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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431243/cryo-em-structure-of-the-open-human-ether-%C3%A3-go-go-related-k-channel-herg
#1
Weiwei Wang, Roderick MacKinnon
The human ether-à-go-go-related potassium channel (hERG, Kv11.1) is a voltage-dependent channel known for its role in repolarizing the cardiac action potential. hERG alteration by mutation or pharmacological inhibition produces Long QT syndrome and the lethal cardiac arrhythmia torsade de pointes. We have determined the molecular structure of hERG to 3.8 Å using cryo-electron microscopy. In this structure, the voltage sensors adopt a depolarized conformation, and the pore is open. The central cavity has an atypically small central volume surrounded by four deep hydrophobic pockets, which may explain hERG's unusual sensitivity to many drugs...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431205/cyclization-of-ynamide-tethered-1-3-8-triynes
#2
Venkata R Sabbasani, Hyunjin Lee, Peipei Xie, Yuanzhi Xia, Daesung Lee
A facile thermal cyclization of ynamide-tethered 1,3,8-triynes to form 3,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyridine skeleton is described. Although the mechanism of this unusual reaction is yet to be defined the formation of either a strained keteniminium or a biradical intermediate followed a 1,5-hydride or -hydrogen shift is tentatively proposed as the key elementary steps in the reaction sequence. Appropriate electronic activation at the carbon center donating a hydride or hydrogen is crucial for successful cyclization...
April 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430561/association-of-gii-p16-gii-2-recombinant-norovirus-strain-with-increased-norovirus-outbreaks-guangdong-china-2016
#3
Jing Lu, Ling Fang, Limei Sun, Hanri Zeng, Yanling Li, Huanying Zheng, Siwei Wu, Feng Yang, Tie Song, Jinyan Lin, Changwen Ke, Yonghui Zhang, Jan Vinjé, Hui Li
An unusual prevalence of recombinant GII.2 noroviruses (GII.P16-GII.2) in Guangdong, China, at the end of 2016 caused a sharp increase in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. This event was another non-GII.4 epidemic that emerged after the GII.17 viruses in 2014 and 2015 and warrants global surveillance.
July 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430541/a-comprehensive-approach-to-hepatic-vascular-disease
#4
Khaled M Elsayes, Akram M Shaaban, Sarah M Rothan, Sanaz Javadi, Beatrice L Madrazo, Rosa P Castillo, Victor J Casillas, Christine O Menias
The liver has a complex vascular supply, which involves the inflow of oxygenated blood through the hepatic artery (systemic circulation) and deoxygenated blood through the portal vein (portal circulation), as well as the outflow of deoxygenated blood through the hepatic veins to the inferior vena cava. A spectrum of vascular variants can involve the liver. Some of these variants may result in areas of enhancement that can mimic more serious pathologic conditions. In this article, the authors discuss a spectrum of variants and pathologic conditions that may involve the liver vasculature...
April 21, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430467/zero-field-skyrmions-with-a-high-topological-number-in-itinerant-magnets
#5
Ryo Ozawa, Satoru Hayami, Yukitoshi Motome
Magnetic Skyrmions are swirling spin textures with topologically protected noncoplanarity. Recently, Skyrmions with the topological number of unity have been extensively studied in both experiment and theory. We here show that a Skyrmion crystal with an unusually high topological number of two is stabilized in itinerant magnets at a zero magnetic field. The results are obtained for a minimal Kondo lattice model on a triangular lattice by an unrestricted large-scale numerical simulation and variational calculations...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430464/accurate-determination-of-the-quasiparticle-and-scaling-properties-surrounding-the-quantum-critical-point-of-disordered-three-dimensional-dirac-semimetals
#6
Bo Fu, Wei Zhu, Qinwei Shi, Qunxiang Li, Jinlong Yang, Zhenyu Zhang
Exploiting the enabling power of the Lanczos method in momentum space, we determine accurately the quasiparticle and scaling properties of disordered three-dimensional Dirac semimetals surrounding the quantum critical point separating the semimetal and diffusive metal regimes. We unveil that the imaginary part of the quasiparticle self-energy obeys a common power law before, at, and after the quantum phase transition, but the power law is nonuniversal, whose exponent is dependent on the disorder strength. More intriguingly, whereas a common power law is also found for the real part of the self-energy before and after the phase transition, a distinctly different behavior is identified at the critical point, characterized by the existence of a nonanalytic logarithmic singularity...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430295/multiple-cerebral-fusiform-aneurysms-involving-the-posterior-and-anterior-circulation-including-the-anterior-cerebral-artery-a-case-report
#7
Sumit Das, Tibor Valyi-Nagy
