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Altruism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327219/intelligence-competitive-altruism-and-clever-silliness-may-underlie-bias-in-academe
#1
Guy Madison, Edward Dutton, Charlotta Stern
Why is social bias and its depressing effects on low-status or low-performing groups exaggerated? We show that the higher intelligence of academics has at best a very weak effect on reducing their bias, facilitates superficially justifying their biases, and may make them better at understanding the benefits of social conformity in general and competitive altruism specifically. We foresee a surge in research examining these mechanisms and recommend, meanwhile, reviving and better observing scientific ideals.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315154/appealing-to-altruism-may-not-work-but-don-t-give-up-hope
#2
Christopher Moriates, David Ring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301701/enrolling-in-clinical-research-while-incarcerated-what-influences-participants-decisions
#3
Paul P Christopher, Lorena G Garcia-Sampson, Michael Stein, Jennifer Johnson, Josiah Rich, Charles Lidz
As a 2006 Institute of Medicine report highlights, surprisingly little empirical attention has been paid to how prisoners arrive at decisions to participate in modern research. With our study, we aimed to fill this gap by identifying a more comprehensive range of factors as reported by prisoners themselves during semistructured interviews. Our participants described a diverse range of motives, both favoring and opposing their eventual decision to join. Many are well-recognized considerations among nonincarcerated clinical research participants, including a desire for various forms of personal benefit, altruism, and concern about study risks and inconveniences...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301323/deciphering-the-modulatory-role-of-oxytocin-in-human-altruism
#4
René Hurlemann, Nina Marsh
Unlike any other species, humans frequently engage in altruistic behaviors by which they increase another individual's welfare even if this implies personal costs. The psychological motives underlying altruistic behaviors remain diverse, ranging from the ability to reciprocate trust and cooperation to bonding and empathizing with family members or even genetically unrelated others. This article explores the neuroendocrine architecture of altruism by emphasizing the crucial role of the evolutionarily highly conserved peptide hormone oxytocin as a modulator of cooperative behaviors including empathy-driven altruism...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298243/the-gender-gap-in-relation-to-happiness-and-preferences-in-married-couples-after-childbirth-evidence-from-a-field-experiment-in-rural-ghana
#5
Yusuke Kamiya, Bright Akpalu, Emmanuel Mahama, Emmanuel Kwesi Ayipah, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Abraham Hodgson, Akira Shibanuma, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Masamine Jimba
BACKGROUND: How does the gap in preferences between married couples affect their happiness after childbirth? Are couples that share similar preferences happier? In recent years, gender, marriage, and happiness have been considered to be key issues in public health research. Although much research has examined the happiness status of married couples, practically no study has explored the gender gap in relation to happiness and the preferences of married couples after childbirth. Therefore, our study was conducted to assess the association between the preference gap and the happiness status among married couples in the afterbirth period...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284989/punishment-in-the-form-of-shared-cost-promotes-altruism-in-the-cooperative-dilemma-games
#6
Chunyan Zhang, Yuying Zhu, Zengqiang Chen, Jianlei Zhang
One phenomenon or social institution often observed in multi-agent interactions is the altruistic punishment, i.e. the punishment of unfair behavior by others at a personal cost. Inspired by the works focusing on punishment and the intricate mechanism behind it, we theoretically study the strategy evolution in the framework of two-strategy game models with the punishment on defectors, moreover, the cost of punishing will be evenly shared among the cooperators. Theoretical computations suggest that larger punishment on defectors or smaller punishment cost incurred by cooperators will enhance the fixation of altruistic cooperation in the population...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282393/free-to-help-an-experiment-on-free-will-belief-and-altruism
#7
Job Harms, Kellie Liket, John Protzko, Vera Schölmerich
How does belief in free will affect altruistic behavior? In an online experiment we undermine subjects' belief in free will through a priming task. Subjects subsequently conduct a series of binary dictator games in which they can distribute money between themselves and a charity that supports low-income people in developing countries. In each decision task, subjects choose between two different distributions, one of which is more generous towards the charity. In contrast to previous experiments that report a negative effect of undermining free will on honest behavior and self-reported willingness to help, we find an insignificant average treatment effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281423/an-imaginary-legal-conundrum-a-reply-to-the-response-by-mahomed-n%C3%A3-thling-slabbert-and-pepper
#8
D Jordaan
In their original article on the subject of research using human biological material, Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper advanced the notion that the law regarding ownership of human biological material is uncertain, and proposed that our country's healthcare policy of altruism be changed to mandatory profit-sharing by research participants. In my critique article, I took issue with the notion that the relevant law is uncertain, and suggested that Mahomed et al. failed to present a convincing argument in support of the proposed policy change from altruism to profit-sharing...
