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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780669/an-examination-of-the-impact-of-olson-s-extinction-on-tetrapods-from-texas
#1
Neil Brocklehurst
It has been suggested that a transition between a pelycosaurian-grade synapsid dominated fauna of the Cisuralian (early Permian) and the therapsid dominated fauna of the Guadalupian (middle Permian) was accompanied by, and possibly driven by, a mass extinction dubbed Olson's Extinction. However, this interpretation of the record has recently been criticised as being a result of inappropriate time-binning strategies: calculating species richness within international stages or substages combines extinctions occurring throughout the late Kungurian stage into a single event...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758508/the-efficacy-of-elastic-therapeutic-tape-variations-on-measures-of-ankle-function-and-performance
#2
Christopher Michael Brogden, Kelly Marrin, Richard Michael Page, Matt Greig
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of different variations of elastic therapeutic taping (ETT) on tests used to screen for ankle injury risk and function. DESIGN: Randomized crossover. SETTING: Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve professional male soccer players completed three experimental trials: No tape (NT), RockTape™ (RT), and Kinesio™ Tape (KT) applied to the ankle complex. OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical and functional ankle screening tests were used to assess the effects of ETT on measures of joint position sense, postural stability and ground reaction forces...
April 23, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749751/visual-motor-control-of-drop-landing-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#3
Dustin R Grooms, Ajit Chaudhari, Stephen J Page, Deborah S Nichols-Larsen, James A Onate
CONTEXT:   Visual feedback is crucial in the control of human movement. When vision is obstructed, alterations in landing neuromuscular control may increase movements that place individuals at risk for injury. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may further alter the motor-control response to alterations in visual feedback. The development of stroboscopic glasses that disrupt visual feedback without fully obscuring it has enabled researchers to assess visual-motor control during movements that simulate the dynamic demands of athletic activity...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746389/effect-of-sand-on-knee-load-during-a-single-leg-jump-task-implications-for-injury-prevention-and-rehabilitation-programs
#4
Mark C Richardson, Sinead Murphy, Tom Macpherson, Bryan English, Iain Spears, Paul Chesterton
Richardson, MC, Murphy, S, Macpherson, T, English, B, Spears, I, and Chesterton, P. Effect of sand on knee load during a single-leg jump task: implications for injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in landing strategies and subsequent joint loads at the knee (knee abduction moment [KAM], anterior-posterior [AP] tibial translation, and total knee shear force) when jumping onto sand and firm ground from both a level surface and a 30-cm height...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737511/seasonal-variations-in-the-availability-of-fodder-resources-and-practices-of-dairy-cattle-feeding-among-the-smallholder-farmers-in-western-usambara-highlands-tanzania
#5
David Maleko, Wai-Tim Ng, George Msalya, Angello Mwilawa, Liliane Pasape, Kelvin Mtei
The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal effects on quantity and quality of fodder resources and associated utilization practices among smallholder dairy farmers in Western Usambara Highlands (WUHs) in Tanzania. The WUHs are among the major milk producing areas under smallholder dairy farming systems (SDFS) in Tanzania. Dry season fodder scarcity is a widespread problem affecting the East African SDFS and has been shown to contribute to over 40% reduction in milk yield. There is limited information with regard to seasonal fodder fluctuation and its effects on productivity of dairy cows in different landscape levels of Tanzania...