<i>Multiple fusiform aneurysms occurring in a single patient are very uncommon. Fusiform aneurysms affecting the anterior circulation are extremely rare and reported cases involve the middle cerebral artery and internal carotid artery. We report here a case of a 55-year-old African American male who had a history of multiple strokes and who was found unresponsive prior to his latest hospital admission. Neuroimaging was remarkable for multiple fusiform aneurysms involving segments of the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries as well as subarachnoid and intraparenchymal hemorrhage...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430281/insertion-of-sodium-phosphaethynolate-na-ocp-into-a-zirconium-benzyne-complex
#8
Jerod M Kieser, Robert J Gilliard, Arnold L Rheingold, Hansjörg Grützmacher, John D Protasiewicz
Reaction of the zirconium-benzyne complex [Cp2Zr(PMe3)(C6H4)] with sodium phosphaethynolate, Na[OCP], affords a zircono-phosphaalkene complex. Notably, unlike reactions of other transition metal complexes with Na[OCP] that yield the products of simple salt metathesis, this transformation represents novel Na[OCP] insertion chemistry and formation of an unusual solid state coordination polymer. The polymer is disrupted upon addition of Me3SiCl to afford a silyl-capped dimer that retains the zirconophosphaalkene functionality...
April 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430048/a-spinal-epidural-abscess-due-to-streptobacillus-moniliformis-infection-following-a-rat-bite-case-report
#9
Alexander Hammer, Dorit Wolff, Walter Geißdörfer, Michael Schrey, Renate Ziegler, Hans-Herbert Steiner, Christian Bogdan
The authors describe the case of a 40-year-old man suffering from an epidural abscess in the thoracic spine due to a rarely isolated pathogen, Streptobacillus moniliformis, the causative agent of rat bite fever. Besides diffuse abdominal pain, ataxia, paresthesia, hypesthesia, and enhanced reflexes of the lower extremities, the patient suffered from a decreased sensation of bladder filling. His history was also positive for a rat bite 6 weeks earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural, space-occupying lesion compressing the spinal cord at the vertebral levels of T6-8...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429793/attogram-mass-sensing-based-on-silicon-microbeam-resonators
#10
In-Bok Baek, Sangwon Byun, Bong Kuk Lee, Jin-Hwa Ryu, Yarkyeon Kim, Yong Sun Yoon, Won Ik Jang, Seongjae Lee, Han Young Yu
Using doubly-clamped silicon (Si) microbeam resonators, we demonstrate sub-attogram per Hertz (ag/Hz) mass sensitivity, which is extremely high sensitivity achieved by micro-scale MEMS mass sensors. We also characterize unusual buckling phenomena of the resonators. The thin-film based resonator is composed of a Si microbeam surrounded by silicon nitride (SiN) anchors, which significantly improve performance by providing fixation on the microbeam and stabilizing oscillating motion. Here, we introduce two fabrication techniques to further improve the mass sensitivity...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429730/new-bicyclic-cembranoids-from-the-south-china-sea-soft-coral-sarcophyton-trocheliophorum
#11
Lin-Fu Liang, Wen-Ting Chen, Xu-Wen Li, He-Yao Wang, Yue-Wei Guo
Nine new bicyclic cembranoids, sarcophytrols M-U(1-9), were isolated from the South China Sea soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum as minor components, along with one known related cembranoid 10. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and chemical conversion. The chemical structures of these metabolites are characterized by the different patterns of the additional cyclization within the 14-member skeleton, which leading to the formation of furan, pyran, oxepane, and peroxyl rings, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429638/an-unusual-presentation-of-a-cervical-paraspinal-leiomyoma-in-an-adolescent-female
#12
Jeffrey A Swarz, Arayamparambil C Anilkumar, Douglas C Miller, N Scott Litofsky, Tomoko Tanaka
Objective We describe an apparently unique case of an extra-uterine leiomyoma in the cervical paraspinus including its evaluation and management. Methods A 14-year-old girl was referred to the neurology clinic for an abnormal head CT following a concussion. MRI revealed a homogenously enhancing left cervical paraspinal mass. The patient underwent complete resection and subsequent genetic testing and counseling were obtained to determine the presence of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) or Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC) mutations...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429321/euglena-transcript-processing
#13
David C McWatters, Anthony G Russell
RNA transcript processing is an important stage in the gene expression pathway of all organisms and is subject to various mechanisms of control that influence the final levels of gene products. RNA processing involves events such as nuclease-mediated cleavage, removal of intervening sequences referred to as introns and modifications to RNA structure (nucleoside modification and editing). In Euglena, RNA transcript processing was initially examined in chloroplasts because of historical interest in the secondary endosymbiotic origin of this organelle in this organism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429318/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-vitamins-in-euglena
