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Hiv associated neurocognitive disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147885/proceedings-of-the-2017-isev-symposium-on-hiv-neurohiv-drug-abuse-evs
#1
Guoku Hu, Sowmya Yelamanchili, Fatah Kashanchi, Norman Haughey, Vincent C Bond, Kenneth W Witwer, Lynn Pulliam, Shilpa Buch
Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there is increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in HIV-1-infected individuals on cART, which poses a major health care challenge. Adding further complexity to this long-term antiretroviral use is the comorbidity with drugs of abuse such as morphine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, which can in turn, exacerbate neurologic and cognitive deficits associated with HAND. Furthermore, HIV proteins, such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope protein (gp120), as well as antiretrovirals themselves can also contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration underlying HAND...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142315/hiv-1-counteracts-an-innate-restriction-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-resulting-in-neurodegeneration
#2
Qingqing Chai, Vladimir Jovasevic, Viacheslav Malikov, Yosef Sabo, Scott Morham, Derek Walsh, Mojgan H Naghavi
While beta-amyloid (Aβ), a classic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, has long been known to be elevated in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected brain, why and how Aβ is produced, along with its contribution to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains ill-defined. Here, we reveal that the membrane-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) is highly expressed in macrophages and microglia, and acts as an innate restriction against HIV-1. APP binds the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, retains it in lipid rafts and blocks HIV-1 virion production and spread...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#3
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128906/toll-like-receptor-3-mediates-hiv-1-induced-interleukin-6-expression-in-the-human-brain-endothelium-via-tak1-and-jnk-pathways-implications-for-viral-neuropathogenesis
#4
Biju Bhargavan, Georgette D Kanmogne
HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is associated with blood-brain-barrier (BBB) inflammation, and inflammation involves toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling. It is not known whether primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), the major BBB component, express TLRs or whether TLRs are involved in BBB dysfunction and HAND. We demonstrate that HBMEC express TLR3, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 10, and TLR3 was the most abundant. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation increased endothelial TLR3 transcription and expression...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118375/the-lipid-raft-dwelling-protein-us9-can-be-manipulated-to-target-app-compartmentalization-app-processing-and-neurodegenerative-disease-pathogenesis
#5
Renato Brandimarti, Gordon S Hill, Jonathan D Geiger, Olimpia Meucci
The trafficking behavior of the lipid raft-dwelling US9 protein from Herpes Simplex Virus strikingly overlaps with that of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Both US9 and APP processing machinery rely on their ability to shuttle between endosomes and plasma membranes, as well as on their lateral accumulation in lipid rafts. Therefore, repurposing US9 to track/modify these molecular events represents a valid approach to investigate pathological states including Alzheimer's disease and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders where APP misprocessing to amyloid beta formation has been observed...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114997/in-vitro-modeling-of-hiv-proviral-activity-in-microglia
#6
Lee A Campbell, Christopher T Richie, Yajun Zhang, Emily J Heathward, Lamarque M Coke, Emily Y Park, Brandon K Harvey
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the brain, play a key role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) due to their productive infection by HIV. This results in the release of neurotoxic viral proteins and pro-inflammatory compounds which negatively affect the functionality of surrounding neurons. Because models of HIV infection within the brain are limited, we aimed to create a novel microglia cell line with an integrated HIV provirus capable of recreating several hallmarks of HIV infection...
November 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081720/effects-of-recent-alcohol-consumption-level-on-neurocognitive-performance-in-hiv-individuals
#7
Kara R Douglas-Newman, Rachel V Smith, Mary V Spiers, Timothy Pond, Henry R Kranzler
OBJECTIVES: Although HIV+ individuals may be at increased risk of alcohol-related cognitive impairment, the relations between drinking level and cognitive performance in these individuals are not well understood. We examined whether higher levels of recent drinking in HIV+ individuals were associated with poorer cognitive performance, particularly in executive functioning (EF) and memory. METHODS: We administered a comprehensive cognitive battery to 120 seropositive subjects (101 men) who reported alcohol consumption in the preceding 90 days...
