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Hiv associated neurocognitive disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626409/hiv-associated-cerebellar-dysfunction-and-improvement-with-aminopyridine-therapy-a-case-report
#1
Carolin Hoyer, Angelika Alonso, Beate Schlotter-Weigel, Michael Platten, Marc Fatar
Apart from infectious causes and cerebellar dysfunction associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome dementia or HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, cerebellar dysfunction in HIV-positive individuals has been ascribed to granule cell neuronopathy as well as primary cerebellar atrophy without identifiable etiology. We report the case of a patient with progressive cerebellar dysfunction as the primary manifestation of HIV infection. No symptom improvement was seen under combination antiretroviral therapy, which had been established upon diagnosis, but the patient improved rapidly under 4-aminopyridine treatment, which was recommended 1 year later...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625210/household-everyday-functioning-in-the-internet-age-online-shopping-and-banking-skills-are-affected-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#2
Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Marizela Verduzco, Tyler V Smith, Clint Cushman
OBJECTIVES: The Internet is a fundamental tool for completing many different instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including shopping and banking. Persons with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) are at heightened risk for IADL problems, but the extent to which HAND interferes with the performance of Internet-based household IADLs is not known. METHODS: Ninety-three individuals with HIV disease, 43 of whom were diagnosed with HAND, and 42 HIV- comparison participants completed Internet-based tests of shopping and banking...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612507/hiv-and-drug-abuse-mediate-astrocyte-senescence-in-a-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-manner-leading-to-neuronal-toxicity
#3
Chunjiang Yu, Srinivas D Narasipura, Maureen H Richards, Xiu-Ti Hu, Bryan Yamamoto, Lena Al-Harthi
Emerging evidence suggests that cell senescence plays an important role in aging-associated diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. HIV leads to a spectrum of neurologic diseases collectively termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse, particularly methamphetamine (meth), is a frequently abused psychostimulant among HIV+ individuals and its abuse exacerbates HAND. The mechanism by which HIV and meth lead to brain cell dysregulation is not entirely clear. In this study, we evaluated the impact of HIV and meth on astrocyte senescence using in vitro and several animal models...
June 13, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611588/time-dependent-hiv-tat-induced-perturbation-of-human-neurons-in-vitro-towards-a-model-for-the-molecular-pathology-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#4
Kim T Gurwitz, Richard J Burman, Brandon D Murugan, Shaun Garnett, Tariq Ganief, Nelson C Soares, Joseph V Raimondo, Jonathan M Blackburn
A significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)-positive individuals are affected by the cognitive, motor and behavioral dysfunction that characterizes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While the molecular etiology of HAND remains largely uncharacterized, HIV transactivator of transcription (HIV-Tat) is thought to be an important etiological cause. Here we have used mass spectrometry (MS)-based discovery proteomics to identify the quantitative, cell-wide changes that occur when non-transformed, differentiated human neurons are treated with HIV-Tat over time...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598791/croi-2017-neurologic-complications-of-hiv-infection
#5
Serena S Spudich, Beau M Ances
The brain is a major target for HIV infection and is a potential viral reservoir even in virologically well-controlled HIV-infected individuals. Data presented at the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) suggested that during early HIV infection, CD4+ T cells in the meninges and choroid plexus serve as an important early site of HIV infection in the central nervous system (CNS), with brain macrophages and microglial cells becoming an important source of viral replication with advancing disease...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596187/functional-connectivity-in-virally-suppressed-patients-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-a-resting-state-analysis
#6
J R Chaganti, A Heinecke, T M Gates, K J Moffat, B J Brew
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder still occurs despite virally suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy. In the pre-combination antiretroviral era and in patients without HIV suppression, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder was caused by synaptodendritic injury resulting in impairment of neural networks, characterized by decreased attention, psychomotor slowing, and working memory deficits. Whether similar pathogenesis is true for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in the context of viral suppression is not clear...