#14
Fumio Watanabe, Kazuya Yoshimura, Shigeru Shigeoka
Euglena gracilis Z requires vitamins B1 and B12 for growth. It takes up and accumulates large amounts of these exogenous vitamins through energy-dependent active transport systems. Except for these essential vitamins, E. gracilis Z has the ability to synthesize all human vitamins. Euglena synthesizes high levels of antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E, and, thus, are used as nutritional supplements for humans and domestic animals. Methods to effectively produce vitamins in Euglena have been investigated...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429317/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-euglena
#15
Takahiro Ishikawa, Shun Tamaki, Takanori Maruta, Shigeru Shigeoka
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are by-products of various metabolic processes in aerobic organisms including Euglena. Chloroplasts and mitochondria are the main sites of ROS generation by photosynthesis and respiration, respectively, through the active electron transport chain. An efficient antioxidant network is required to maintain intracellular ROS pools at optimal conditions for redox homeostasis. A comparison with the networks of plants and animals revealed that Euglena has acquired some aspects of ROS metabolic process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429308/chronic-candidiasis-in-children
#16
REVIEW
Laura Green, William K Dolen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Healthy children may develop candidal infections as the result of exposure to antibiotics or corticosteroids, but chronic candidiasis in children after the newborn period is unusual. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) refers to a group of conditions characterized by recurrent or persistent infections with Candida species, particularly Candida albicans. CMC is a phenotype observed in a spectrum of immunologic disorders, some with endocrinologic and autoimmune features...
May 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429201/how-to-approach-lymphocytic-esophagitis
#17
REVIEW
Anh D Nguyen, Kerry B Dunbar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lymphocytic esophagitis (LE) is an unusual esophageal condition defined by an increased number of lymphocytes in the esophageal epithelium. With few published studies of LE available, it is unclear whether LE is a truly distinct clinical entity or a histological manifestation of other known gastrointestinal disorders. This review summarizes recent studies of lymphocytic esophagitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have suggested that LE may be related to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or a manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)...
June 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428924/a-case-report-of-salmonella-muenchen-enteritis-causing-rhabdomyolysis-and-myocarditis-in-a-previously-healthy-26-year-old-man
#18
Will Chapple, Jon Martell, Joy S Wilson, Don T Matsuura
This case report examines an unusual presentation of a non-typhoidal Salmonella serovar with limited prevalence in the literature. This is the first case report to associate specifically the Salmonella muenchen serovar with rhabdomyolysis and myocarditis. This case report reviews the diagnostic criteria for myocarditis and explores the diagnostic dilemma of troponin elevation in the setting of rhabdomyolysis. It demonstrates that Salmonella muenchen has the ability to present in a broad range of individuals with complications extending beyond classical gastrointestinal symptoms...
April 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428901/microcystic-reticular-schwannoma-of-the-frontal-lobe-an-unusual-occurrence
#19
Lauren Pearson, Erinc Akture, Julien Wonderlick, Gregory Fuller, Maryam Zenali
Schwannoma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor that typically involves cranial nerves of the head and neck region. Intraparenchymal occurrence of this tumor is uncommon. Even rarer in this site is the microcystic/reticular pattern of schwannoma. This histologic variant, first described in 2008, has a predilection for visceral organs. Herein, we report the first case of microcystic/reticular schwannoma of the frontal lobe.
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428795/non-canonical-translation-in-plant-rna-viruses
#20
REVIEW
Manuel Miras, W Allen Miller, Verónica Truniger, Miguel A Aranda
Viral protein synthesis is completely dependent upon the host cell's translational machinery. Canonical translation of host mRNAs depends on structural elements such as the 5' cap structure and/or the 3' poly(A) tail of the mRNAs. Although many viral mRNAs are devoid of one or both of these structures, they can still translate efficiently using non-canonical mechanisms. Here, we review the tools utilized by positive-sense single-stranded (+ss) RNA plant viruses to initiate non-canonical translation, focusing on cis-acting sequences present in viral mRNAs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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