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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222478/viscosity-jump-in-the-lower-mantle-inferred-from-melting-curves-of-ferropericlase
#1
Jie Deng, Kanani K M Lee
Convection provides the mechanism behind plate tectonics, which allows oceanic lithosphere to be subducted into the mantle as "slabs" and new rock to be generated by volcanism. Stagnation of subducting slabs and deflection of rising plumes in Earth's shallow lower mantle have been suggested to result from a viscosity increase at those depths. However, the mechanism for this increase remains elusive. Here, we examine the melting behavior in the MgO-FeO binary system at high pressures using the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell and show that the liquidus and solidus of (Mg x Fe1-x )O ferropericlase (x = ~0...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048200/automated-quantification-of-the-landing-error-scoring-system-with-a-markerless-motion-capture-system
#2
Timothy C Mauntel, Darin A Padua, Laura E Stanley, Barnett S Frank, Lindsay J DiStefano, Karen Y Peck, Kenneth L Cameron, Stephen W Marshall
CONTEXT:   The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) can be used to identify individuals with an elevated risk of lower extremity injury. The limitation of the LESS is that raters identify movement errors from video replay, which is time-consuming and, therefore, may limit its use by clinicians. A markerless motion-capture system may be capable of automating LESS scoring, thereby removing this obstacle. OBJECTIVE:   To determine the reliability of an automated markerless motion-capture system for scoring the LESS...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991779/estimation-of-hydraulic-jump-characteristics-of-channels-with-sudden-diverging-side-walls-via-svm
#3
Kiyoumars Roushangar, Reyhaneh Valizadeh, Roghayeh Ghasempour
Sudden diverging channels are one of the energy dissipaters which can dissipate most of the kinetic energy of the flow through a hydraulic jump. An accurate prediction of hydraulic jump characteristics is an important step in designing hydraulic structures. This paper focuses on the capability of the support vector machine (SVM) as a meta-model approach for predicting hydraulic jump characteristics in different sudden diverging stilling basins (i.e. basins with and without appurtenances). In this regard, different models were developed and tested using 1,018 experimental data...
October 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953484/erratum-water-science-and-technology-75-10-2257-2267-liquid-gas-mass-transfer-at-drop-structures-nat%C3%A3-rcia-matias-asbj%C3%A3-rn-haaning-nielsen-jes-vollertsen-filipa-ferreira-and-jos%C3%A3-saldanha-matos-doi-10-2166-wst-2017-103
#4
Natércia Matias, Asbjèrn Haaning Nielsen, Jes Vollertsen, Filipa Ferreira, José Saldanha Matos
Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the sulfur cycle in sewer systems. In spite of a wealth of experimental and field studies that have addressed the release of hydrogen sulfide from free surface flows in gravity sewers and the corresponding air-water mass transfer, little is known about hydrogen sulfide emission under highly turbulent conditions (e.g., drop structures, hydraulic jumps). In this study, experimental work was carried out to analyze the influence of characteristics of drops on reaeration...
September 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890688/metastability-of-neuronal-dynamics-during-general-anesthesia-time-for-a-change-in-our-assumptions
#5
Andrew E Hudson
There is strong evidence that anesthetics have stereotypical effects on brain state, so that a given anesthetic appears to have a signature in the electroencephalogram (EEG), which may vary with dose. This can be usefully interpreted as the anesthetic determining an attractor in the phase space of the brain. How brain activity shifts between these attractors in time remains understudied, as most studies implicitly assume a one-to-one relationship between drug dose and attractor features by assuming stationarity over the analysis interval and analyzing data segments of several minutes in length...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723414/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-a-treatment-strategy-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
REVIEW
Donald B Jump, Kelli A Lytle, Christopher M Depner, Sasmita Tripathy
Obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients have a high prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a continuum of chronic liver diseases ranging from benign hepatosteatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Because of its strong association with the obesity epidemic, NAFLD is rapidly becoming a major public health concern worldwide. Surprisingly, there are no FDA approved NAFLD therapies; and current therapies focus on the co-morbidities associated with NAFLD, namely, obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711162/actin-cytoskeleton-stiffness-grades-metastatic-potential-of-ovarian-carcinoma-hey-a8-cells-via-nanoindentation-mapping
#7
Z L Zhou, X X Sun, J Ma, M H Tong, S K Y To, A S T Wong, A H W Ngan
