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Hiv associated neurocognitive disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811349/brain-macrophages-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-antiretroviral-suppressed-macaques-a-functional-latent-reservoir
#1
Claudia R Avalos, Celina M Abreu, Suzanne E Queen, Ming Li, Sarah Price, Erin N Shirk, Elizabeth L Engle, Ellen Forsyth, Brandon T Bullock, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Stephen W Wietgrefe, Ashley T Haase, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements, Lucio Gama
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768859/identification-of-emerging-mac-tropic-hiv-1-r5-variants-in-brain-tissue-of-patients-without-severe-neurological-complications
#2
Maria Paz Gonzalez-Perez, Paul J Peters, Olivia O'Connell, Nilsa Silva, Carole Harbison, Sheila Cummings Macri, Saravanan Kaliyaperumal, Katherine Luzuriaga, Paul R Clapham
Untreated HIV-1+ individuals frequently suffer from HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), with about 30% of AIDS patients suffering severe HIV associated dementias (HAD). Antiretroviral therapy has greatly reduced the incidence of HAND and HAD. However, there is a continuing problem of milder neurocognitive impairments in treated HIV+ patients that may be increasing with long term therapy.Here, we investigated whether envelope (env) genes could be amplified from proviral DNA or RNA derived from brain tissue of 12 individuals with normal neurology or minor neurological conditions (N/MC individuals)...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762184/nef-is-secreted-in-exosomes-from-nef-gfp-expressing-and-hiv-1-infected-human-astrocytes
#3
Pia Pužar Dominkuš, Jana Ferdin, Ana Plemenitaš, Boris Matija Peterlin, Metka Lenassi
HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system causes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, even in aviremic patients. Although astrocyte malfunction was associated to these disorders, their implication is overshadowed by contributions of microglia and macrophages. Astrocytes are infected with HIV-1 in vivo and express a relevant amount of viral protein Nef. Nef was shown to stimulate its own release in exosomes from diverse cell types, which in turn have damaging effects on neighboring cells. Using immunoblotting and electron microscopy, we showed that human astrocytes expressing Nef...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759224/n-pivaloyloxy-alkoxy-carbonyl-prodrugs-of-the-glutamine-antagonist-6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine-don-as-a-potential-treatment-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#4
Michael T Nedelcovych, Lukáš Tenora, Boe-Hyun Kim, Jennifer Kelschenbach, Wei Chao, Eran Hadas, Andrej Jančařík, Eva Prchalová, Sarah C Zimmermann, Ranjeet P Dash, Alexandra J Gadiano, Caroline Garrett, Georg Furtmüller, Byoungchol Oh, Gerald Brandacher, Jesse Alt, Pavel Majer, David J Volsky, Rana Rais, Barbara S Slusher
Aberrant excitatory neurotransmission associated with overproduction of glutamate has been implicated in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON, 14) attenuates glutamate synthesis in HIV-infected microglia/macrophages, offering therapeutic potential for HAND. We show that 14 prevents manifestation of spatial memory deficits in chimeric EcoHIV-infected mice, a model of HAND. 14 is not clinically available, however, because its development was hampered by peripheral toxicities...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758167/joint-data-harmonization-and-group-cardinality-constrained-classification
#5
Yong Zhang, Sang Hyun Park, Kilian M Pohl
To boost the power of classifiers, studies often increase the size of existing samples through the addition of independently collected data sets. Doing so requires harmonizing the data for demographic and acquisition differences based on a control cohort before performing disease specific classification. The initial harmonization often mitigates group differences negatively impacting classification accuracy. To preserve cohort separation, we propose the first model unifying linear regression for data harmonization with a logistic regression for disease classification...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754798/frontline-science-cxcr7-mediates-cd14-cd16-monocyte-transmigration-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-neuroaids
#6
Mike Veenstra, Dionna W Williams, Tina M Calderon, Kathryn Anastos, Susan Morgello, Joan W Berman
CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes transmigrate into the CNS of HIV-positive people in response to chemokines elevated in the brains of infected individuals, including CXCL12. Entry of these cells leads to viral reservoirs, neuroinflammation, and neuronal damage. These may eventually lead to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved the lives of HIV-infected people, the prevalence of cognitive deficits remains unchanged despite ART, still affecting >50% of infected individuals...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753395/neurocognitive-impairment-in-a-chronically-well-suppressed-hiv-infected-population-the-dutch-trevi-cohort-study
#7
Lennert W J van den Dries, Marlies N Wagener, Lize C Jiskoot, Merel Visser, Kevin R Robertson, Kirsten S Adriani, Eric C M van Gorp
We assessed the value of screening for cognitive abnormalities in a chronically infected HIV population (N = 388) and investigated the association with clinical correlates. The mean age was 48 years (±11), the majority of the patients were male (89%), the median duration of infection was 6 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 2-12], the median CD count was 600 (IQR = 450-780), and 326 (84%) had a viral load below 200 copies/mL. Screening for cognitive complaints was applied using the three Simioni questions and the international HIV dementia scale (iHDS)...
