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Hiv associated neurocognitive disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716964/a-glun2b-selective-nmdar-antagonist-reverses-synapse-loss-and-cognitive-impairment-produced-by-the-hiv-1-protein-tat
#1
Jonathan D Raybuck, Nicholas J Hargus, Stanley A Thayer
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects approximately half of HIV-infected patients. Loss of synaptic connections is a hallmark of many neurocognitive disorders, including HAND. The HIV-1 protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) disrupts synaptic connections both in vitro and in vivo and has been linked to impaired neurocognitive function in humans. In vitro studies have shown that ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for GluN2B-containing NMDARs, reverses synapse loss when applied after Tat...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716545/effect-of-ageing-on-neurocognitive-function-by-stage-of-hiv-infection-evidence-from-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#2
Karl Goodkin, Eric N Miller, Christopher Cox, Sandra Reynolds, James T Becker, Eileen Martin, Ola A Selnes, David G Ostrow, Ned C Sacktor
BACKGROUND: The demographics of the HIV epidemic in the USA have shifted towards older age. We aimed to establish the relationship between the processes of ageing and HIV infection in neurocognitive impairment. METHODS: With longitudinal data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a long-term prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the USA, we examined the effect of ageing, HIV infection (by disease stage), and their interaction on five neurocognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and motor function...
July 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695547/human-immunodeficiency-virus-promotes-mitochondrial-toxicity
#3
REVIEW
Summer J Rozzi, Valeria Avdoshina, Jerel A Fields, Margarita Trejo, Hoai T Ton, Gerard P Ahern, Italo Mocchetti
Combined antiretroviral therapies (cART) have had remarkable success in reducing morbidity and mortality among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), characterized by loss of synapses, remain. cART may maintain an undetectable HIV RNA load but does not eliminate the expression of viral proteins such as trans-activator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope glycoprotein gp120 in the brain. These two viral proteins are known to promote synaptic simplifications by several mechanisms, including alteration of mitochondrial function and dynamics...
July 10, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682528/s-adenosylmethionine-same-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-a-clinician-oriented-review-of-research
#4
REVIEW
Anup Sharma, Patricia Gerbarg, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Lila Massoumi, Linda L Carpenter, Helen Lavretsky, Philip R Muskin, Richard P Brown, David Mischoulon
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) for treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions and comorbid medical conditions. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Google Scholar databases between July 15, 2015, and September 28, 2016, by combining search terms for SAMe (s-adenosyl methionine or s-adenosyl-l-methionine) with terms for relevant disease states (major depressive disorder, MDD, depression, perinatal depression, human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, dementia, anxiety, schizophrenia, psychotic, 22q11...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681344/neurocognitive-functioning-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-southern-india
#5
Rujvi Kamat, Allen McCutchan, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Thomas D Marcotte, Anya Umlauf, Poongulali Selvamuthu, Rachel Meyer, Scott Letendre, Robert Heaton, Ajay R Bharti
The validity of a comprehensive international neuropsychological (NP) test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in a Tamil speaking southern Indian cohort (69 HIV+ and 67 HIV-) was explored. The prevalence of HAND was significantly higher in the HIV+ vs. HIV- group (33 vs.13%; p < 0.01). Impairment rates were highest in the motor and speed of information processing domains. An NP battery translated into Tamil appears to be a valid tool for assessing HAND because the prevalence it found of HAND in southern India is similar to that found elsewhere...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681198/childhood-maltreatment-and-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-share-similar-pathophysiology-a-potential-sensitisation-mechanism
#6
Jacqueline S Womersley, Soraya Seedat, Sian M J Hemmings
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are increasingly prevalent despite the use of antiretroviral therapies. Previous research suggests that individual host factors play an important role in determining susceptibility to HAND. In this review, we propose that childhood trauma (CT) and HAND share several common aetiological mechanisms, namely hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. These convergent and consequent mechanisms may translate into an increased risk of developing HAND in individuals who have experienced early life stress...