June 8, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594894/micrornas-upregulated-during-hiv-infection-target-peroxisome-biogenesis-factors-implications-for-virus-biology-disease-mechanisms-and-neuropathology
#7
Zaikun Xu, Eugene L Asahchop, William G Branton, Benjamin B Gelman, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) represent a spectrum neurological syndrome that affects up to 25% of patients with HIV/AIDS. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms contribute to the development of HAND symptoms including chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Among the factors linked to development of HAND is altered expression of host cell microRNAs (miRNAs) in brain. Here, we examined brain miRNA profiles among HIV/AIDS patients with and without HAND. Our analyses revealed differential expression of 17 miRNAs in brain tissue from HAND patients...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584853/the-presence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-is-associated-with-a-lower-adherence-to-combined-antiretroviral-treatment
#8
Susan Kamal, Isabella Locatelli, Gilles Wandeler, Asemaneh Sehhat, Olivier Bugnon, Melanie Metral, Renaud Du Pasquier, Klemens Gutbrod, Matthias Cavassini, Marie P Schneider
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are defined according to their diagnostic degrees as follows: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, mild neurocognitive disorder, and HIV-associated dementia. Because high adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is required to maintain viral suppression among HIV-infected patients, it is important to investigate the impact of HAND on medication adherence. Our study hypothesis was that patients with HAND had a lower medication adherence than patients who did not have HAND...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580181/intercellular-adhesion-molecular-5-as-marker-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#9
Lin Yuan, Feili Wei, Xin Zhang, Xianghua Guo, Xiaofan Lu, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Dexi Chen
Despite the use of antiretroviral drugs HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are still common in HIV-seropositive patients. Identification of HIV patients with cognitive impairment in early-stage might benefit a great deal from disease progression monitoring and treatment adjustment. Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM5), characteristically expressed on neuron, may suppress immune functions by inhibition of T cell activation in central nervous system. Previous studies have shown that ICAM5 could be detected in patients with brain injury...
May 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575323/darunavir-concentrations-in-csf-of-hiv-infected-individuals-when-boosted-with-cobicistat-versus-ritonavir
#10
Hanni Bartels, Laurent Decosterd, Manuel Battegay, Catia Marzolini
Objectives: Cobicistat and ritonavir have different inhibitory profiles for drug transporters that could impact the distribution of co-administered drugs. We compared darunavir concentrations in CSF when boosted by cobicistat versus ritonavir relative to plasma concentrations and with WT HIV-1 IC 50 and IC 90 . Methods: An open, single-arm, sequential clinical trial (NCT02503462) where paired CSF and blood samples were taken from seven HIV-infected patients presenting with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and treated with a darunavir/ritonavir (800/100 mg) once-daily regimen...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575231/everyday-multitasking-abilities-in-older-hiv-adults-neurobehavioral-correlates-and-the-mediating-role-of-metacognition
#11
P L Fazeli, K B Casaletto, S P Woods, A Umlauf, J C Scott, D J Moore
Objective: The prevalence of older adults living with HIV is rising, as is their risk for everyday functioning problems associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Multitasking, the ability to maintain and carry out subgoals in support of a larger goal, is a multidimensional skill ubiquitous during most real-life tasks and associated with prefrontal networks that are vulnerable in HIV. Understanding factors associated with multitasking will improve characterization of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
May 31, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574961/modifications-in-acute-phase-and-complement-systems-predict-shifts-in-cognitive-status-of-hiv-infected-patients
#12
Ceereena Ubaida-Mohien, Benjamin Lamberty, Alex M Dickens, Michelle M Mielke, Thomas Marcotte, Ned Sacktor, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, Donald Franklin, Pawel Cibrowski, Ravi Tharakan, Justin C McArthur, Howard Fox, Norman J Haughey
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has not changed considerably in the last two decades. Potent antiretroviral therapy has shifted the severity of HAND to milder phenotypes, but excess morbidity and mortality continue to be associated with HAND. Changes in numerous markers of immune function, inflammation, and cellular stress have been repeatedly associated with HAND, but the underlying systems that drive these changes have not been identified...
