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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632776/dynamic-knee-valgus-alignment-influences-impact-attenuation-in-the-lower-extremity-during-the-deceleration-phase-of-a-single-leg-landing
#1
Akihiro Tamura, Kiyokazu Akasaka, Takahiro Otsudo, Jyunya Shiozawa, Yuka Toda, Kaori Yamada
Dynamic knee valgus during landings is associated with an increased risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. In addition, the impact on the body during landings must be attenuated in the lower extremity joints. The purpose of this study was to investigate landing biomechanics during landing with dynamic knee valgus by measuring the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and angular impulses in the lower extremity during a single-leg landing. The study included 34 female college students, who performed the single-leg drop vertical jump...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632062/skeleton-sled-velocity-profiles-a-novel-approach-to-understand-critical-aspects-of-the-elite-athletes-start-phases
#2
Steffi L Colyer, Keith A Stokes, James L J Bilzon, Aki I T Salo
The development of velocity across the skeleton start is critical to performance, yet poorly understood. We aimed to understand which components of the sled velocity profile determine performance and how physical abilities influence these components. Thirteen well-trained skeleton athletes (>85% of athletes in the country) performed dry-land push-starts alongside countermovement jump and sprint tests at multiple time-points. A magnet encoder attached to the sled wheel provided velocity profiles, which were characterised using novel performance descriptors...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614452/-profile-of-clinical-trials-enrolling-brazilian-children
#3
Jean Mendes de Lucena Vieira, Elisangela da Costa Lima, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot Land, Miriam Ventura, Helena Lutescia Luna Coelho
This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies...
June 12, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594168/large-scale-risks-from-agricultural-pesticides-in-small-streams
#4
Eduard Szöcs, Marvin Brinke, Bilgin Karaoglan, Ralf B Schäfer
Small streams are important refuges for biodiversity. In agricultural areas, they may be at risk from pesticide pollution. However, most related studies have been limited to a few streams on the regional level, hampering extrapolation to larger scales. We quantified risks as exceedances of regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) and used German monitoring data to quantify the drivers thereof and to assess current risks in small streams on a large scale. The data set was comprised of 1 766 104 measurements of 478 pesticides (including metabolites) related to 24 743 samples from 2301 sampling sites...
June 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591146/recent-tree-cover-increases-in-eastern-china-linked-to-low-declining-human-pressure-steep-topography-and-climatic-conditions-favoring-tree-growth
#5
Jonas Nüchel, Jens-Christian Svenning
Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551886/the-role-of-land-use-change-on-the-sustainability-of-groundwater-resources-in-the-eastern-plains-of-kurdistan-iran
#6
Ata Amini, Ali Hesami
In this study, land use change and its effects on level and volume of groundwater were investigated. Using satellite images and field measurements, change in land uses was determined from 1998 to 2007. By analyzing the observation wells data and preparing the zoning maps in GIS, groundwater level fluctuations were assessed. Considering the area corresponding to these fluctuations, changes in aquifers volume were calculated. The rain gauge and synoptic stations data were used to calculate meteorological parameters and evapotranspiration...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536461/inter-basin-sources-for-two-year-predictability-of-the-multi-year-la-ni%C3%A3-a-event-in-2010-2012
#7
Jing-Jia Luo, Guoqiang Liu, Harry Hendon, Oscar Alves, Toshio Yamagata
Multi-year La Niña events often induce persistent cool and wet climate over global lands, altering and in some case mitigating regional climate warming impacts. The latest event lingered from mid-2010 to early 2012 and brought about intensive precipitation over many land regions of the world, particularly Australia. This resulted in a significant drop in global mean sea level despite the background upwards trend. This La Niña event is surprisingly predicted out to two years ahead in a few coupled models, even though the predictability of El Niño-Southern Oscillation during 2002-2014 has declined owing to weakened ocean-atmosphere interactions...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527312/low-energy-electron-potentiometry
#8
Johannes Jobst, Jaap Kautz, Maria Mytiliniou, Rudolf M Tromp, Sense Jan van der Molen
In a lot of systems, charge transport is governed by local features rather than being a global property as suggested by extracting a single resistance value. Consequently, techniques that resolve local structure in the electronic potential are crucial for a detailed understanding of electronic transport in realistic devices. Recently, we have introduced a new potentiometry method based on low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) that utilizes characteristic features in the reflectivity spectra of layered materials [1]...