July 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669770/feedback-on-a-multimodal-cognitive-intervention-for-adults-aging-with-hiv-a-focus-group-study
#7
David E Vance, C Ann Gakumo, Gwendolyn D Childs, Comfort Enah, Pariya L Fazeli
Nearly 50% of adult persons living with HIV (PLWH) experience HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), which is associated with deteriorating brain health and cognitive functioning. Multimodal interventions that simultaneously improve physical activity, nutrition, and sleep hygiene may be of value for adult PLWH, especially as they age and become vulnerable to HAND. We used four focus groups of PLWH (N = 30; ages ≥ 50 years) to solicit feedback about Cognitive Prescriptions, a multimodal cognitive intervention...
June 29, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655206/deficient-emotion-processing-is-associated-with-everyday-functioning-capacity-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#8
Jonathan M Grabyan, Erin E Morgan, Marizela V Cameron, Javier Villalobos, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
Objective: Emotion processing has received little research focus in HIV, but emerging evidence suggests that abilities such as facial affect discrimination may be features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The present study hypothesized that individuals with HAND would evidence an emotion processing deficit relative to cognitively unimpaired individuals with HIV and seronegative comparison participants on a task assessing these abilities. Moreover, it was expected that this deficit would be significantly associated with social aspects of everyday functioning...
June 26, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650401/progressive-brain-atrophy-despite-persistent-viral-suppression-in-hiv-over-age-60
#9
Katherine M Clifford, Vishal Samboju, Yann Cobigo, Benedetta Milanini, Gabriel A Marx, Joanna M Hellmuth, Howard J Rosen, Joel H Kramer, Isabel E Allen, Victor G Valcour
BACKGROUND: Current HIV treatments are successful at suppressing plasma HIV RNA to undetectable levels for most adherent patients. Yet, emerging evidence suggests viral suppression will inadequately control inflammation and mitigate risk for progressive brain injury. We sought to quantify differences in longitudinal brain atrophy rates among older virally suppressed HIV-infected participants compared to that of healthy aging. METHODS: We examined longitudinal structural brain MRI atrophy rates employing region of interest assessments and voxel-wise tensor-based morphometry in HIV-infected participants over age 60 years (n=38) compared to age-matched HIV-uninfected healthy and cognitively normal controls (n=24)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640909/hiv-tat-regulates-macrophage-gene-expression-in-the-context-of-neuroaids
#10
Loreto Carvallo, Lillie Lopez, Jorge E Fajardo, Matias Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Andras Fiser, Joan W Berman
Despite the success of cART, greater than 50% of HIV infected people develop cognitive and motor deficits termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Macrophages are the major cell type infected in the CNS. Unlike for T cells, the virus does not kill macrophages and these long-lived cells may become HIV reservoirs in the brain. They produce cytokines/chemokines and viral proteins that promote inflammation and neuronal damage, playing a key role in HIV neuropathogenesis. HIV Tat is the transactivator of transcription that is essential for replication and transcriptional regulation of the virus and is the first protein to be produced after HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639993/peripheral-monocytes-macrophages-phenotypes-associated-to-the-evolution-of-cognitive-performance-in-hiv-infected-patients
#11
Massimiliano Fabbiani, Antonio Muscatello, Paolo Perseghin, Marco Bani, Arianna Incontri, Nicola Squillace, Giuseppe Lapadula, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera
BACKGROUND: The contribution of monocyte activation in the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders is not completely understood. This study aimed to explore the predictive value of peripheral monocyte/macrophage (M/M) phenotypes on the evolution of cognitive performance in a population of virologically-suppressed HIV-infected patients. SETTING: Prospective, observational, longitudinal study. METHODS: HIV-1-infected patients with HIV-RNA<50copies/mL for >12 months underwent neuropsychological examination at baseline and after one year...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626409/hiv-associated-cerebellar-dysfunction-and-improvement-with-aminopyridine-therapy-a-case-report
#12
Carolin Hoyer, Angelika Alonso, Beate Schlotter-Weigel, Michael Platten, Marc Fatar
Apart from infectious causes and cerebellar dysfunction associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome dementia or HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, cerebellar dysfunction in HIV-positive individuals has been ascribed to granule cell neuronopathy as well as primary cerebellar atrophy without identifiable etiology. We report the case of a patient with progressive cerebellar dysfunction as the primary manifestation of HIV infection. No symptom improvement was seen under combination antiretroviral therapy, which had been established upon diagnosis, but the patient improved rapidly under 4-aminopyridine treatment, which was recommended 1 year later...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625210/household-everyday-functioning-in-the-internet-age-online-shopping-and-banking-skills-are-affected-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#13
