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Hiv associated neurocognitive disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074940/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-is-required-for-amyloid-pathology-in-brain-endothelial-cells-induced-by-glycoprotein-120-methamphetamine-and-nicotine
#1
Liqun Liu, Jingyi Yu, Li Li, Bao Zhang, Lingjuan Liu, Chun-Hua Wu, Ambrose Jong, Ding-An Mao, Sheng-He Huang
One of the most challenging issues in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) caused by HIV-1 virotoxins and drug abuse is the lack of understanding the underlying mechanisms that are commonly associated with disorders of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which mainly consists of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Here, we hypothesized that Glycoprotein 120 (gp120), methamphetamine (METH) and nicotine (NT) can enhance amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation in BMEC through Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070871/treating-hiv-infection-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
A Calcagno, G Di Perri, S Bonora
Combination antiretroviral treatment is associated with clear benefits in HIV-positive subjects, and is also effective in the central nervous system (CNS), meaning HIV-associated dementia is now an uncommon event. Nevertheless, a significant number of patients show symptoms of neurocognitive impairment which may negatively affect their quality of life. Although several risk factors for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders have been identified, there is no clear recommendation for their prevention and management...
January 9, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058461/pet-brain-imaging-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-hand-in-the-era-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Jaime H Vera, Basil Ridha, Yvonne Gilleece, Aliza Amlani, Patrick Thorburn, Sabina Dizdarevic
Effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has lead to a significant reduction in the prevalence and incidence of central nervous system (CNS) HIV-associated brain disease, particularly CNS opportunistic infections and HIV encephalitis. Despite this, cognitive deficits in people living with HIV, also known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have become more prevalent in recent years. The pathogenesis of HAND is likely to be multifactorial, however recent evidence suggests that brain microglial activation is the most likely pathogenic mechanism...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052738/determining-optimal-impairment-rating-methodology-for-a-new-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-screening-procedure
#4
Jody Kamminga, Mark Bloch, Trina Vincent, Angela Carberry, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
INTRODUCTION: The current study sought to determine the optimal impairment rating definition for a new HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) screening procedure as compared to standard neuropsychological testing. METHOD: A total of 55 HIV-infected (HIV+; 19% AIDS; 87% on combination antiretroviral therapy, cART; 80% plasma undetectable) and 22 demographically comparable HIV-uninfected (HIV-) control adults (all male) enrolled in an urban Australian primary care cohort study completed the CogState computerized cognitive screen, a standard independence in activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaire, and a standard neuropsychological test battery...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040491/temporal-processsing-demands-in-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-amodal-gating-and-implications-for-diagnostics
#5
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), approximately 50% of HIV-1 seropositive individuals develop HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Unfortunately, point-of-care screening tools for HAND lack sensitivity and specificity, especially in low-resource countries. Temporal processing deficits have emerged as a critical underlying dimension of neurocognitive impairments observed in HIV-1 and may provide a key target for the development of a novel point-of-care screening tool for HAND...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028734/galectin-1-reduces-neuroinflammation-via-modulation-of-nitric-oxide-arginase-signaling-in-hiv-1-transfected-microglia-a-gold-nanoparticle-galectin-1-nanoplex-a-possible-neurotherapeutic
#6
Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Courtney S Mangum, Eliane Abou-Jaoude, Jessica L Reynolds, Maixian Liu, Karin Sundquist, Neil U Parikh, Lee D Chaves, Manoj J Mammen, Stanley A Schwartz, Supriya D Mahajan
Galectins are a family of β-galactoside-binding lectins that are important modulators of homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Galectin-1 is a pivotal regulator of microglia activation that alters the immune balance from neurodegeneration to neuroprotection and could have therapeutic relevance in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We have previously shown that galectin-1 treatment decreased oxidative stress in microglia and hypothesize that the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is the cross regulatory interactions between Nitric oxide (NO) and Arginase I activity in microglia...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005686/transcriptome-analyses-identify-key-cellular-factors-associated-with-hiv-1-associated-neuropathogenesis-in-infected-men
#7
Narasimhan J Venkatachari, Siddhartha Jain, Leah Walker, Shalmali Bivalkar-Mehla, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Charles Rinaldo, Ann Ragin, Eric Seaberg, Andrew Levine, James Becker, Eileen Martin, Ned Sacktor, Velpandi Ayyavoo
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 viral proteins and host inflammatory factors have a direct role in neuronal toxicity in in vitro, however, the contribution of these factors in vivo in HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is not fully understood. We applied novel Systems Biology approaches to identify specific cellular and viral factors and their related pathways that are associated with different stages of HAND. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of individuals enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) including HIV-1 seronegative (N = 36) and HIV-1 seropositive individuals without neurocognitive symptoms (N = 16), or with mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) (N = 8) or HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (N = 16)...