August 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752495/changing-clinical-phenotypes-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#8
Ned Sacktor
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains a common cause of cognitive impairment and persists in 15-55% of HIV+ individuals in the combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) era. CART is now the primary treatment for HAND, but it is effective in only a subset of patients. In the pre-CART era, HIV-associated dementia was the most common form of HAND. However, in CART-treated patients, the prevalence of HIV-associated dementia has declined substantially, and milder stages of HAND, i.e., ANI and MND predominate...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742398/construct-validity-of-the-ucsd-performance-based-skills-assessment-brief-version-upsa-b-in-hiv-disease
#9
David P Sheppard, Steven Paul Woods, Marizela Verduzco
Among individuals living with HIV disease, approximately 60% experience problems with everyday functioning. The present study investigated the utility of the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief Version (UPSA-B) as a measure of functional capacity in HIV. We utilized a cross-sectional three-group design comparing individuals with HIV- associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) (HIV + HAND+; n = 27), HIV+ neurocognitively normal individuals (HIV + HAND-; n = 51), and an HIV- comparison group (HIV-; n = 28) with broadly comparable demographics and non-HIV comorbidities...
July 25, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735382/combined-medication-of-antiretroviral-drugs-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-and-raltegravir-reduces-neural-progenitor-cell-proliferation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Peipei Xu, Yingchun Wang, Zhao Qin, Lisha Qiu, Min Zhang, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C Zheng
The application of combination antiretroviral therapy has greatly reduced the death rate from AIDS. However, up to 50% of patients on combination antiretroviral therapy develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which is associated with residual neuroinflammation and oxidative injury in the brain. Neural stem cells (NSCs) and progenitors play a vital role in repairing neuronal injuries. Therefore, we hypothesize that combination antiretroviral therapy may adversely affect NSCs/progenitors, contributing to the increasing prevalence of HAND...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733129/endocannabinoids-exert-cb1-receptor-mediated-neuroprotective-effects-in-models-of-neuronal-damage-induced-by-hiv-1-tat-protein
#11
Changqing Xu, Douglas J Hermes, Blessing Nwanguma, Ian R Jacobs, Kenneth Mackie, Somnath Mukhopadhyay, Aron H Lichtman, Bogna Ignatowska-Jankowska, Sylvia Fitting
In the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease that specifically targets the brain and causes HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Endocannabinoids (eCBs) elicit neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions in several central nervous system (CNS) disease models, but their effects in HAND remain unknown. HIV-1 does not infect neurons, but produces viral toxins, such as transactivator of transcription (Tat), that disrupt neuronal calcium equilibrium and give rise to synaptodendritic injuries and cell death, the former being highly correlated with HAND...
July 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730408/evolution-of-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-utility-in-assessing-the-progression-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#12
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Understanding the progression of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a critical need as the prevalence of HIV-1 in older individuals (>50 years) is markedly increasing due to the great success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Longitudinal experimental designs, in comparison to cross-sectional studies, provide an opportunity to establish age-related disease progression in HAND. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which has been promoted for investigating the effect of long-term HIV-1 viral protein exposure, was used to examine two interrelated goals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716964/a-glun2b-selective-nmdar-antagonist-reverses-synapse-loss-and-cognitive-impairment-produced-by-the-hiv-1-protein-tat
#13
Jonathan D Raybuck, Nicholas J Hargus, Stanley A Thayer
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects approximately half of HIV-infected patients. Loss of synaptic connections is a hallmark of many neurocognitive disorders, including HAND. The HIV-1 protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) disrupts synaptic connections both in vitro and in vivo and has been linked to impaired neurocognitive function in humans. In vitro studies have shown that ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for GluN2B-containing NMDARs, reverses synapse loss when applied after Tat...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716545/effect-of-ageing-on-neurocognitive-function-by-stage-of-hiv-infection-evidence-from-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#14
Karl Goodkin, Eric N Miller, Christopher Cox, Sandra Reynolds, James T Becker, Eileen Martin, Ola A Selnes, David G Ostrow, Ned C Sacktor
BACKGROUND: The demographics of the HIV epidemic in the USA have shifted towards older age. We aimed to establish the relationship between the processes of ageing and HIV infection in neurocognitive impairment. METHODS: With longitudinal data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a long-term prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the USA, we examined the effect of ageing, HIV infection (by disease stage), and their interaction on five neurocognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and motor function...
