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Hiv associated neurocognitive disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503143/impairments-of-motor-function-while-multitasking-in-hiv
#1
Sharif I Kronemer, Jordan A Mandel, Ned C Sacktor, Cherie L Marvel
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499138/human-pegivirus-1-in-the-csf-of-patients-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-hand-may-be-derived-from-blood-in-highly-viraemic-patients
#2
Diana Hardie, Heidi Smuts
BACKGROUND: Human pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) infection in the brain has not been extensively examined and its association with disease remains unconfirmed. In a high throughput sequencing study to look for infectious agents that could play a role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), this virus was detected in 3 of 8 CSF samples. OBJECTIVES: To determine the significance of this finding, additional patients were screened and the viral load and viral diversity in blood and CSF were examined...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487203/mmps-timps-imbalances-in-the-peripheral-blood-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-are-associated-with-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-pilot-study
#3
Yanyan Xing, Nicole Shepherd, Jie Lan, Wei Li, Sushmita Rane, Samir K Gupta, Shanxiang Zhang, Jun Dong, Qigui Yu
HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a major concern in the infected population, despite the widespread use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Growing evidence suggests that an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) contributes to the pathogenesis of HAND. In our present study, we examined protein levels and enzymatic activities of MMPs and TIMPs in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from HIV-1 patients with or without HAND and HIV-1-negative controls...
May 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480240/a-high-prevalence-rate-of-a-positive-screen-for-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-attending-an-irish-clinic
#4
Patricia H McNamara, Robert Coen, Janice Redmond, Colin P Doherty, Colm Bergin
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders occurs in 20%-50% of HIV-positive patients. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of a positive screen for cognitive impairment in the clinic population at our institution and to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a screening program in routine clinical encounters. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, and patients were recruited prospectively between December 2010 and February 2013...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458492/prevalence-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-deficit-among-hiv-positive-people-in-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study-at-ayder-referral-hospital
#5
Tilahun Belete, Girmaw Medfu, Ephrem Yemiyamrew
BACKGROUND: HIV associated neurocognitive deficit impairs motor activity, neuropsychiatric functioning, daily activity and work activity usually due to the immune suppression effect of the virus. Sub-Saharan region including Ethiopia is the region with the highest burden of HIV. However, a few studies are found on this aspect nationally. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and the factors associated with cognitive impairment among HIV positive people in Ethiopia who attended Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital...
January 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457951/hiv-tat-and-dopaminergic-transmission
#6
REVIEW
Peter Gaskill, Doug Miller, Joyonna-Gamble George, Hideaki Yano, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a progressive infection that targets the immune system, affecting more than 37 million people around the world. While combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) has lowered mortality rates and improved quality of life in infected individuals, the prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders is increasing and HIV associated cognitive decline remains prevalent. Recent research has suggested that HIV accessory proteins may be involved in this decline, and several studies have indicated that the HIV protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) can disrupt normal neuronal and glial function...
April 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447399/genome-wide-association-study-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-hand-a-charter-group-study
#7
Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Todd Hulgan, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Cinnamon S Bloss, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Nicholas Schork, Christina M Marra, Ann C Collier, David B Clifford, Benjamin B Gelman, Ned Sacktor, Susan Morgello, David M Simpson, J Allen McCutchan, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Donald R Franklin, Debralee Rosario, Scott L Letendre, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) often complicates HIV infection despite combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may be influenced by host genomics. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HAND in 1,050 CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Study participants. All participants underwent standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive, and neuromedical assessments to determine if they had cognitive impairment as assessed by the Global Deficit Score (GDS), and individuals with comorbidities that could confound diagnosis of HAND were excluded...
June 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446421/testing-a-computerized-cognitive-training-protocol-in-adults-aging-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-randomized-controlled-trial-rationale-and-protocol
#8
David Vance, Pariya Fazeli, John Shacka, William Nicholson, Peggy McKie, James Raper, Andres Azuero, Virginia Wadley, Karlene Ball
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders occur in nearly 50% of adults with HIV. Such disorders can interfere with everyday functioning such as driving and medication adherence. Therefore, cognitive interventions are needed to address such neurocognitive disorders as well as improve everyday functioning, especially as people age with HIV. OBJECTIVE: This article reports and discusses the overall rationale and development of speed of processing training, a computerized Internet cognitive training program, to improve this specific neurocognitive ability as well as everyday functioning and quality of life in adults aging with HIV...
