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Altruism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468703/individual-differences-in-social-control-who-speaks-up-when-witnessing-uncivil-discriminatory-and-immoral-behaviours
#1
Alexandrina Moisuc, Markus Brauer, Anabel Fonseca, Nadine Chaurand, Tobias Greitemeyer
This research examined the personality characteristics of individuals who 'speak up' and confront perpetrators of norm transgressions. We tested whether those who intervene tend to be 'bitter complainers' or 'well-adjusted leaders'. In four studies (total N = 1,003), we measured several individual differences that are directly implicated by at least one of the two concepts. We also presented participants with uncivil, discriminatory, and immoral behaviours and asked them how likely they would be to intervene if they were to witness each of these behaviours as a bystander...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459194/the-value-of-psychosocial-group-activity-in-nursing-education-a-qualitative-analysis
#2
Yun-Jung Choi
BACKGROUND: Nursing faculty often struggle to find effective teaching strategies for nursing students that integrate group work into nursing students' learning activities. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate students' experiences in a psychiatric and mental health nursing course using psychosocial group activities to develop therapeutic communication and interpersonal relationship skills, as well as to introduce psychosocial nursing interventions. METHODS: A qualitative research design was used...
February 12, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446968/aging-and-altruism-in-intertemporal-choice
#3
Erika P Sparrow, Julia Spaniol
In addition to making decisions about gains and losses that affect only ourselves, we often make decisions that affect others. Research on life span changes in motivation suggests that altruistic motives become stronger with age, but no prior research has examined how altruism affects tolerance for temporal delays. Experiment 1 used a realistic financial decision making task involving choices for gains, losses, and donations. Each decision required an intertemporal choice between a smaller-immediate and a larger-later option...
February 15, 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437270/clinicians-attitudes-and-approaches-to-evaluating-the-potential-living-kidney-donor-recipient-relationship-an-interview-study
#4
Angelique F Ralph, Phyllis Butow, Jonathan C Craig, Jeremy R Chapman, John S Gill, John Kanellis, Allison Tong
AIM: Careful assessment of the potential donor-recipient relationship is recommended by guidelines to prevent undue coercion, and ensure realistic expectations and genuine motivations. However, relationships are complex, nuanced and value-laden, and can be challenging to evaluate in living kidney donation. We aimed to describe the attitudes and approaches of transplant clinicians towards assessing the relationship between potential living kidney donors and their recipients. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 transplant clinicians (nephrologists, surgeons, coordinators, social workers, psychiatrists and psychologists) from 32 transplant centres across nine countries including Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand...
February 13, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424063/it-is-only-fair-blood-donors-are-more-sensitive-to-violations-of-fairness-norms-than-nondonors-converging-psychometric-and-ultimatum-game-evidence
#5
E Ferguson, C Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The design of effective donor recruitment campaigns requires an accurate understanding of donor motivations. This requires cross-validation of theoretically derived, psychometrically assessed motivations with behavioural preferences. Theoretical models suggest that blood donors should be more sensitive than nondonors to violations of fairness norms. Specifically, active blood donors, compared to nondonors, should endorse beliefs of reciprocal fairness, norms of both positive and negative reciprocity and reject more unfair offers in a behavioural economic game (the ultimatum game)...
February 9, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419942/professional-nursing-values-a-concept-analysis
#6
Bonnie J Schmidt, Erin C McArthur
AIM: The aim of this concept analysis is to clarify the meaning of professional nursing values. BACKGROUND: In a time of increasing ethical dilemmas, it is essential that nurses internalize professional values to develop and maintain a professional identity. However, nursing organizations and researchers provide different conceptions of professional nursing values, leading to a lack of clarity as to the meaning and attributes of this construct. DESIGN: Walker and Avant's (2011) method was used to guide an analysis of this concept...
January 2018: Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407513/dissociable-roles-of-glucocorticoid-and-noradrenergic-activation-on-social-discounting
#7
Zsofia Margittai, Marijn van Wingerden, Alfons Schnitzler, Marian Joëls, Tobias Kalenscher
People often exhibit prosocial tendencies towards close kin and friends, but generosity decreases as a function of increasing social distance between donor and recipient, a phenomenon called social discounting. Evidence suggests that acute stress affects prosocial behaviour in general and social discounting in particular. We tested the causal role of the important stress neuromodulators cortisol (CORT) and noradrenaline (NA) in this effect by considering two competing hypotheses. On the one hand, it is possible that CORT and NA act in concert to increase generosity towards socially close others by reducing the aversiveness of the cost component in costly altruism and enhancing the emotional salience of vicarious reward...
