health sector. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the family physicians' and residents' opinions about the vocation and informal payment. METHOD: Exploratory, quantitative study was carried out among family physicians (n = 363) and family physician residents (n = 180)...
September 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Natalie Bidad, Lindsay MacDonald, Zoë E Winters, Sarah J L Edwards, Marie Emson, Clare L Griffin, Judith Bliss, Rob Horne
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) often fail to recruit sufficient participants, despite altruism being cited as their motivation. Previous investigations of factors influencing participation decisions have been methodologically limited. This study evaluated how women weigh up different motivations after initially expressing altruism, and explored their understanding of a trial and its alternatives. The trial was the 'Quality of Life after Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction' (QUEST) trial...
2016: Trials
Olga M Klimecki, Sarah V Mayer, Aiste Jusyte, Jonathan Scheeff, Michael Schönenberg
What are the determinants of altruism? While economists assume that altruism is mainly driven by fairness norms, social psychologists consider empathy to be a key motivator for altruistic behavior. To unite these two theories, we conducted an experiment in which we compared behavior in a standard economic game that assesses altruism (the so-called Dictator Game) with a Dictator Game in which participants' behavioral choices were preceded either by an empathy induction or by a control condition without empathy induction...
2016: Scientific Reports
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