December 21, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005574/clinical-and-viro-immunological-correlates-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-hand-in-a-cohort-of-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-patients
#8
Francesca Bai, Francesca Iannuzzi, Esther Merlini, Lidia Borghi, Camilla Tincati, Mattia Trunfio, Teresa Bini, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti
The multifactorial pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders may explain the inconsistent association between neurocognitive impairment and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA. Clinical and viro-immunological (CSF and plasma HIV RNA, CSF/plasma HIV RNA ratio, circulating T-cell phenotypes) parameters were investigated in 155 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve, asymptomatic study participants undergoing a neuropsychological evaluation. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) was independently associated with AIDS events and a CSF/plasma ratio of at least one, after adjustment for CD4 nadir of less than 200 cells/mmc, suggesting a role for active central nervous system (CNS) viral replication in the pathogenesis of neurocognitive impairment...
January 14, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995575/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-and-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-hiv-infected-individuals-in-rakai-uganda
#9
Mahsa Abassi, Bozena M Morawski, Gertrude Nakigozi, Noeline Nakasujja, Xiangrong Kong, David B Meya, Kevin Robertson, Ronald Gray, Maria J Wawer, Ned Sacktor, David R Boulware
In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We characterized the relationship between HAND and CSF biomarker expression in ART-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals in Rakai, Uganda. We analyzed CSF of 78 HIV-seropositive, ART-naive Ugandan adults for 17 cytokines and 20 neurodegenerative biomarkers via Luminex multiplex assay. These adults underwent neurocognitive assessment to determine their degree of HAND...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993242/hiv-protease-inhibitors-alter-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-via-%C3%AE-site-amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving-enzyme-1-translational-up-regulation
#10
Patrick J Gannon, Cagla Akay-Espinoza, Alan C Yee, Lisa A Briand, Michelle A Erickson, Benjamin B Gelman, Yan Gao, Norman J Haughey, M Christine Zink, Janice E Clements, Nicholas S Kim, Gabriel Van De Walle, Brigid K Jensen, Robert Vassar, R Christopher Pierce, Alexander J Gill, Dennis L Kolson, J Alan Diehl, Joseph L Mankowski, Kelly L Jordan-Sciutto
Mounting evidence implicates antiretroviral (ARV) drugs as potential contributors to the persistence and evolution of clinical and pathological presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in the post-ARV era. Based on their ability to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in various cell types, we hypothesized that ARV-mediated ER stress in the central nervous system resulted in chronic dysregulation of the unfolded protein response and altered amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. We used in vitro and in vivo models to show that HIV protease inhibitor (PI) class ARVs induced neuronal damage and ER stress, leading to PKR-like ER kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and enhanced translation of β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1)...
