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Elina T L'Estrade, Hanne D Hansen, Maria Erlandsson, Tomas G Ohlsson, Gitte M Knudsen, Matthias M Herth
Already in 1953, Woolley and Shaw speculated that serotonin could be involved in a range of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) displayed an important role in this respect. It was used not only to antagonize biological effects of serotonin and to study the system itself, but also to identify serotonergic subtype receptors. The 5-HT2A receptor was discovered in the 1970s and identified as the responsible receptor mediating psychedelic effects of LSD. The development of positron emission tomography (PET) allowed to study this receptor system in vivo...
May 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Ang Zhou, Amy E Taylor, Ville Karhunen, Yiqiang Zhan, Suvi P Rovio, Jari Lahti, Per Sjögren, Liisa Byberg, Donald M Lyall, Juha Auvinen, Terho Lehtimäki, Mika Kähönen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Mia Maria Perälä, Karl Michaëlsson, Anubha Mahajan, Lars Lind, Chris Power, Johan G Eriksson, Olli T Raitakari, Sara Hägg, Nancy L Pedersen, Juha Veijola, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Marcus R Munafò, Erik Ingelsson, David J Llewellyn, Elina Hyppönen
Coffee's long-term effect on cognitive function remains unclear with studies suggesting both benefits and adverse effects. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal relationship between habitual coffee consumption and cognitive function in mid- to later life. This included up to 415,530 participants and 300,760 coffee drinkers from 10 meta-analysed European ancestry cohorts. In each cohort, composite cognitive scores that capture global cognition and memory were computed using available tests...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Omar Zaliha, Hishamuddin Elina, Kanagaratnam Sivaruby, Abd Rashid Norizzah, Alejandro G Marangoni
The in situ polymorphic forms and thermal transitions of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO), palm stearin (RBDPS) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were investigated using coupled X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that the DSC onset crystallisation temperature of RBDPO was at 22.6°C, with a single reflection at 4.2Å started to appear from 23.4 to 17.1°C, and were followed by two prominent exothermic peaks at 20.1°C and 8.5°C respectively. Further cooling to -40°C leads to the further formation of a β'polymorph...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Elina Kylmäoja, Miho Nakamura, Hanna Kokkonen-Puuperä, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Petri Lehenkari, Juha Tuukkanen
Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the influence of gap junctional communication (GJC) in osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) monocytes. These widely used sources differ in purity, since BM cultures contain a significant number of stromal cells. We studied whether stimulation of GJC in BM monocyte/stromal cell cultures differs from the effect in pure PB monocyte cultures. We compared the differentiation also in acidosis, which is a known inducer of bone resorption...
May 2018: Heliyon
Brandon T Garland, Patrick J Danaher, Sarasi Desikan, Nam T Tran, Elina Quiroga, Niten Singh, Benjamin W Starnes
OBJECTIVE: Even in the ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair first era, there are still patients who will not survive their ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA). All previously published mortality risk scores include intraoperative variables and are not helpful with the decision to operate or in providing preoperative patient and family counseling. The purpose of this study was to develop a practical preoperative risk score to predict mortality after repair of rAAA. METHODS: Data of all patients with rAAA presenting between January 1, 2002, and October 31, 2013, were collected...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Elina Nürnberg, Sandra Horschitz, Patrick Schloss, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Glucocorticoids (GC) have first been shown to originate from the adrenal glands where synthesis and release is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recently, it was shown that GC and other steroid hormones are also synthesized in the central nervous system, so-called neurosteroids. GC bind to specific GC receptors (GR) which function as ligand-activated transcription factors. GR are expressed in nearly all cell types in the brain, and therefore GC have a strong impact on neuronal development...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Minna Kääriäinen, Elina Halme, Jussi Laranne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Flap failure in microvascular reconstruction is a costly complication with total flap loss being the worst-case scenario. With the aim to rapidly identify a postoperative circulatory problem, some susceptible flaps can be saved by careful clinical monitoring or by various technical monitoring methods. In head and neck surgery, where the flaps are often buried and difficult to monitor clinically, a reliable technical monitoring method would be useful. A broad range of different techniques are in use varying according to practical and personal preferences among clinics and surgeons...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Elina Glaubke, Holger Bastians