May 8, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721781/implicit-video-feedback-produces-positive-changes-in-landing-mechanics
#6
Tijana Popovic, Shane V Caswell, Anne Benjaminse, Tarique Siragy, Jatin Ambegaonkar, Nelson Cortes
BACKGROUND: Implicit (IF) and explicit (EF) feedback are two motor learning strategies demonstrated to alter movement patterns. There is conflicting evidence on which strategy produces better outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reduced IF and EF video feedback on lower extremity landing mechanics. METHODS: Thirty participants (24 ± 2 years, 1.7 ± 0.1 m, 70 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: IF (n = 10), EF (n = 10), and control (CG) (n = 10)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708524/subject-specific-musculoskeletal-model-for-studying-bone-strain-during-dynamic-motion
#7
Henry Wang, Scott Dueball
Bone stress injuries are common in sports and military trainings. Repetitive large ground impact forces during training could be the cause. It is essential to determine the effect of high ground impact forces on lower-body bone deformation to better understand the mechanisms of bone stress injuries. Conventional strain gauge measurement has been used to study in vivo tibia deformation. This method is associated with limitations including invasiveness of the procedure, involvement of few human subjects, and limited strain data from small bone surface areas...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690830/strategies-of-parkour-practitioners-for-executing-soft-precision-landings
#8
Galo Maldonado, Philippe Soueres, Bruno Watier
Parkour landing techniques differ from performances of other sports as they are practiced in urban spaces with uncontrolled surfaces and drop heights. Due to the relatively young age of the sport, few studies have tried to understand how practitioners - called traceurs - succeed at performing these dynamic performances. In this paper, we focus on the precision landing technique, which has a fundamental role in most of the Parkour motions. We analyzed the lower limbs motion of traceurs executing the precision landings from two different heights and compared their performance with untrained participants...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687012/sex-based-differences-of-medial-collateral-ligament-and-anterior-cruciate-ligament-strains-with-cadaveric-impact-simulations
#9
Nathan D Schilaty, Nathaniel A Bates, Christopher V Nagelli, Aaron J Krych, Timothy E Hewett
Background: Female patients sustain noncontact knee ligament injuries at a greater rate compared with their male counterparts. The cause of these differences in the injury rate and the movements that load the ligaments until failure are still under dispute in the literature. Purpose/Hypotheses: This study was designed to determine differences in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) strains between male and female cadaveric specimens during a simulated athletic task...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671383/sport-specific-biomechanical-responses-to-an-acl-injury-prevention-programme-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Jeffrey B Taylor, Kevin R Ford, Randy J Schmitz, Scott E Ross, Terry A Ackerman, Sandra J Shultz
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programmes have not been as successful at reducing injury rates in women's basketball as in soccer. This randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02530333) compared biomechanical adaptations in basketball and soccer players during jump-landing activities after an ACL injury prevention programme. Eighty-seven athletes were cluster randomised into intervention (6-week programme) and control groups. Three-dimensional biomechanical analyses of drop vertical jump (DVJ), double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg (SAG-SL) sagittal, and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) frontal plane jump landing tasks were tested before and after the intervention...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670666/passive-cushiony-biomechanics-of-head-protection-in-falling-geckos
#11
Hao Wang, Wenbo Wang, Yi Song, Lei Cai, Zhendong Dai
Gekko geckos are capable to crawl on the steep even on upside-down surfaces. Such movement, especially at great altitude, puts them at high risks of incidentally dropping down and inevitable body or head impactions, though they may trigger air-righting reaction (ARR) to attenuate the landing shocks. However, the air-righting ability (ARA) in Gekko geckos is not fully developed. The implementation of ARR in some geckos is quite slow; and for those without tails, the ARR is even unobservable. Since ARA is compromised in Gekko geckos , there must be some other mechanisms responsible for protecting them from head injuries during falls...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667844/lower-extremity-biomechanics-during-a-drop-vertical-jump-in-participants-with-or-without-chronic-ankle-instability
#12
C Collin Herb, Kaitlyn Grossman, Mark A Feger, Luke Donovan, Jay Hertel
CONTEXT:   Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a condition characterized by range-of-motion, neuromuscular, and postural-control deficits and subjective disability, reinjury, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Differences have been reported in kinematics, kinetics, surface electromyography (EMG), and ground reaction forces during functional tasks performed by those with CAI. These measures are often collected independently, and the research on collecting measures simultaneously during a movement task is limited...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643592/does-trampoline-or-hard-surface-jumping-influence-lower-extremity-alignment
#13
Kiyokazu Akasaka, Akihiro Tamura, Aoi Katsuta, Ayako Sagawa, Takahiro Otsudo, Yu Okubo, Yutaka Sawada, Toby Hall
