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Altruism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219268/the-artificial-world-of-plastination-a-challenge-to-religious-perspectives-on-the-dead-human-body
#1
David Gareth Jones
The public exhibitions of plastinated (preserved) and dissected human cadavers have proved exceedingly popular and also very contentious. However, there has been little in the way of sustained analysis of these exhibitions from a Christian angle. The technique of plastination enables whole bodies to be displayed as though standing and playing a variety of sports, and with 'life-like' facial expressions. In analyzing this phenomenon, the plastination procedure is outlined, and the degree of naturalness of the whole body plastinates assessed...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219035/conceptualizing-agency-folkpsychological-and-folkcommunicative-perspectives-on-plants
#2
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research addresses cultural variation in concepts of agency. Across two experiments, we investigate how Indigenous Ngöbe of Panama and US college students interpret and make inferences about nonhuman agency, focusing on plants as a critical test case. In Experiment 1, participants predicted goal-directed actions for plants and other nonhuman kinds and judged their capacities for intentional agency. Goal-directed action is pervasive among living kinds and as such we expected cultural agreement on these predictions...
February 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218387/defining-personal-utility-in-genomics-a-delphi-study
#3
J Kohler, E Turbitt, K L Lewis, B S Wilfond, L Jamal, H L Peay, L G Biesecker, B B Biesecker
Individual genome sequencing results are valued by patients in ways distinct from clinical utility. Such outcomes have been described as components of "personal utility," a concept that broadly encompasses patient-endorsed benefits, that is operationally defined as non-clinical outcomes. No empirical delineation of these outcomes has been reported. To address this gap, we administered a Delphi survey to adult participants in a NIH clinical exome study to extract the most highly endorsed outcomes constituting personal utility...
February 20, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209520/deconstructing-empathy-neuroanatomical-dissociations-between-affect-sharing-and-prosocial-motivation-using-a-patient-lesion-model
#4
Suzanne M Shdo, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Kelly A Gola, Clinton J Mielke, Paul V Sukhanov, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Affect sharing and prosocial motivation are integral parts of empathy that are conceptually and mechanistically distinct. We used a neurodegenerative disease (NDG) lesion model to more directly examine the neural correlates of these two aspects of real-world empathic responding. The study enrolled 275 participants, including 44 healthy older controls and 231 patients diagnosed with one of five neurodegenerative diseases (75 Alzheimer's disease, 58 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 42 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 28 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 28 non-fluent variant (nfvPPA)...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196125/delaying-rewards-has-greater-effect-on-altruism-when-the-beneficiary-is-socially-distant
#5
Jerzy Osiński, Adam Karbowski
Based on the assumption that social distance and time are dimensions of psychological distance important for altruistic choices it was predicted that enhancement of altruism due to delaying rewards when choosing between a reward for oneself and for another person would be more pronounced the greater the social distance between the subject and another person. In order to test this hypothesis, social discounting using hypothetical monetary rewards and manipulation of social distance and reward delay was measured in a group of 161 college students...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187021/on-the-road-to-professionalism
#6
David H Chestnut
Many observers have concluded that we have a crisis of professionalism in the practice of medicine. In this essay, the author identifies and discusses personal attributes and commitments important in the development and maintenance of physician professionalism: humility, servant leadership, self-awareness, kindness, altruism, attention to personal well-being, responsibility and concern for patient safety, lifelong learning, self-regulation, and honesty and integrity. Professionalism requires character, but character alone is not enough...
February 10, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186934/protocol-for-the-mindful-student-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-provision-of-a-mindfulness-intervention-to-support-university-students-well-being-and-resilience-to-stress
#7
Julieta Galante, Geraldine Dufour, Alice Benton, Emma Howarth, Maris Vainre, Timothy J Croudace, Adam P Wagner, Jan Stochl, Peter B Jones
INTRODUCTION: Levels of stress in UK university students are high, with an increase in the proportion of students seeking help in recent years. Academic pressure is reported as a major trigger. Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce stress and is popular among students, but its effectiveness in this context needs to be ascertained. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we hypothesise that the provision of a preventative mindfulness intervention in universities could reduce students' psychological distress during the examination period (primary outcome), improve their resilience to stress up to at least 1 year later, reduce their use of mental health support services and improve academic performance...