April 26, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428210/proton-chemical-shift-imaging-study-of-the-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-impact-on-neurometabolic-parameters-in-chronic-hiv-infection
#9
J Boban, D Kozic, V Turkulov, D Lendak, M Bjelan, M Semnic, S Brkic
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has failed to reduce the high prevalence of mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to test the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy on brain metabolite ratios in chronic HIV infection by using proton chemical shift imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed 2D chemical shift imaging in 91 subjects (31 HIV+ patients with chronic infection on combination antiretroviral therapy, 19 combination antiretroviral therapy-na|fkve HIV+ subjects with chronic infection, and 41 healthy controls), covering frontal and parietal subcortical white and cingulate gyrus gray matter, analyzing ratios of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr on long-TE and mIns/Cr on short-TE MR spectroscopy...
April 20, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427421/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-biomarkers-of-iron-status-are-associated-with-csf-viral-load-antiretroviral-therapy-and-demographic-factors-in-hiv-infected-adults
#10
Stephanie M Patton, Quan Wang, Todd Hulgan, James R Connor, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Scott L Letendre, Ronald J Ellis, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Donald R Franklin, Harpreet Kaur, Jennifer Iudicello, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains common, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIV dysregulates iron metabolism, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of iron and iron-transport proteins in HIV-infected (HIV+) persons are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize CSF iron-related biomarkers in HIV+ adults and explore their relationships to known predictors of HAND. METHODS: We quantified total iron, transferrin and heavy-chain (H)-ferritin by immunoassay in CSF sampled by lumbar puncture in 403 HIV+ participants in a multi-center, observational study and evaluated biomarker associations with demographic and HIV-related correlates of HAND [e...
April 21, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413625/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-recent-advances-in-pathogenesis-biomarkers-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Antonia Carroll, Bruce Brew
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite plasma viral suppression by antiretroviral agents. In fact, the prevalence of milder subtypes of cognitive impairment is increasing. Neuropsychologic testing remains the "gold standard" of diagnosis; however, this is time consuming and costly in a resource-poor environment. Recently developed screening tools, such as CogState and the revised HIV dementia scale, have very good sensitivity and specificity in the more severe stages of HAND...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409354/retrosplenial-cortical-thinning-as-a-possible-major-contributor-for-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-patients
#12
Na-Young Shin, Jinwoo Hong, Jun Yong Choi, Seung-Koo Lee, Soo Mee Lim, Uicheul Yoon
OBJECTIVES: To identify brain cortical regions relevant to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in HIV patients. METHODS: HIV patients with HAND (n = 10), those with intact cognition (HIV-IC; n = 12), and age-matched, seronegative controls (n = 11) were recruited. All participants were male and underwent 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. Both vertex-wise and region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to analyse cortical thickness. RESULTS: Compared to controls, both HIV-IC and HAND showed decreased cortical thickness mainly in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas, extending to the prefrontal and parietal cortices...
April 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404980/hiv-1-tat-inhibits-eaat-2-through-aeg-1-upregulation-in-models-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#13
Xiang Ye, Yu Zhang, Qiping Xu, Honghua Zheng, Xiaoyan Wu, Jinhua Qiu, Zhou Zhang, Wei Wang, Yiming Shao, Hui Qin Xing
During HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), decreasing in excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT-2) in astrocyte plasma membranes leads to elevated levels of extracellular glutamate and, in turn, neuronal apoptosis. We used immunohistochemistry, western blot, qRT-PCR, and RNA interference to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the decreased EAAT-2 expression during HAND at the tissue and cellular levels. We used simian immunodeficiency virus-human immunodeficiency virus chimeric virus (SHIV)-infected macaques as an in vivo model of HAND...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399475/everyday-functional-ability-in-hiv-and-methamphetamine-dependence
#14
Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Scott L Letendre, Robert K Heaton, William Perry
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) use is a risk factor for the transmission of HIV. Each is associated with neurocognitive impairment and subsequent problems in everyday functioning, yet additive effects of HIV and METH are not consistently observed. This study used the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-2) to assess whether METH use disorder and HIV together resulted in poorer functional outcome than either condition alone. METHOD: Participants in the Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center (TMARC) cohort were stratified based upon HIV infection and METH use disorder: HIV-/METH- (n=49), HIV-/METH+ (n=48), HIV+/METH- (n=37), and HIV+/METH+ (n=38)...