January 31, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401335/influence-of-personality-traits-on-the-effective-performance-of-lifesaving-interventions-example-of-the-tourniquet-application-in-forward-combat-casualty-care
#8
Quentin Vuillemin, Pierre-Eric Schwartzbrod, Pierre Pasquier, Florian Sibille, Marion Trousselard, Marie-Hélène Ferrer
Introduction: Health care delivery in military conflicts implies high-stress environments. Hemorrhage is the first cause of survivable death among combat casualties, and tourniquet application is one of the most critical lifesaving interventions on the battlefield. However, previous studies have shown high failure rates in tourniquet application. Our study aimed to assess the correlation between personality traits that may interfere with effective tourniquet application in a simulated extremity hemorrhage...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398215/reciprocal-trading-of-different-commodities-in-norway-rats
#9
Manon K Schweinfurth, Michael Taborsky
The prevalence of reciprocal cooperation in non-human animals is hotly debated [1, 2]. Part of this dispute rests on the assumption that reciprocity means paying like with like [3]. However, exchanges between social partners may involve different commodities and services. Hitherto, there is no experimental evidence that animals other than primates exchange different commodities among conspecifics based on the decision rules of direct reciprocity. Here, we show that Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) apply direct reciprocity rules when exchanging two different social services: food provisioning and allogrooming...
January 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379042/maturation-of-pain-empathy-from-child-to-adult-shifts-from-single-to-multiple-neural-rhythms-to-support-interoceptive-representations
#10
Jonathan Levy, Abraham Goldstein, Maayan Pratt, Ruth Feldman
While empathy to the pain of conspecific is evolutionary-ancient and is observed in rodents and in primates, it also integrates higher-order affective representations. Yet, it is unclear whether human empathy for pain is inborn or matures during development and what neural processes underpin its maturation. Using magnetoencephalography, we monitored the brain response of children, adolescents, and adults (n = 209) to others' pain, testing the shift from childhood to adult functioning. Results indicate that children's vicarious empathy for pain operates via rudimentary sensory predictions involving alpha oscillations in somatosensory cortex, while adults' response recruits advanced mechanisms of updating sensory predictions and activating affective empathy in viceromotor cortex via higher-level representations involving beta- and gamma-band activity...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369383/effective-altruists-ought-to-be-allowed-to-sell-their-kidneys
#11
Ryan Tonkens
Effective altruists aim to do the most good that they can do with the resources available to them, without causing themselves or their dependents significant harm thereby. The argument presented in this paper demonstrates that there are no morally relevant dissimilarities between living kidney donation and living kidney selling for effective altruistic reasons. Thus, since the former is allowed, the latter ought to be allowed as well. And, there are important moral differences between living kidney selling for effective altruistic reasons and other reasons for kidney vending (e...