February 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277924/follow-your-heart-development-of-an-evidence-based-campaign-empowering-older-women-with-hiv-to-participate-in-a-large-scale-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-trial
#9
Markella V Zanni, Kathleen Fitch, Corinne Rivard, Laura Sanchez, Pamela S Douglas, Steven Grinspoon, Laura Smeaton, Judith S Currier, Sara E Looby
BACKGROUND: Women's under-representation in HIV and cardiovascular disease (CVD) research suggests a need for novel strategies to ensure robust representation of women in HIV-associated CVD research. OBJECTIVE: To elicit perspectives on CVD research participation among a community-sample of women with or at risk for HIV, and to apply acquired insights toward the development of an evidence-based campaign empowering older women with HIV to participate in a large-scale CVD prevention trial...
March 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274987/the-university-of-north-carolina-medical-center-pharmacy-resident-leadership-certificate-program
#10
Kayley Lyons, Danielle Griggs, Rachel Lebovic, Mary E Roth, David A South, Chad Hatfield
PURPOSE: The development and implementation of a certificate program for pharmacy residents are described. SUMMARY: University of North Carolina (UNC) Medical Center met the call for increased efforts in the area of pharmacy residency leadership training through the design, implementation, and evaluation of a leadership certificate program. The purpose of the UNC certificate program is to develop leaders who will serve others, improve their communities, and advance the profession...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273587/generous-to-whom-the-influence-of-oxytocin-on-social-discounting
#11
Narun Pornpattananangkul, Junfeng Zhang, Qiaoyu Chen, Bing Cai Kok, Rongjun Yu
Oxytocin is thought to play an essential role in pro-social behaviors, such as generosity and altruism, in humans. Yet, most research in humans that demonstrated the pro-social effect of oxytocin had participants interact with partners who were total strangers to them. In real life, however, people often interact with others varying in social relatedness with them (a concept known as social distance), ranging from their parents to total strangers. Here we employed the social-discounting framework to investigate whether the effect of oxytocin on prosociality depends on the social distance between the participants and their interaction partners...
February 20, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268203/effects-of-altruism-and-burnout-on-driving-behavior-of-bus-drivers
#12
Xia Shi, Liang Zhang
Personality traits predict driving behaviors. However, the mechanism underlying this relationship has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers. The current study investigated the relationship between altruistic personality and aberrant driving behaviors, and the potential role of burnout. A total of 194 bus drivers completed questionnaires including measures of altruism, burnout and aberrant driving behaviors (aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors, and lapses). The results showed that altruism was negatively correlated with burnout, and with all the four subcategories of aberrant driving behavior...
March 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251864/typologies-of-altruistic-and-financial-motivations-for-research-participation
#13
Lisa J Chin, Jacqueline A Berenson, Robert L Klitzman
Questions arise concerning participants' motives in risky studies, such as HIV vaccine trials (HVTs). We interviewed in-depth 20 gay/bisexual men. Participants described both altruistic and nonaltruistic motives. Altruistic motivations emerged primarily, with nine typologies: (a) cultural, (b) community related, (c) familial, (d) religious, (e) professional, (f) political (e.g., HIV activism), (g) moral (e.g., making up for past wrongs), (h) existential (e.g., providing sense of meaning), and (i) other psychological (e...