November 9, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174553/intergroup-biases-in-fear-induced-aggression
#8
Nobuhiro Mifune, Dora Simunovic, Toshio Yamagishi
Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the groups are characterized as minimal groups; additionally, the rate of intergroup aggression did not vary according to the group membership of the opponent. The PSG represents a situation in which both the motivations of spite and of fear can logically drive players to choose an option of aggression against an opponent...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164318/-doing-good-by-proxy-human-animal-kinship-and-the-donation-of-canine-blood
#9
Vanessa Ashall, Pru Hobson-West
This article demonstrates the relevance of animals to medical sociology by arguing that pet owners' accounts of veterinary decision-making can highlight key sociological themes which are important to both human and animal health. Based on semi-structured interviews, the article argues that interspecies 'kinship' allows for the extension of sociological claims regarding altruism, self-interest and mutuality from human blood donation to companion animal blood 'donation'. Furthermore, this study extends sociological understanding of the human-animal bond by showing how the dog's status as kin meant they were expected to donate blood, and that the act of donation itself represents an important opportunity for family 'display'...
February 6, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163689/spontaneous-movements-of-a-computer-mouse-reveal-egoism-and-in-group-favoritism
#10
Norbert Maliszewski, Łukasz Wojciechowski, Hubert Suszek
The purpose of the project was to assess whether the first spontaneous movements of a computer mouse, when making an assessment on a scale presented on the screen, may express a respondent's implicit attitudes. In Study 1, the altruistic behaviors of 66 students were assessed. The students were led to believe that the task they were performing was also being performed by another person and they were asked to distribute earnings between themselves and the partner. The participants performed the tasks under conditions with and without distractors...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155043/can-appealing-to-patient-altruism-reduce-overuse-of-health-care-services-an-experimental-survey
#11
Kevin R Riggs, Peter A Ubel, Brendan Saloner
BACKGROUND: A challenge to reducing overuse of health services is communicating recommendations against unnecessary health services to patients. The predominant approach has been to highlight the limited benefit and potential harm of such services for that patient, but the prudent use of health resources can also benefit others. Whether appealing to patient altruism can reduce overuse is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether altruistic appeals reduce hypothetical requests for overused services and affect physician ratings...
February 2, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155031/-i-got-it-off-my-chest-an-examination-of-how-research-participation-improved-the-mental-health-of-women-engaging-in-transactional-sex
#12
Marisa Felsher, Sarah E Wiehe, Jayleen K L Gunn, Alexis M Roth
Ecologic momentary assessment (EMA) is a form of close-ended diary writing. While it has been shown that participating in a study that incorporates EMA improves mental health of participants, no study to date has examined the pathways through which benefits may occur. For 4-weeks, twice-daily EMAs and weekly interviews captured mood, daily activities and HIV risk behavior of 25 women who engage in transactional sex. Qualitative analysis of exit interviews was performed to examine how participation impacted women's mental health...
February 2, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152629/substance-history-and-politics
#13
REVIEW
Candace J Black, Aurelio José Figueredo, W Jake Jacobs
The aim of this article is to examine the relations between two approaches to the measurement of life history (LH) strategies: A traditional approach, termed here the biodemographic approach, measures developmental characteristics like birthweight, gestation length, interbirth intervals, pubertal timing, and sexual debut, and a psychological approach measures a suite of cognitive and behavioral traits such as altruism, sociosexual orientation, personality, mutualism, familial relationships, and religiosity...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136000/altruism-or-obligation-the-motivations-and-experience-of-women-who-donate-oocytes-to-known-recipients-in-assisted-conception-treatment-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-study
#14
Santanu Acharya, Louise Bryant, Maureen Twiddy
INTRODUCTION: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the motivations and experience of oocyte donors donating to women known to them. METHODS: Three women who donated oocytes to a close relative were interviewed and data were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. RESULTS: The two key elements noted were "motivations for donation" and "coping with the consequences of oocyte donation". The motivation for donation was influenced by the familial bond that was strengthened by the donation process in some cases...