January 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992497/validation-of-the-international-hiv-dementia-scale-as-a-screening-tool-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-a-german-speaking-hiv-outpatient-clinic
#11
Victor Marin-Webb, Heiko Jessen, Ute Kopp, Arne B Jessen, Katrin Hahn
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966610/molecular-mechanism-the-human-dopamine-transporter-histidine-547-regulates-basal-and-hiv-1-tat-protein-inhibited-dopamine-transport
#12
Pamela M Quizon, Wei-Lun Sun, Yaxia Yuan, Narasimha M Midde, Chang-Guo Zhan, Jun Zhu
Abnormal dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk determinant of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. HIV-1 Tat protein increases synaptic dopamine (DA) levels by directly inhibiting DA transporter (DAT) activity, ultimately leading to dopaminergic neuron damage. Through integrated computational modeling prediction and experimental validation, we identified that histidine547 on human DAT (hDAT) is critical for regulation of basal DA uptake and Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport. Compared to wild type hDAT (WT hDAT), mutation of histidine547 (H547A) displayed a 196% increase in DA uptake...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931507/hiv-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-efavirenz-reduces-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Jingji Jin, Bethany Grimmig, James Izzo, Lecia A M Brown, Charles Hudson, Adam J Smith, Jun Tan, Paula C Bickford, Brian Giunta
The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is evidence that neural stem cells (NSCs) can migrate to sites of brain injury such as those caused by inflammation and oxidative stress, which are pathological features of HAND. Thus, reductions in NSCs may contribute to HAND pathogenesis. Since the HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) has previously been associated with cognitive deficits and promotion of oxidative stress pathways, we examined its effect on NSCs in vitro as well as in C57BL/6J mice...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892704/the-effects-of-a-16-week-aerobic-exercise-programme-on-cognitive-function-in-people-living-with-hiv
#14
Adam McDermott, Lilia Zaporojan, Patricia McNamara, Colin P Doherty, Janice Redmond, Cuisle Forde, John Gormley, Mikel Egaña, Colm Bergin
High levels of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity are associated with higher levels of cognitive function in people with HIV, thus, they may reduce the risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention on cognitive function in people with HIV. Eleven participants living with HIV were recruited into the study. Participants were randomised into either an exercise group (n = 5), that completed a 16-week aerobic exercise programme training, 3 times per week (2 supervised sessions and one unsupervised session) or a control group (n = 6) that received no intervention...
November 28, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888531/fate-of-microglia-during-hiv-1-infection-from-activation-to-senescence
#15
REVIEW
Natalie C Chen, Andrea T Partridge, Christian Sell, Claudio Torres, Julio Martín-García
Microglia support productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disturbed microglial function could contribute to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Better understanding of how HIV-1 infection and viral protein exposure modulate microglial function during the course of infection could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for both the eradication of HIV-1 reservoir and treatment of neurocognitive deficits. This review first describes microglial origins and function in the normal central nervous system (CNS), and the changes that occur during aging...
November 26, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877102/inhibition-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-by-hiv-1-tat-and-opioid-treatment-in-the-striatum-involves-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors
#16
Changqing Xu, Sylvia Fitting
Due to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with high prevalence of mild forms of neurocognitive impairments, also referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although opiate drug use can exacerbate HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal damage, it remains unknown how and to what extent opioids interact with Tat on the GABAergic system. We conducted whole-cell recordings in mouse striatal slices and examined the effects of HIV-1 Tat in the presence and absence of morphine (1 μM) and damgo (1 μM) on GABAergic neurotransmission...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#17
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869500/lower-frailty-is-associated-with-successful-cognitive-aging-among-older-adults-with-hiv
#18
Lindsay M K Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in a sample of older adults with HIV. One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load. SCA was defined as the absence of neurocognitive impairment (as defined by deficits in tasks of episodic learning, information processing speed, executive function, and motor skills) depression, and functional impairment (instrumental activities of daily living)...
January 3, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862491/alarmins-and-central-nervous-system-inflammation-in-hiv-associated-neurological-disorders
#19
M-L Gougeon
In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in infected individuals with adequate immunological and virological status. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include hepatitis C virus co-infection, host genetic factors predisposing to HAND, the early establishment of the virus in the CNS and its persistence under HAART; thus, the CNS is an important reservoir for HIV. Microglial cells are permissive to HIV-1, and NLRP3 inflammasome-associated genes were found expressed in brains of HIV-1-infected persons, contributing to brain disease...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861379/moderate-to-severe-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-impairment-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-lithium
#20
Eric H Decloedt, Carla Freeman, Fleur Howells, Martine Casson-Crook, Maia Lesosky, Eleni Koutsilieri, Simon Lovestone, Gary Maartens, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains highly prevalent despite effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART). A number of adjunctive pharmacotherapies for HAND have been studied with disappointing results, but preliminary data suggest that lithium may provide clinical benefit. In addition, the low cost of lithium would facilitate access in low- and middle-income countries which carry the greatest burden of HIV. METHODS: Our objective was to evaluate the 24-week efficacy and safety of lithium in patients with moderate to severe HAND...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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