June 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567537/hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Christian Eggers, Gabriele Arendt, Katrin Hahn, Ingo W Husstedt, Matthias Maschke, Eva Neuen-Jacob, Mark Obermann, Thorsten Rosenkranz, Eva Schielke, Elmar Straube
The modern antiretroviral treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection has considerably lowered the incidence of opportunistic infections. With the exception of the most severe dementia manifestations, the incidence and prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have not decreased, and HAND continues to be relevant in daily clinical practice. Now, HAND occurs in earlier stages of HIV infection, and the clinical course differs from that before the widespread use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART)...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559937/the-role-of-nuclear-medicine-in-the-staging-and-management-of-human-immune-deficiency-virus-infection-and-associated-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Alfred O Ankrah, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Hans C Klein, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Mike Sathekge
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a leading cause of death. It attacks the immune system, thereby rendering the infected host susceptible to many HIV-associated infections, malignancies and neurocognitive disorders. The altered immune system affects the way the human host responds to disease, resulting in atypical presentation of these disorders. This presents a diagnostic challenge and the clinician must use all diagnostic avenues available to diagnose and manage these conditions. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the mortality associated with HIV infection but has also brought in its wake problems associated with adverse effects or drug interaction and may even modulate some of the HIV-associated disorders to the detriment of the infected human host...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552341/methamphetamine-potentiates-hiv-1gp120-induced-microglial-neurotoxic-activity-by-enhancing-microglial-outward-k-current
#15
Jianuo Liu, Enquan Xu, Guihua Tu, Han Liu, Jiangtao Luo, Huangui Xiong
Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse not only increases the risk of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection, but exacerbates HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) as well. The mechanisms underlying the co-morbid effect are not fully understood. Meth and HIV-1 each alone interacts with microglia and microglia express voltage-gated potassium (KV) channel KV1.3. To understand whether KV1.3 functions an intersecting point for Meth and HIV-1, we studied the augment effect of Meth on HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120)-induced neurotoxic activity in cultured rat microglial cells...
May 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543773/degradation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-by-the-immunoproteasome-in-astrocytes-a-potential-interferon-%C3%AE-dependent-mechanism-contributing-to-hiv-neuropathogenesis
#16
Colleen E Kovacsics, Alexander J Gill, Surendra S Ambegaokar, Benjamin B Gelman, Dennis L Kolson
Induction of the detoxifying enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a critical protective host response to cellular injury associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. We previously found that HO-1 protein expression is reduced in brains of HIV-infected individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and in HIV-infected macrophages, where this reduction associates with enhanced glutamate release and neurotoxicity. Because HIV-infected macrophages are a small component of the cellular content of the brain, the reduction of macrophage HO-1 expression likely accounts for a small portion of brain HO-1 loss in HIV infection...
August 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537651/the-burden-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-hand-in-post-haart-era-a-multidisciplinary-review-of-the-literature
#17
G Caruana, G Vidili, P A Serra, P Bagella, A Spanu, V Fiore, D F Calvisi, R Manetti, G Rocchitta, S Nuvoli, S Babudieri, M M Simile, G Madeddu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present multidisciplinary review is to give an updated insight into the most recent findings regarding the pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search, through electronic databases (Pubmed - MEDLINE) and search engines (Google Scholar), of peer-reviewed publications (articles and reviews) and conferences proceedings on HAND pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy, from 1999 to 2016...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536861/heterogeneity-of-neuropsychological-impairment-in-hiv-infection-contributions-from-mild-cognitive-impairment
#18
REVIEW
Kathryn N Devlin, Tania Giovannetti
Despite longstanding acknowledgement of the heterogeneity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), existing HAND diagnostic methods classify according to the degree of impairment, without regard to the pattern of neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses. Research in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has demonstrated that classifying individuals into subtypes by both their level and pattern of impairment, using either conventional or statistical methods, has etiologic and prognostic utility. Methods for characterizing the heterogeneity of MCI provide a framework that can be applied to other disorders and may be useful in clarifying some of the current challenges in the study of HAND...
May 24, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503143/impairments-of-motor-function-while-multitasking-in-hiv
#19
Sharif I Kronemer, Jordan A Mandel, Ned C Sacktor, Cherie L Marvel
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499138/human-pegivirus-1-in-the-csf-of-patients-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-hand-may-be-derived-from-blood-in-highly-viraemic-patients
#20
Diana Hardie, Heidi Smuts
BACKGROUND: Human pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) infection in the brain has not been extensively examined and its association with disease remains unconfirmed. In a high throughput sequencing study to look for infectious agents that could play a role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), this virus was detected in 3 of 8 CSF samples. OBJECTIVES: To determine the significance of this finding, additional patients were screened and the viral load and viral diversity in blood and CSF were examined...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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