May 13, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522976/trunk-muscle-activity-during-drop-jump-performance-in-adolescent-athletes-with-back-pain
#9
Steffen Mueller, Josefine Stoll, Juliane Mueller, Michael Cassel, Frank Mayer
In the context of back pain, great emphasis has been placed on the importance of trunk stability, especially in situations requiring compensation of repetitive, intense loading induced during high-performance activities, e.g., jumping or landing. This study aims to evaluate trunk muscle activity during drop jump in adolescent athletes with back pain (BP) compared to athletes without back pain (NBP). Eleven adolescent athletes suffering back pain (BP: m/f: n = 4/7; 15.9 ± 1.3 y; 176 ± 11 cm; 68 ± 11 kg; 12...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502264/study-of-the-impact-on-salmonella-of-moving-outdoor-pigs-to-fresh-land
#10
R P Smith, V Andres, L Dormer, R Gosling, C Oastler, R H Davies
Anecdotal evidence has suggested that outdoor-kept pigs show an improvement to health and productivity after being moved to a new site. This study explores whether Salmonella occurrence reduced and was sustained after moving to a new site. Nine farms were followed for a year in which four sampling visits were completed. The highest detection of Salmonella was from pooled faecal dropping from pigs, run-off/ pooled water, rodents and wild birds. Descriptive summaries showed that the prevalence of both all Salmonella and serovars of public health importance were lower at all visits after the move...
May 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474332/future-productivity-and-phenology-changes-in-european-grasslands-for-different-warming-levels-implications-for-grassland-management-and-carbon-balance
#11
Jinfeng Chang, Philippe Ciais, Nicolas Viovy, Jean-François Soussana, Katja Klumpp, Benjamin Sultan
BACKGROUND: Europe has warmed more than the global average (land and ocean) since pre-industrial times, and is also projected to continue to warm faster than the global average in the twenty-first century. According to the climate models ensemble projections for various climate scenarios, annual mean temperature of Europe for 2071-2100 is predicted to be 1-5.5 °C higher than that for 1971-2000. Climate change and elevated CO2 concentration are anticipated to affect grassland management and livestock production in Europe...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469739/changes-in-impact-signals-and-muscle-activity-in-response-to-different-shoe-and-landing-conditions
#12
Xi Wang, Shen Zhang, Weijie Fu
Few rigorous scientific studies have investigated how the corresponding neuromuscular activity in the lower extremity occurs during different landing control movements in response to different impact signals. This study aimed to determine the potential shoe effects on impact signals, neuromuscular responses and their possible interactions in different human landing movements. Twelve male basketball players were required to wear high-cushioned basketball shoes (BS) and minimally cushioned control shoes (CC) to perform active drop jump landings (DJL) and passive landings (PL)...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421029/a-historical-view-of-motion-sickness-a-plague-at-sea-and-on-land-also-with-military-impact
#13
Doreen Huppert, Judy Benson, Thomas Brandt
Seasickness and its triggers, symptoms, and preventive measures were well known in antiquity. This chapter is based on an analysis of descriptions of motion sickness, in particular seasickness, in ancient Greek, Roman, and Chinese literature. A systematic search was made from the Greek period beginning with Homer in 800 BC to the late Roman period and ending with Aetios Amidenos in 600 AD, as well as in the Chinese medical classics dating from around 300 AD. Major aspects are the following: body movements caused by waves were identified in all cultures as the critical stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406154/pathways-for-balancing-co2-emissions-and-sinks
#14
Brian Walsh, Philippe Ciais, Ivan A Janssens, Josep Peñuelas, Keywan Riahi, Felicjan Rydzak, Detlef P van Vuuren, Michael Obersteiner
In December 2015 in Paris, leaders committed to achieve global, net decarbonization of human activities before 2100. This achievement would halt and even reverse anthropogenic climate change through the net removal of carbon from the atmosphere. However, the Paris documents contain few specific prescriptions for emissions mitigation, leaving various countries to pursue their own agendas. In this analysis, we project energy and land-use emissions mitigation pathways through 2100, subject to best-available parameterization of carbon-climate feedbacks and interdependencies...