September 2017: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075998/transgenic-mice-expressing-hiv-1-envelope-protein-gp120-in-the-brain-as-an-animal-model-in-neuroaids-research
#8
Victoria E Thaney, Ana B Sanchez, Jerel A Fields, Arpi Minassian, Jared W Young, Ricky Maung, Marcus Kaul
HIV-1 infection causes injury to the central nervous system (CNS) and is often associated with neurocognitive disorders. One model for brain damage seen in AIDS patients is the transgenic (tg) mouse expressing a soluble envelope protein gp120 of HIV-1 LAV in the brain in astrocytes under the control of the promoter of glial fibrillary acidic protein. These GFAP-gp120tg mice manifest several key neuropathological features observed in AIDS brains, such as decreased synaptic and dendritic density, increased numbers of activated microglia, and pronounced astrocytosis...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075249/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-tdp-43-expression-bridges-als-and-hiv-neuropathology
#9
Renée N Douville, Avindra Nath
Despite the repetitive association of endogenous retroviruses in human disease, the mechanisms behind their pathological contributions remain to be resolved. Here we discuss how neuronal human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) expression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is a distinct pathological aspect of HIV-associated neurological conditions, such as HIV encephalitis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Enhanced neuronal HERV-K levels were observed in the majority of HIV-infected individuals, and to a higher degree in brain tissue marked by HIV replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066542/mechanisms-of-cns-viral-seeding-by-hiv-cd14-cd16-monocytes-establishment-and-reseeding-of-viral-reservoirs-contributing-to-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#10
Mike Veenstra, Rosiris León-Rivera, Ming Li, Lucio Gama, Janice E Clements, Joan W Berman
HIV reservoirs persist despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) and are established within a few days after infection. Infected myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS) may contribute to the establishment of a CNS viral reservoir. The mature CD14(+) CD16(+) monocyte subset enters the CNS in response to chemokines, including CCL2. Entry of infected CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes may lead to infection of other CNS cells, including macrophages or microglia and astrocytes, and to release of neurotoxic early viral proteins and additional cytokines...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063516/paroxetine-and-fluconazole-therapy-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-impairment-results-from-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Ned Sacktor, Richard L Skolasky, Richard Moxley, Sheng Wang, Michelle M Mielke, Cynthia Munro, Joseph Steiner, Avindra Nath, Norman Haughey, Justin McArthur
Paroxetine and fluconazole have neuroprotective effects in an in vitro model of HIV protein-mediated neuronal injury. This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of both paroxetine and fluconazole for the treatment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). A 24-week randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial design study was used. HIV+ individuals with cognitive impairment were enrolled in the 24-week trial. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) paroxetine 20 mg/day, (2) fluconazole 100 mg every 12 h, (3) paroxetine and fluconazole, or (4) placebo...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061509/monoacylglycerol-lipase-inhibitor-jzl184-prevents-hiv-1-gp120-induced-synapse-loss-by-altering-endocannabinoid-signaling
#12
Xinwen Zhang, Stanley A Thayer
Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) hydrolyzes 2-arachidonoylglycerol to arachidonic acid and glycerol. Inhibition of MGL may attenuate neuroinflammation by enhancing endocannabinoid signaling and decreasing prostaglandin (PG) production. Almost half of HIV infected individuals are afflicted with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), a neuroinflammatory disease in which cognitive decline correlates with synapse loss. HIV infected cells shed the envelope protein gp120 which is a potent neurotoxin that induces synapse loss...
October 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056673/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-neuropathogenesis-a-model-for-hiv-induced-cns-inflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#13
REVIEW
Rick B Meeker, Lola Hudson
Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV), similar to its human analog human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), enters the central nervous system (CNS) soon after infection and establishes a protected viral reservoir. The ensuing inflammation and damage give rise to varying degrees of cognitive decline collectively known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Because of the similarities to HIV infection and disease, FIV has provided a useful model for both in vitro and in vivo studies of CNS infection, inflammation and pathology...
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028880/semantic-memory-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-an-evaluation-of-the-cortical-versus-subcortical-hypothesis
#14
Savanna Tierney, Steven Paul Woods, Marizela Verduzco, Jessica Beltran, Paul J Massman, Rodrigo Hasbun
Objective: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have historically been characterized as a subcortical condition that does not affect semantic memory; however, recent evidence suggests that the cortical regions that support semantic memory may be affected in HIV. Method: The current study examined the effects of HAND on semantic memory in 85 HIV+ individuals with HAND, 193 HIV+ individuals without HAND, and 181 HIV- individuals who completed the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Famous Faces subtest of the Kauffman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT-FF)...