October 2016: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237740/neuroanatomical-basis-of-concern-based-altruism-in-virtual-environment
#14
Indrajeet Patil, Marco Zanon, Giovanni Novembre, Nicola Zangrando, Luca Chittaro, Giorgia Silani
Costly altruism entails helping others at a cost to the self and prior work shows that empathic concern (EC) for the well-being of distressed and vulnerable individuals is one of the primary motivators of such behavior. However, extant work has investigated costly altruism with paradigms that did not feature self-relevant and severe costs for the altruist and have solely focused on neurofunctional, and not neuroanatomical, correlates. In the current study, we used a contextually-rich virtual reality environment to study costly altruism and found that individuals who risked their own lives in the virtual world to try to save someone in danger had enlarged right anterior insula and exhibited greater empathic concern than those who did not...
February 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235785/emergence-of-communities-and-diversity-in-social-networks
#15
Xiao Han, Shinan Cao, Zhesi Shen, Boyu Zhang, Wen-Xu Wang, Ross Cressman, H Eugene Stanley
Communities are common in complex networks and play a significant role in the functioning of social, biological, economic, and technological systems. Despite widespread interest in detecting community structures in complex networks and exploring the effect of communities on collective dynamics, a deep understanding of the emergence and prevalence of communities in social networks is still lacking. Addressing this fundamental problem is of paramount importance in understanding, predicting, and controlling a variety of collective behaviors in society...
February 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219268/the-artificial-world-of-plastination-a-challenge-to-religious-perspectives-on-the-dead-human-body
#16
David Gareth Jones
The public exhibitions of plastinated (preserved) and dissected human cadavers have proved exceedingly popular and also very contentious. However, there has been little in the way of sustained analysis of these exhibitions from a Christian angle. The technique of plastination enables whole bodies to be displayed as though standing and playing a variety of sports, and with 'life-like' facial expressions. In analyzing this phenomenon, the plastination procedure is outlined, and the degree of naturalness of the whole body plastinates assessed...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219035/conceptualizing-agency-folkpsychological-and-folkcommunicative-perspectives-on-plants
#17
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research addresses cultural variation in concepts of agency. Across two experiments, we investigate how Indigenous Ngöbe of Panama and US college students interpret and make inferences about nonhuman agency, focusing on plants as a critical test case. In Experiment 1, participants predicted goal-directed actions for plants and other nonhuman kinds and judged their capacities for intentional agency. Goal-directed action is pervasive among living kinds and as such we expected cultural agreement on these predictions...
February 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218387/defining-personal-utility-in-genomics-a-delphi-study
#18
J Kohler, E Turbitt, K L Lewis, B S Wilfond, L Jamal, H L Peay, L G Biesecker, B B Biesecker
Individual genome sequencing results are valued by patients in ways distinct from clinical utility. Such outcomes have been described as components of "personal utility," a concept that broadly encompasses patient-endorsed benefits, that is operationally defined as non-clinical outcomes. No empirical delineation of these outcomes has been reported. To address this gap, we administered a Delphi survey to adult participants in a NIH clinical exome study to extract the most highly endorsed outcomes constituting personal utility...
February 20, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209520/deconstructing-empathy-neuroanatomical-dissociations-between-affect-sharing-and-prosocial-motivation-using-a-patient-lesion-model
#19
Suzanne M Shdo, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Kelly A Gola, Clinton J Mielke, Paul V Sukhanov, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Affect sharing and prosocial motivation are integral parts of empathy that are conceptually and mechanistically distinct. We used a neurodegenerative disease (NDG) lesion model to examine the neural correlates of these two aspects of real-world empathic responding. The study enrolled 275 participants, including 44 healthy older controls and 231 patients diagnosed with one of five neurodegenerative diseases (75 Alzheimer's disease, 58 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 42 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 28 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 28 non-fluent variant (nfvPPA)...
February 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196125/delaying-rewards-has-greater-effect-on-altruism-when-the-beneficiary-is-socially-distant
#20
Jerzy Osiński, Adam Karbowski
Based on the assumption that social distance and time are dimensions of psychological distance important for altruistic choices it was predicted that enhancement of altruism due to delaying rewards when choosing between a reward for oneself and for another person would be more pronounced the greater the social distance between the subject and another person. In order to test this hypothesis, social discounting using hypothetical monetary rewards and manipulation of social distance and reward delay was measured in a group of 161 college students...
2017: PloS One
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