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Svetlana Dzitoyeva, Hu Chen, Hari Manev
Nuclear epigenetics of the mammalian brain is modified during aging. Little is known about epigenetic modifications of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We analyzed brain samples of 4- and 24-month-old mice and found that aging decreased mtDNA 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) but not 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels in the frontal cortex but not the cerebellum. Transcript levels of selected mtDNA-encoded genes increased during aging in the frontal cortex only. Aging affected the expression of enzymes involved in 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine synthesis (mitochondrial DNA methyltransferase 1 [mtDNMT1] and ten-eleven-translocation [TET]1-TET3, respectively)...
December 2012: Neurobiology of Aging
Lisa S Shock, Prashant V Thakkar, Erica J Peterson, Richard G Moran, Shirley M Taylor
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been reported to contain 5-methylcytosine (5mC) at CpG dinucleotides, as in the nuclear genome, but neither the mechanism generating mtDNA methylation nor its functional significance is known. We now report the presence of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) as well as 5mC in mammalian mtDNA, suggesting that previous studies underestimated the level of cytosine modification in this genome. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) translocates to the mitochondria, driven by a mitochondrial targeting sequence located immediately upstream of the commonly accepted translational start site...
March 1, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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