March 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125088/motivations-of-participants-in-the-citizen-science-of-microbiomics-data-from-the-british-gut-project
#15
Lorenzo Del Savio, Barbara Prainsack, Alena Buyx
PURPOSE: The establishment of databases for research in human microbiomics is dependent on the recruitment of sufficient numbers and diversity of participants. Factors that support or impede participant recruitment in studies of this type have not yet been studied. METHODS: We report the results of a survey aimed at establishing the motivations of participants in the British Gut Project, a research project that relies on volunteers to provide samples and to help fund the project...
January 26, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120800/proactive-prosociality-in-a-cooperatively-breeding-corvid-the-azure-winged-magpie-cyanopica-cyana
#16
Lisa Horn, Clara Scheer, Thomas Bugnyar, Jorg J M Massen
One of the contemporary hypotheses concerning the evolution of human altruism is the cooperative breeding hypothesis (CBH) which has recently been tested in non-human primates. Using a similar paradigm, we investigated prosociality in a cooperatively breeding corvid, the azure-winged magpie. We found that the magpies delivered food to their group members at high rates, and unlike other corvids, they did so without any cues provided by others. In two control conditions, the magpies stopped participating over time, indicating that they learned to discriminate prosocial tests from controls...
October 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112525/development-of-the-first-guideline-for-professional-conduct-in-medical-practice-in-iran
#17
Saeedeh Saeedi Tehrani, Fatemeh Nayeri, Alireza Parsapoor, Ali Jafarian, Ali Labaf, Azim Mirzazadeh, Hamid Emadi Kouchak, Farhad Shahi, Nazafarin Ghasemzadeh, Fariba Asghari
INTRODUCTION: Professional behavior is first learned at the university. One of the necessary considerations in maintaining the professional environment of the university is establishing a set of codes for the behavior of physicians and medical students. This paper describes the process of developing the professional code of conduct in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: A review of Iranian and international literature was performed to develop the first draft of the guideline...
January 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101789/prevalence-and-predictors-of-uncircumcised-kenyan-men-s-desire-for-circumcision-for-their-infant-sons
#18
F Parker Hudson, William C Miller, Samwel Rao, Kawango Agot, Harsha Thirumurthy
Men are key decision makers for their son's circumcision, so understanding their beliefs is important for the uptake of early infant male circumcision in countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have high HIV prevalence. We analyzed men's preferences for circumcising their sons using data from a population-representative survey of 1501 uncircumcised men aged 25-49 years in western Kenya. Most men (59%) reported they would "definitely" want their son circumcised if a son was born to them within the next year. However, only 25% intended to become circumcised themselves...
January 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080083/the-empathy-impulse-a-multinomial-model-of-intentional-and-unintentional-empathy-for-pain
#19
C Daryl Cameron, Victoria L Spring, Andrew R Todd
Empathy for pain is often described as automatic. Here, we used implicit measurement and multinomial modeling to formally quantify unintentional empathy for pain: empathy that occurs despite intentions to the contrary. We developed the pain identification task (PIT), a sequential priming task wherein participants judge the painfulness of target experiences while trying to avoid the influence of prime experiences. Using multinomial modeling, we distinguished 3 component processes underlying PIT performance: empathy toward target stimuli (Intentional Empathy), empathy toward prime stimuli (Unintentional Empathy), and bias to judge target stimuli as painful (Response Bias)...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079112/microbes-can-help-explain-the-evolution-of-host-altruism
#20
Ohad Lewin-Epstein, Ranit Aharonov, Lilach Hadany
The evolution of altruistic behaviour, which is costly to the donor but beneficial for the recipient, is among the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology. Several theories have been proposed to explain it, including kin selection, group selection and reciprocity. Here we propose that microbes that manipulate their hosts to act altruistically could be favoured by selection, and may play a role in the widespread occurrence of altruism. Using computational models, we find that microbe-induced altruism can explain the evolution of host altruistic behaviour under wider conditions than host-centred theories, including in a fully mixed host population, without repeating interactions or individual recognition...
January 12, 2017: Nature Communications
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