Recent studies have indicated that the nanoindentation measured stiffness of carcinoma adherent cells is in general lower than normal cells, thus suggesting that cell stiffness may serve as a bio-marker for carcinoma. However, the proper establishment of such a conclusion would require biophysical understanding of the underlying mechanism of the cell stiffness. In this work, we compared the elastic moduli of the actin cytoskeletons of Hey A8 ovarian carcinoma cells with and without metastasis (HM and NM), as measured by 2D atomic force microscopy (AFM) with low-depth nanoindentation via a rate-jump method...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706964/residual-stress-distribution-analysis-of-heat-treated-aps-tbc-using-image-based-modelling
#8
Chun Li, Xun Zhang, Ying Chen, James Carr, Simon Jacques, Julia Behnsen, Marco di Michiel, Ping Xiao, Robert Cernik
We carried out a residual stress distribution analysis in a APS TBC throughout the depth of the coatings. The samples were heat treated at 1150 °C for 190 h and the data analysis used image based modelling based on the real 3D images measured by Computed Tomography (CT). The stress distribution in several 2D slices from the 3D model is included in this paper as well as the stress distribution along several paths shown on the slices. Our analysis can explain the occurrence of the "jump" features near the interface between the top coat and the bond coat...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660801/seizing-the-moment-experiences-of-school-nurses-caring-for-students-with-overweight-and-obesity
#9
Shannon Baker Powell, Martha Keehner Engelke, Janice A Neil
School nurses are well positioned to assess, intervene, and evaluate efforts to positively impact students who are overweight or obese. The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore the experiences of school nurses providing care to children living with overweight and obesity. Data were collected through face-to-face, tape-recorded, in-depth, open-ended interviews with 10 school nurses from rural areas of North Carolina working with minority and low-income children in the public school setting...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657932/the-influence-of-external-load-on-quadriceps-muscle-and-tendon-dynamics-during-jumping
#10
Jacob E Earp, Robert U Newton, Prue Cormie, Anthony J Blazevich
Tendons possess both viscous (rate-dependent) and elastic (rate-independent) properties that determine tendon function. During high-speed movements external loading increases both the magnitude (FT) and rate (RFDT) of tendon loading. PURPOSE: The influence of external loading on muscle and tendon dynamics during maximal vertical jumping was explored. METHODS: Ten resistance-trained men performed parallel-depth, countermovement vertical jumps with and without additional load (0%, 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximum squat lift strength), while joint kinetics and kinematics, quadriceps tendon length (LT) and patellar tendon FT and RFDT were estimated using integrated ultrasound, motion analysis and force platform data and muscle tendon modelling...
November 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654438/differences-in-athletic-performance-between-sportsmen-with-symptomatic-femoroacetabular-impingement-and-healthy-controls
#11
Karen Mullins, Michael Hanlon, Patrick Carton
OBJECTIVE: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a commonly recognized condition in athletes characterized by activity-related hip pain and stiffness, which if left untreated can progress to hip osteoarthritis. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of symptomatic FAI on performance in young athletes based on the hypothesis that athletes with FAI would show deficits in performance compared with healthy controls. DESIGN: The functional performance of a cohort of preoperative, competitive sportsmen with symptomatic FAI (FAI group, n = 54), was compared with that of a group of age, sex and activity-level matched controls (n = 66)...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650736/test-retest-reliability-of-jump-execution-variables-using-mechanography-a-comparison-of-jump-protocols
#12
John S Fitzgerald, LuAnn Johnson, Grant Tomkinson, Jesse Stein, James N Roemmich
Mechanography during the vertical jump may enhance screening and determining mechanistic causes underlying physical performance changes. Utility of jump mechanography for evaluation is limited by scant test-retest reliability data on force-time variables. This study examined the test-retest reliability of eight jump execution variables assessed from mechanography. Thirty-two women (mean±SD: age 20.8 ± 1.3 yr) and 16 men (age 22.1 ± 1.9 yr) attended a familiarization session and two testing sessions, all one week apart...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541933/liquid-gas-mass-transfer-at-drop-structures
#13
Natércia Matias, Asbjørn Haaning Nielsen, Jes Vollertsen, Filipa Ferreira, José Saldanha Matos
Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the sulfur cycle in sewer systems. In spite of a wealth of experimental and field studies that have addressed the release of hydrogen sulfide from free surface flows in gravity sewers and the corresponding air-water mass transfer, little is known about hydrogen sulfide emission under highly turbulent conditions (e.g., drop structures, hydraulic jumps). In this study, experimental work was carried out to analyze the influence of characteristics of drops on reaeration...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513324/biomechanical-comparison-of-countermovement-jumps-performed-on-land-and-in-water-age-effects
#14
Talin Louder, Dennis Dolny, Eadric Bressel