September 28, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988793/the-combined-roles-of-nonsomatic-depressive-symptomatology-neurocognitive-function-and-current-substance-use-in-medication-adherence-in-adults-living-with-hiv-infection
#15
Travis M Scott, Desiree Byrd, Miguel Arce Rentería, Kelly Coulehan, Caitlin Miranda, Armando Fuentes, Monica Rivera Mindt
Depression, global neurocognitive (GNC) function, and substance use disorders (SUDs) are each associated with medication adherence in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Because somatic symptoms can inflate depression scores in PLWH, the role of nonsomatic depressive symptomatology (NSDS) should be considered in adherence. However, the combined roles of NSDS, GNC function, and current SUDs in predicting combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence remain poorly understood. Forty PLWH (70% Latina/o; 30% non-Hispanic White) completed psychiatric/SUD, neurocognitive, and self-report cART adherence evaluations...
August 23, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987321/the-role-of-human-dopamine-transporter-in-neuroaids
#16
REVIEW
Jun Zhu, Subramaniam Ananthan, Chang-Guo Zhan
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains highly prevalent in HIV infected individuals and represents a special group of neuropathological disorders, which are associated with HIV-1 viral proteins, such as transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein. Cocaine abuse increases the incidence of HAND and exacerbates its severity by enhancing viral replication. Perturbation of dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk factor of HAND. The presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is essential for DA homeostasis and dopaminergic modulation of the brain function including cognition...
October 5, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978127/hiv-1-gp120-clade-b-c-induces-a-grp78-driven-cytoprotective-mechanism-in-astrocytoma
#17
Sheila N López, Madeline Rodríguez-Valentín, Mariela Rivera, Maridaliz Rodríguez, Mohan Babu, Luis A Cubano, Huangui Xiong, Guangdi Wang, Lilia Kucheryavykh, Nawal M Boukli
HIV-1 clades are known to be one of the key factors implicated in modulating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. HIV-1 B and C clades account for the majority of HIV-1 infections, clade B being the most neuropathogenic. The mechanisms behind HIV-mediated neuropathogenesis remain the subject of active research. We hypothesized that HIV-1 gp120 clade B and C proteins may exert differential proliferation, cell survival and NeuroAIDS effects in human astrocytoma cells via the Unfolded Protein Response, an endoplasmic reticulum- based cytoprotective mechanism...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975505/an-siv-macaque-model-targeted-to-study-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Sarah E Beck, Suzanne E Queen, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Lisa M Mangus, Celina M Abreu, Lucio Gama, Kenneth W Witwer, Robert J Adams, M Christine Zink, Janice E Clements, Joseph L Mankowski
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of pigtailed macaques is a highly representative and well-characterized animal model for HIV neuropathogenesis studies that provides an excellent opportunity to study and develop prognostic markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for HIV-infected individuals. SIV studies can be performed in a controlled setting that enhances reproducibility and offers high-translational value. Similar to observations in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), ongoing neurodegeneration and inflammation are present in SIV-infected pigtailed macaques treated with suppressive ART...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971376/association-of-age-and-time-of-disease-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-japanese-nationwide-multicenter-study
#19
Ei Kinai, Kensuke Komatsu, Maiko Sakamoto, Toshibumi Taniguchi, Aya Nakao, Hidetoshi Igari, Kiyonori Takada, Aki Watanabe, Ai Takahashi-Nakazato, Misao Takano, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka
There is no detailed information on the association between age, time of disease, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In this prospective study involving 17 medical facilities across Japan, we recruited HIV-infected patients to complete a 14-test neuropsychological battery that assess eight neurocognitive domains. HAND were diagnosed by the Frascati criteria. Of 1399 recruited patients, 728 were enrolled. The prevalence of HAND was 25.3% [13.5% asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 10.6% mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and 1...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950745/a-systematic-review-of-prospective-memory-in-hiv-disease-from-the-laboratory-to-daily-life
#20
Gunes Avci, David P Sheppard, Savanna M Tierney, Victoria M Kordovski, Kelli L Sullivan, Steven Paul Woods
OBJECTIVE: Prospective memory (PM) is described as the capacity to form and maintain an intention that is executed in response to a specific cue. Neural injury and associated neurocognitive disorders are common among persons living with HIV disease, who might therefore be susceptible to impairment in PM. METHOD: This literature review utilized a structured qualitative approach to summarize and evaluate our current understanding of PM functioning in people living with HIV disease...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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