April 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385562/shoe-cushioning-reduces-impact-and-muscle-activation-during-landings-from-unexpected-but-not-self-initiated-drops
#15
Weijie Fu, Ying Fang, Yaodong Gu, Lingyan Huang, Li Li, Yu Liu
OBJECTIVES: To date, few rigorous scientific studies have been conducted to understand the impact mechanics and muscle activation characteristics of different landing tasks and the influence of shoe properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of shoe cushioning on impact biomechanics and muscular responses during drop landings. DESIGN: A single-blinded and randomized design. METHODS: Twelve male collegiate basketball players performed bipedal landings from self-initiated and unexpected drops (SIDL and UDL) from a 60-cm height wearing highly-cushioned basketball shoes (Bball) and less cushioned control shoes (CC)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357830/preparation-and-medical-follow-up-for-a-single-handed-transatlantic-rowing-race
#16
Mathieu Carron, Mathieu Coulange, Christophe Dupuy, Pierre Mastalski, Bruno Barberon, Alexis Roullaud, Agnalys Desplantes, Jean-Pierre Auffray
BACKGROUND: A single-handed transatlantic rowing race was organised between Senegal and French Guyana (2600 nautical miles). During the race, rowers adjust their lifestyle to maintain an optimal level of performance. Nutrition, circadian rhythm disturbance, psychological state, pain and other medical problems impact on physical abilities and increase the occurrence of accidents. We surveyed the prevalence of medical complications during this race and the preparation that we could suggest for this kind of activity...
2017: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356640/fatigue-influences-lower-extremity-angular-velocities-during-a-single-leg-drop-vertical-jump
#17
Akihiro Tamura, Kiyokazu Akasaka, Takahiro Otsudo, Junya Shiozawa, Yuka Toda, Kaori Yamada
[Purpose] Fatigue alters lower extremity landing strategies and decreases the ability to attenuate impact during landing. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of fatigue on dynamic alignment and joint angular velocities in the lower extremities during a single leg landing. [Subjects and Methods] The 34 female college students were randomly assigned to either the fatigue or control group. The fatigue group performed single-leg drop vertical jumps before, and after, the fatigue protocol, which was performed using a bike ergometer...
March 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338388/preferred-hip-strategy-during-landing-reduces-knee-abduction-moment-in-collegiate-female-soccer-players
#18
Anh-Dung Nguyen, Jeffrey B Taylor, Taylor G Wimbish, Jennifer L Keith, Kevin R Ford
CONTEXT: Hip focused interventions are aimed to decrease frontal plane knee loading related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Whether a preferred hip landing strategy decreases frontal plane knee loading is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a preferred hip landing strategy during a drop vertical jump (DVJ) is utilized during a single leg landing (SLL) task and whether differences in frontal plane knee loading are consistent between a DVJ and a SLL task...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336150/effects-of-foot-rotation-positions-on-knee-valgus-during-single-leg-drop-landing-implications-for-acl-injury-risk-reduction
#19
P S P Teng, P W Kong, K F Leong
BACKGROUND: Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries commonly occur when athletes land in high risk positions such as knee valgus. The position of the foot at landing may influence the transmission of forces from the ankle to the knee. Using an experimental approach to manipulate foot rotation positions, this study aimed to provide new insights on how knee valgus during single-leg landing may be influenced by foot positions. METHODS: Eleven male recreational basketball players performed single-leg drop landings from a 30-cm high platform in three foot rotation positions (toe-in, toe-forward and toe-out) at initial contact...
March 20, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316257/acute-kinematic-and-kinetic-adaptations-to-wearable-resistance-during-vertical-jumping
#20
Paul Macadam, Kim D Simperingham, John B Cronin, Grace Couture, Chloe Evison
One variation of vertical jump (VJ) training is resisted or weighted jump training, where wearable resistance (WR) enables jumping to be overloaded in a movement specific manner. A two-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc contrasts was used to determine the acute changes in VJ performance with differing load magnitudes and load placements. Kinematic and kinetic data were quantified using a force plate and contact mat. Twenty sport active subjects (age: 27.8 ± 3.8 years; body mass (BM): 70...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
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