CONTEXT: The aquatic environment provides a low impact alternative to land-based exercise and rehabilitation in older adults. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the biomechanics of older adults and young adults performing jumping movements on land and in water. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional, mixed-factorial experiment; adjustable-depth pool at sports medicine research facility. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-six young adults (22.0±3.9years) and twelve healthy older adults (57...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486652/swabbing-prairie-dog-burrows-for-fleas-that-transmit-yersinia-pestis-influences-on-efficiency
#15
David A Eads
Scientists and health-care professionals sometimes use a swabbing technique to collect fleas from rodent burrows, and later test the fleas for Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Detection of Y. pestis is enhanced when large pools of fleas are available. The following study investigated factors that might affect the rate at which fleas are collected from burrows in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Data were collected from 13 colonies in New Mexico during 0600-1000 hours, June-August 2010-2011...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460755/-snorkel-lice-barrier-technology-reduced-two-co-occurring-parasites-the-salmon-louse-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-and-the-amoebic-gill-disease-causing-agent-neoparamoeba-perurans-in-commercial-salmon-sea-cages
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
D W Wright, L H Stien, T Dempster, T Vågseth, V Nola, J-E Fosseidengen, F Oppedal
Diverse chemical-free parasite controls are gaining status in Atlantic salmon sea-cage farming. Yet, the intricacies of their use at commercial scale, including effects on co-occurring parasites, are seldom reported. A new salmon lice prevention method involves installing a deep net roof and 'snorkel' lice barrier in cages to shelter salmon from free-living infective larvae which concentrate at shallow depths, and allows salmon to jump and re- inflate their buoyancy-regulating swim bladder by swallowing air...
May 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339350/the-effect-of-initial-knee-angle-on-concentric-only-squat-jump-performance
#17
Lachlan J Mitchell, Christos K Argus, Kristie-Lee Taylor, Jeremy M Sheppard, Dale W Chapman
PURPOSE: There is uncertainty as to which knee angle during a squat jump (SJ) produces maximal jump performance. Importantly, understanding this information will aid in determining appropriate ratios for assessment and monitoring of the explosive characteristics of athletes. METHOD: This study compared SJ performance across different knee angles-90º, 100º, 110º, 120º, 130º, and a self-selected depth-for jump height and other kinetic characteristics. For comparison between SJ and an unconstrained dynamic movement, participants also performed a countermovement jump from a self-selected depth...
June 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179885/plyometric-training-favors-optimizing-muscle-tendon-behavior-during-depth-jumping
#18
Kuniaki Hirayama, Soichiro Iwanuma, Naoki Ikeda, Ayumi Yoshikawa, Ryoichi Ema, Yasuo Kawakami
The purpose of the present study was to elucidate how plyometric training improves stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise performance in terms of muscle strength, tendon stiffness, and muscle-tendon behavior during SSC exercise. Eleven men were assigned to a training group and ten to a control group. Subjects in the training group performed depth jumps (DJ) using only the ankle joint for 12 weeks. Before and after the period, we observed reaction forces at foot, muscle-tendon behavior of the gastrocnemius, and electromyographic activities of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during DJ...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149396/control-strategy-of-maximum-vertical-jumps-the-preferred-countermovement-depth-may-not-be-fully-optimized-for-jump-height
#19
Radivoj Mandic, Olivera M Knezevic, Dragan M Mirkov, Slobodan Jaric
The aim of the present study was to explore the control strategy of maximum countermovement jumps regarding the preferred countermovement depth preceding the concentric jump phase. Elite basketball players and physically active non-athletes were tested on the jumps performed with and without an arm swing, while the countermovement depth was varied within the interval of almost 30 cm around its preferred value. The results consistently revealed 5.1-11.2 cm smaller countermovement depth than the optimum one, but the same difference was more prominent in non-athletes...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036184/discovering-a-first-order-phase-transition-in-the-li-ceo2-system
#20
LETTER
Kaikai Li, Xiaoye Zhou, Anmin Nie, Sheng Sun, Yan-Bing He, Wei Ren, Baohua Li, Feiyu Kang, Jang-Kyo Kim, Tong-Yi Zhang
An in-depth understanding of (de)lithiation induced phase transition in electrode materials is crucial to grasp their structure-property relationships and provide guidance to the design of more desirable electrodes. By operando synchrotron XRD (SXRD) measurement and Density Functional Theory (DFT) based calculations, we discover a reversible first-order phase transition for the first time during (de)lithiation of CeO2 nanoparticles. The LixCeO2 compound phase is identified to possess the same fluorite crystal structure with FM3M space group as that of the pristine CeO2 nanoparticles...
February 8, 2017: Nano Letters
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