March 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398956/informatic-interrogation-of-csf-proteomic-profiles-from-hiv-infected-subjects-implicates-acute-phase-and-complement-systems-in-shifting-cognitive-status
#15
Ceereena Ubaida-Mohien, Benjamin Lamberty, Alex M Dickens, Michelle M Mielke, Thomas Marcotte, Ned Sacktor, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, D Franklin, Pawel Cibrowski, Ravi Tharakan, Justin C McArthur, Howard Fox, Norman J Haughey
The prevalence of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) has not changed considerably in the last two decades. Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has shifted the severity of HAND to milder phenotypes, but excess morbidity and mortality continue to be associated with HAND. Changes in numerous markers of immune function, inflammation and cellular stress have been repeatedly associated with HAND but the underlying systems that drive these changes have not been identified. In this study we used systems informatics to interrogate the CSF proteomic content of longitudinal samples obtained from HIV-infected adults with stably unimpaired, stably impaired, worsening, or improving neurocognitive (NC) performance...
April 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397245/interactions-between-integrase-inhibitors-and-human-arginase-1
#16
Lucia Lisi, Michela Pizzoferrato, Fabiola Teresa Miscioscia, Alessandra Topai, Pierluigi Navarra
The neuro-pathogenic mechanism(s) underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are mostly unknown. HIV-infected macrophages and microglial cells play a crucial role and the metabolic fate of l-arginine may be highly relevant to microglia activation. In this context, arginase (ARG), which uses l-arginine as substrate, can be on the same time a target and source of oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether integrase strand transfer inhibitors share with the other antiretroviral drugs the ability to inhibit ARG activity...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392757/aspp2-plays-a-dual-role-in-gp120-induced-autophagy-and-apoptosis-of-neuroblastoma-cells
#17
Zhiying Liu, Luxin Qiao, Yulin Zhang, Yunjing Zang, Ying Shi, Kai Liu, Xin Zhang, Xiaofan Lu, Lin Yuan, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Dexi Chen
HIV invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) in the majority of patients infected with HIV-1, leads to dysfunction and injury within the CNS, showing a variety of neurological symptoms which was broadly termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). But the molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. It has been suggested that apoptosis and autophagic dysfunction in neurons may play an important role in the development of HAND. Previous studies have indicated that p53 may be involved in the onset of neurological disorder in AIDS...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383502/the-role-of-hiv-infection-in-neurologic-injury
#18
REVIEW
Rossana Scutari, Claudia Alteri, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Stefano Aquaro
The central nervous system (CNS) is a very challenging HIV-1 sanctuary, in which HIV-1 replication is established early on during acute infection and can persist despite potent antiretroviral treatments. HIV-1 infected macrophages play a pivotal role acting as vehicles for HIV-1 to spread into the brain, and can be the major contributor of an early compartmentalization. HIV-1 infection in CNS may lead to a broad spectrum of neurological syndromes, such as dementia, mild neurocognitive disorders, and asymptomatic impairment...
April 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367507/erratum-to-hmgb1-anti-hmgb1-antibodies-define-a-molecular-signature-of-early-stages-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-hand
#19
Marie-Lise Gougeon, Béatrice Poirier-Beaudouin, Jacques Durant, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Héla Saïdi, Valérie Seffer, Michel Ticchioni, Stephane Chanalet, Helene Carsenti, Alexandra Harvey-Langton, Muriel Laffon, Jacqueline Cottalorda, Christian Pradier, Pierre Dellamonica, Matteo Vassallo
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00245.].
March 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358552/determinants-of-risk-taking-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#20
Daniela Gomez, Christopher Power, M John Gill, Esther Fujiwara
OBJECTIVE: Decision-making involves fronto-striatal brain areas that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of HIV infection. Some studies report impaired decision-making in people with HIV/AIDS with past or present addictions and/or accompanying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The authors investigated risk-based decision-making in HIV/AIDS, separating individuals with or without accompanying HAND. METHOD: A total of 288 HIV-infected persons underwent standardized neuropsychological testing...
March 30, 2017: Neuropsychology
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