The regulation of mitotic spindle orientation is essential to ensure proper cell division and development (Kiyomitsua and Cheeseman Nat Cell Biol 14:311-317, 2012). For identification of potential spindle orientation regulators, determination of the mitotic spindle angle is a well-known but time-consuming procedure. Here we describe a simple and time-saving phenotypic screening assay for the identification of potential spindle orientation regulators. This screen is based on the analysis of monopolar mitotic spindle structures, which form upon inhibition of the mitotic kinesin Eg5/KSP by the small-molecule inhibitor dimethylenastron (DME) or similar compounds...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Elina Weiste, Anssi Peräkylä, Taina Valkeapää, Enikö Savander, Jukka Hintikka
Diagnosis is integral part of the way medicine organises illness: it is important for identifying treatment options, predicting outcomes and providing an explanatory framework for clinicians. Previous research has shown that during a medical visit not only the clinician but also patients provide explanations for the causes of their symptoms and health problems. Patients' lifeworld explanations are often differentiated from the diagnostic explanations provided by clinicians. However, while previous conversation analytic research has elaborated the ways in which diagnostic and lifeworld explanations are interactionally structured in somatic medicine, there is little research on how these explanations are organised in psychiatry...
April 30, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Elena Bartkiene, Vadims Bartkevics, Laura Elīna Ikkere, Iveta Pugajeva, Paulina Zavistanaviciute, Vita Lele, Modestas Ruzauskas, Jurga Bernatoniene, Valdas Jakstas, Dovile Klupsaite, Daiva Zadeike, Pranas Viskelis, Grazina Juodeikiene
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ultrasonication, fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 and Lactobacillus paracasei LUHS244, and different methods of dehydration on the chemical composition of bovine colostrum (BC), including the fatty acid and free amino acid profile and the content of micro- and macroelements. In addition, we analyzed the changes in lactic acid bacteria count, microbial contamination (aerobic mesophilic spore-forming bacteria, enterobacteria including Escherichia coli, and fungi/yeasts), the abundance of biogenic amines, and the concentration of nucleotide monophosphates...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Elina Skuja, Aija Gerina-Berzina, Alinta Hegmane, Zanete Zvirbule, Eva Vecvagare, Gunta Purkalne
We herein describe the findings from the trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) Compassionate Use program in Latvia, set up prior to marketing authorization for the management of pretreated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The efficacy and safety of TAS-102 in patients with refractory mCRC were evaluated in the phase III trial RECOURSE. A previous report confirmed neutropenia and duration of previous treatment for mCRC as prognostic factors in TAS-102 users. The aim of the present study was to analyze possible prognostic factors, such as neutropenia, in TAS-102 responders...
May 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Kai-Hee Huong, K A R Elina, A A Amirul
Long carbon chain alkanediols are used in the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)], however these substrates possess high toxicity towards bacterial cells. This study demonstrated the effective utilisation of a long carbon chain alkanediol, namely 1,8-octanediol, to enhance the yield and production of a copolymer with a high molecular weight of over 1000 kDa, which is desirable for novel applications in medical and biopharmaceuticals. The increased PHA content (47-61 wt%) and concentration (1...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Diana Horvath-Rizea, Alexey Surov, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Nikita Garnov, Cathrin Vörkel, Patricia Kohlhof-Meinecke, Oliver Ganslandt, Hansjörg Bäzner, Georg Alexander Gihr, Marcell Kalman, Elina Henkes, Hans Henkes, Stefan Schob
Background: Morphologically similar appearing ring enhancing lesions in the brain parenchyma can be caused by a number of distinct pathologies, however, they consistently represent life-threatening conditions. The two most frequently encountered diseases manifesting as such are glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and brain abscess (BA), each requiring disparate therapeutical approaches. As a result of their morphological resemblance, essential treatment might be significantly delayed or even ommited, in case results of conventional imaging remain inconclusive...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Nikolai Havn Sæther, Elina Skuja, Arvids Irmejs, Jelena Maksimenko, Edvins Miklasevics, Gunta Purkalne, Janis Gardovskis
Background: There is increasing evidence of high platinum sensitivity in BRCA -associated breast cancer. However, evidence from randomized trials is lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of platinum-based chemotherapy for BRCA1-positive breast cancer in a neoadjuvant setting. Methods: A retrospective study was performed by obtaining information from patient files. The results were compared with the available data from a literature review. Results: Twelve female patients with BRCA1 gene mutations who had stage I to III breast cancers were eligible for evaluation...