[Purpose] To determine whether repetitive trampoline or hard surface jumping affects lower extremity alignment on jump landing. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy females participated in this study. All subjects performed a drop vertical jump before and after repeated maximum effort trampoline or hard surface jumping. A three-dimensional motion analysis system and two force plates were used to record lower extremity angles, moments, and vertical ground reaction force during drop vertical jumps. [Results] Knee extensor moment after trampoline jumping was greater than that after hard surface jumping...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619806/the-influence-of-single-leg-landing-direction-on-lower-limbs-biomechanics
#14
Antonio Dello Iacono, Moshe Ayalon, Weijie Wang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether different directions of single-leg landing tasks would influence lower limbs joints biomechanics. METHODS: Using a controlled and experimental design, thirty physically active male subjects (age: 26.4 ± 4.4 years; height: 180.5 ± 3.7 cm; weight: 79.8: ± 4.4 kg), by dropping down from the top of a wooden box of 31 cm height, performed three one-leg landing tasks featured by different landing directions: frontward (FL), lateral (LL), and rotational (RL)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613821/lower-extremity-kinematics-differed-between-a-controlled-drop-jump-and-volleyball-takeoffs
#15
Bradley S Beardt, Myranda R McCollum, Taylour J Hinshaw, Jacob S Layer, Margaret A Wilson, Qin Zhu, Boyi Dai
Previous studies utilizing jump-landing biomechanics to predict anterior cruciate ligament injuries have shown inconsistent findings. The purpose of this study was to quantify the differences and correlations in jump-landing kinematics between a drop-jump, a controlled volleyball-takeoff, and a simulated-game volleyball-takeoff. Seventeen female volleyball players performed these three tasks on a volleyball court while three-dimensional kinematic data were collected by three calibrated camcorders. Participants demonstrated significantly increased jump height, shorter stance time, increased time differences in initial contact between two feet, increased knee and hip flexion at initial contact and decreased peak knee and hip flexion for both left and right legs, and decreased knee-ankle distance ratio at the lowest height of mid-hip for the two volleyball-takeoffs compared with the drop-jump (p < 0...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579620/ground-reaction-forces-during-a-drop-vertical-jump-impact-of-external-load-training
#16
Jeffrey D Simpson, Brandon L Miller, Eric K O'Neal, Harish Chander, Adam C Knight
External load training (ELT) is a supplemental training method used to potentially improve high intensity task performance. However, biomechanical parameters such as ground reaction forces (GRF), ground contact time, and time to peak GRF during a drop vertical jump (DVJ) following an ELT intervention have yet to be examined. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of ELT on certain biomechanical parameters of a DVJ task. Well-trained females stratified into two groups (ELT = 9, Control = 10) completed a DVJ from a 45...
March 23, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568787/sex-based-differences-in-knee-kinetics-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-strain-on-cadaveric-impact-simulations
#17
Nathan D Schilaty, Nathaniel A Bates, Christopher Nagelli, Aaron J Krych, Timothy E Hewett
Background: Females are at an increased risk of sustaining noncontact knee ligament injuries as compared with their male counterparts. The kinetics that load the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are still under dispute in the literature. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in knee kinetics between the sexes that lead to greater ACL strain in females when similar external loads are applied during a simulated drop vertical jump landing task...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558379/do-transit-oriented-developments-tods-and-established-urban-neighborhoods-have-similar-walking-levels-in-hong-kong
#18
Yi Lu, Zhonghua Gou, Yang Xiao, Chinmoy Sarkar, John Zacharias
A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking-e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network-often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543122/the-influence-of-circadian-variation-on-aetiological-markers-of-ankle-injury
#19
Chris Brogden, Kelly Marrin, Richard Page, Matt Greig
CONTEXT: Clinical and functional assessments are performed regularly in sporting environments to screen for performance deficits and injury risk. Circadian rhythms have been demonstrated to affect human performance, however the influence of time of day on a battery of multiple ankle injury risk factors has yet to be established within athletic populations. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of circadian variation on a battery of tests, used to screen for ankle aetiological risk factors...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528957/association-of-hip-and-trunk-strength-with-three-dimensional-trunk-hip-and-knee-kinematics-during-a-single-leg-drop-vertical-jump
#20
A F Martinez, G C Lessi, C Carvalho, F V Serrao
Kinematic changes have been correlated with different lower limb injuries. Movement is influenced by multiple factors and strength is one of the contributors that can influence it. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation among trunk and hip isometric strength with trunk and lower-limb kinematics during a single-leg drop vertical jump. Twenty-three healthy recreational women athletes aged between 18 and 35 years underwent isometric evaluation of hip abductor, hip extensor, and lateral trunk muscle strength and three-dimensional trunk and lower-limb kinematics during a single-leg drop vertical jump...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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