January 25, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358369/a-neurochemical-hypothesis-for-the-origin-of-hominids
#12
Mary Ann Raghanti, Melissa K Edler, Alexa R Stephenson, Emily L Munger, Bob Jacobs, Patrick R Hof, Chet C Sherwood, Ralph L Holloway, C Owen Lovejoy
It has always been difficult to account for the evolution of certain human characters such as language, empathy, and altruism via individual reproductive success. However, the striatum, a subcortical region originally thought to be exclusively motor, is now known to contribute to social behaviors and "personality styles" that may link such complexities with natural selection. We here report that the human striatum exhibits a unique neurochemical profile that differs dramatically from those of other primates...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353383/religion-and-well-being-the-mediating-role-of-positive-virtues
#13
Swati Sharma, Kamlesh Singh
Researchers have consistently advocated positive associations between religion and well-being. The present research takes a step forward and explores potential mechanisms behind the same. The mediating role of a surprisingly neglected mechanism, positive virtues, specifically gratitude, forgiveness and altruism, is studied through a quantitative study on a sample of 220 adult respondents residing in Delhi NCR. The participants adhered to one of the six major religions present in India. Mediational analysis revealed that gratitude mediated the relationship between religiosity, spirituality and well-being via two pathways of forgiveness and altruism...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353382/a-closer-look-at-transcendence-and-its-relationship-to-mental-health
#14
John R Peteet
Experiences of transcendence can promote growth, creativity and altruism, but often exist in tension with critical thought and can feature problematically in certain mental disorders. Identification of the core elements in the experience of transcendence-suspending disbelief, being moved or inspired, surrendering oneself and identifying within a larger context, can clarify its relationship to psychopathology, and the basis for a clinician's role. To help individuals engage transcendent resources well, clinicians can help patients recognize how depression and trauma may interfere with engagement, masochistic and magical tendencies may distort healthy self-surrender, and vulnerability to social pressure may interfere with mature identification with a larger context or community...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346557/peer-supporters-experiences-on-an-australian-perinatal-mental-health-helpline
#15
Laura J Biggs, Helen L McLachlan, Touran Shafiei, Rhonda Small, Della A Forster
Perinatal mental health is an important public health issue, and peer support is a potentially important strategy for emotional well-being in the perinatal period. PANDA Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Australia provides support to individuals impacted by perinatal mental health issues via the National Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Helpline. Callers receive peer support from volunteers and counselling from paid professional staff. The views and experiences of PANDA peer support volunteers have not previously been studied...
January 16, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311319/preferences-for-moral-vs-immoral-traits-in-others-are-conditional
#16
David E Melnikoff, April H Bailey
The preference for morality in others is regarded as a dominant factor in person perception. Moral traits are thought to foster liking, and immoral traits are thought to foster disliking, irrespective of the context in which they are embedded. We report the results of four studies that oppose this view. Using both explicit and implicit measures, we found that the preference for morality vs. immorality in others is conditional on the evaluator's current goals. Specifically, when immorality was conducive to participants' current goals, the preference for moral vs...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295937/hamilton-s-inclusive-fitness-maintains-heritable-altruism-polymorphism-through-rb-c
#17
Changcao Wang, Xin Lu
How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton's rule shows that the former process will occur when rb > c-the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act b, weighted by the relatedness between the social partners r, exceed the costs to the altruists c-drives altruistic genotypes spreading against nonaltruistic ones. From this rule, we infer that altruistic genotypes will persist in a population by forming a stable heritable polymorphism with nonaltruistic genotypes if rb = c makes inclusive fitness of the two morphs equal...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289605/spatial-patterns-generated-by-simultaneous-cooperation-and-exploitation-favour-the-evolution-of-altruism
#18
Atsushi Yamauchi, Minus van Baalen, Maurice Sabelis
In kin selection theory in the evolution of social behaviours, the relatedness between interacting individuals is influenced by the spatial structure of the population. It is generally considered that in the 'viscous' population competition among individuals tends to suppress the evolution of altruism. We consider that more complex interactions produce specific spatial patterns in the presence of competitive interaction, which could alter the process of kin selection in a given space. Here, we theoretically studied the joint evolution of altruism and resource exploitation in a spatially structured population...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289510/developing-effective-mentor-mentee-relationships-in-radiology
#19
Rachel E Perry, Jay R Parikh
Radiologists seek mentors to facilitate career advancement and to help overcome professional and personal challenges. Characteristics of effective mentors include altruism, honesty, active listening skills, a collaborative approach, and accessibility. Characteristics of effective mentees include being respectful of mentors' input and time, being an active listener, and being open to feedback. Radiology departments should consider establishing structured processes for identifying and preparing mentors. Strategies to support mentor-mentee relationships include effective pairing of mentors with mentees, maintenance of confidentiality, clear definition of expectations, voluntary participation, and allowing mentees to change mentors without judgment or repercussions...
February 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284374/safer-sex-practices-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china-results-from-an-ethnographic-study
#20
Haochu Li, Andrea Sankar, Eleanor Holroyd, Baofa Jiang
The study reported here sought to understand the rationales of safer sex practices adopted by newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Guided by a socio-ecological framework, an ethnography was conducted among newly diagnosed HIV-positive MSM. In-depth interviews and participant observation were employed to produce an account of the social and cultural settings that was faithful to the perspectives of participants. A total of 31 participants with diverse backgrounds were recruited in a southern city of China...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
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