2018: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Elina Leonova, Evita Rostoka, Sylvie Sauvaigo, Larisa Baumane, Turs Selga, Nikolajs Sjakste
Background: 1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHP) possesses important biochemical and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. It was shown that the antimutagenic 1,4-dihydropyridine AV-153-Na interacts with DNA. The aim of the current study was to test the capability of the compound to scavenge peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radical, to test intracellular distribution of the compound, and to assess the ability of the compound to modify the activity of DNA repair enzymes and to protect the DNA in living cells against peroxynitrite-induced damage...
2018: PeerJ
Ish P Bhalla, Elina A Stefanovics, Robert A Rosenheck
OBJECTIVE: While "dual diagnosis" involving both psychiatric and substance use disorders has long been a focus of schizophrenia research, recent studies have advocated for a shift of focus to multimorbidity, addressing comorbidity from both additional psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. We hypothesized that more extensive mental health multimorbity would be associated with poorer quality of life (QOL) and functioning, and that additional psychiatric comorbidity in schizophrenia would have similar adverse effects on QOL as substance use comorbidity...
April 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Kaisa Mishina, Elina Tiiri, Lotta Lempinen, Lauri Sillanmäki, Kim Kronström, Andre Sourander
This study reports time-trend changes in self-reported mental health problems, smoking, and alcohol habits among Finnish adolescents over a 16-year period using three cross-sectional studies with similar designs, methodologies, and geographical recruitment areas. There were 4508 participants with a mean age of 14.4 years (range 13-18) in 1998 (n = 1449), 2008 (n = 1560), and 2014 (n = 1499). The information they provided on their mental health was measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and they were also asked questions about their alcohol and smoking habits...
April 27, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Junjie Feng, Arthur Wickenhagen, Matthew L Turnbull, Veronica V Rezelj, Felix Kreher, Natasha L Tilston-Lunel, Gillian S Slack, Benjamin Brennan, Elina Koudriakova, Andrew E Shaw, Suzannah J Rihn, Charles M Rice, Paul D Bieniasz, Richard M Elliott, Xiaohong Shi, Sam J Wilson
Bunyaviruses pose a significant threat to human health, prosperity and food security. In response to viral infections, interferons (IFNs) upregulate the expression of hundreds of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) whose cumulative action can potently inhibit the replication of bunyaviruses. We used a flow cytometry-based method to screen the ability of ∼500 unique ISGs from humans and rhesus macaques to inhibit the replication of Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus (BUNV), the prototype of both the Peribunyaviridae family and Bunyavirales order...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ineta Popēna, Artūrs Ābols, Līga Saulīte, Kārlis Pleiko, Elīna Zandberga, Kaspars Jēkabsons, Edgars Endzeliņš, Alicia Llorente, Aija Linē, Una Riekstiņa
BACKGROUND: Macrophages are one of the most important players in the tumor microenvironment. The polarization status of tumor associated macrophages into a pro-inflammatory type M1 or anti-inflammatory type M2 may influence cancer progression and patient survival. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles containing different biomolecules that are involved in cell to cell signal transfer. Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer-derived EVs are taken up by macrophages and modulate their phenotype and cytokine profile...
April 24, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Elina U Wells, Courtney P Williams, Richard E Kennedy, Patricia Sawyer, Cynthia J Brown
This study aimed to determine the proportion of older adults who recovered community mobility after hospitalization and identify factors associated with recovery. Using a random sample of 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years of age, we identified individuals with at least one hospitalization over 8.5 years of follow-up. Data were collected at baseline and every 6 months, including demographics, function, social support, community mobility measured by the UAB Life-Space Assessment (LSA), and overnight hospital admissions...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
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