July 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695547/human-immunodeficiency-virus-promotes-mitochondrial-toxicity
#15
REVIEW
Summer J Rozzi, Valeria Avdoshina, Jerel A Fields, Margarita Trejo, Hoai T Ton, Gerard P Ahern, Italo Mocchetti
Combined antiretroviral therapies (cART) have had remarkable success in reducing morbidity and mortality among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), characterized by loss of synapses, remain. cART may maintain an undetectable HIV RNA load but does not eliminate the expression of viral proteins such as trans-activator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope glycoprotein gp120 in the brain. These two viral proteins are known to promote synaptic simplifications by several mechanisms, including alteration of mitochondrial function and dynamics...
July 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682528/s-adenosylmethionine-same-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-a-clinician-oriented-review-of-research
#16
REVIEW
Anup Sharma, Patricia Gerbarg, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Lila Massoumi, Linda L Carpenter, Helen Lavretsky, Philip R Muskin, Richard P Brown, David Mischoulon
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) for treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions and comorbid medical conditions. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Google Scholar databases between July 15, 2015, and September 28, 2016, by combining search terms for SAMe (s-adenosyl methionine or s-adenosyl-l-methionine) with terms for relevant disease states (major depressive disorder, MDD, depression, perinatal depression, human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, dementia, anxiety, schizophrenia, psychotic, 22q11...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681344/neurocognitive-functioning-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-southern-india
#17
Rujvi Kamat, Allen McCutchan, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Thomas D Marcotte, Anya Umlauf, Poongulali Selvamuthu, Rachel Meyer, Scott Letendre, Robert Heaton, Ajay R Bharti
The validity of a comprehensive international neuropsychological (NP) test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a Tamil speaking southern Indian cohort (69 HIV+ and 67 HIV-) was explored. The prevalence of HAND was significantly higher in the HIV+ vs. HIV- group (33 vs.13%; p < 0.01). Impairment rates were highest in the motor and speed of information processing domains. An NP battery translated into Tamil appears to be a valid tool for assessing HAND because the prevalence it found of HAND in southern India is similar to that found elsewhere...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681198/childhood-maltreatment-and-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-share-similar-pathophysiology-a-potential-sensitisation-mechanism
#18
Jacqueline S Womersley, Soraya Seedat, Sian M J Hemmings
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are increasingly prevalent despite the use of antiretroviral therapies. Previous research suggests that individual host factors play an important role in determining susceptibility to HAND. In this review, we propose that childhood trauma (CT) and HAND share several common aetiological mechanisms, namely hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. These convergent and consequent mechanisms may translate into an increased risk of developing HAND in individuals who have experienced early life stress...
July 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669770/feedback-on-a-multimodal-cognitive-intervention-for-adults-aging-with-hiv-a-focus-group-study
#19
David E Vance, C Ann Gakumo, Gwendolyn D Childs, Comfort Enah, Pariya L Fazeli
Nearly 50% of adult persons living with HIV (PLWH) experience HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), which is associated with deteriorating brain health and cognitive functioning. Multimodal interventions that simultaneously improve physical activity, nutrition, and sleep hygiene may be of value for adult PLWH, especially as they age and become vulnerable to HAND. We used four focus groups of PLWH (N = 30; ages ≥ 50 years) to solicit feedback about Cognitive Prescriptions, a multimodal cognitive intervention...
June 29, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655206/deficient-emotion-processing-is-associated-with-everyday-functioning-capacity-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#20
Jonathan M Grabyan, Erin E Morgan, Marizela V Cameron, Javier Villalobos, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
Objective: Emotion processing has received little research focus in HIV, but emerging evidence suggests that abilities such as facial affect discrimination may be features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The present study hypothesized that individuals with HAND would evidence an emotion processing deficit relative to cognitively unimpaired individuals with HIV and seronegative comparison participants on a task assessing these abilities. Moreover, it was expected that this deficit would be significantly associated with social aspects of everyday functioning...
June 26, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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