Steven Paul Woods, Jennifer E Iudicello, Erin E Morgan, Marizela Verduzco, Tyler V Smith, Clint Cushman
OBJECTIVES: The Internet is a fundamental tool for completing many different instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), including shopping and banking. Persons with HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) are at heightened risk for IADL problems, but the extent to which HAND interferes with the performance of Internet-based household IADLs is not known. METHODS: Ninety-three individuals with HIV disease, 43 of whom were diagnosed with HAND, and 42 HIV- comparison participants completed Internet-based tests of shopping and banking...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612507/hiv-and-drug-abuse-mediate-astrocyte-senescence-in-a-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-manner-leading-to-neuronal-toxicity
#14
Chunjiang Yu, Srinivas D Narasipura, Maureen H Richards, Xiu-Ti Hu, Bryan Yamamoto, Lena Al-Harthi
Emerging evidence suggests that cell senescence plays an important role in aging-associated diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. HIV leads to a spectrum of neurologic diseases collectively termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse, particularly methamphetamine (meth), is a frequently abused psychostimulant among HIV+ individuals and its abuse exacerbates HAND. The mechanism by which HIV and meth lead to brain cell dysregulation is not entirely clear. In this study, we evaluated the impact of HIV and meth on astrocyte senescence using in vitro and several animal models...
June 13, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611588/time-dependent-hiv-tat-induced-perturbation-of-human-neurons-in-vitro-towards-a-model-for-the-molecular-pathology-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#15
Kim T Gurwitz, Richard J Burman, Brandon D Murugan, Shaun Garnett, Tariq Ganief, Nelson C Soares, Joseph V Raimondo, Jonathan M Blackburn
A significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)-positive individuals are affected by the cognitive, motor and behavioral dysfunction that characterizes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While the molecular etiology of HAND remains largely uncharacterized, HIV transactivator of transcription (HIV-Tat) is thought to be an important etiological cause. Here we have used mass spectrometry (MS)-based discovery proteomics to identify the quantitative, cell-wide changes that occur when non-transformed, differentiated human neurons are treated with HIV-Tat over time...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598791/croi-2017-neurologic-complications-of-hiv-infection
#16
Serena S Spudich, Beau M Ances
The brain is a major target for HIV infection and is a potential viral reservoir even in virologically well-controlled HIV-infected individuals. Data presented at the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) suggested that during early HIV infection, CD4+ T cells in the meninges and choroid plexus serve as an important early site of HIV infection in the central nervous system (CNS), with brain macrophages and microglial cells becoming an important source of viral replication with advancing disease...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596187/functional-connectivity-in-virally-suppressed-patients-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-a-resting-state-analysis
#17
J R Chaganti, A Heinecke, T M Gates, K J Moffat, B J Brew
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder still occurs despite virally suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy. In the pre-combination antiretroviral era and in patients without HIV suppression, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder was caused by synaptodendritic injury resulting in impairment of neural networks, characterized by decreased attention, psychomotor slowing, and working memory deficits. Whether similar pathogenesis is true for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in the context of viral suppression is not clear...
June 8, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594894/micrornas-upregulated-during-hiv-infection-target-peroxisome-biogenesis-factors-implications-for-virus-biology-disease-mechanisms-and-neuropathology
#18
Zaikun Xu, Eugene L Asahchop, William G Branton, Benjamin B Gelman, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) represent a spectrum neurological syndrome that affects up to 25% of patients with HIV/AIDS. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms contribute to the development of HAND symptoms including chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Among the factors linked to development of HAND is altered expression of host cell microRNAs (miRNAs) in brain. Here, we examined brain miRNA profiles among HIV/AIDS patients with and without HAND. Our analyses revealed differential expression of 17 miRNAs in brain tissue from HAND patients...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584853/the-presence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-is-associated-with-a-lower-adherence-to-combined-antiretroviral-treatment
#19
Susan Kamal, Isabella Locatelli, Gilles Wandeler, Asemaneh Sehhat, Olivier Bugnon, Melanie Metral, Renaud Du Pasquier, Klemens Gutbrod, Matthias Cavassini, Marie P Schneider
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are defined according to their diagnostic degrees as follows: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, mild neurocognitive disorder, and HIV-associated dementia. Because high adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is required to maintain viral suppression among HIV-infected patients, it is important to investigate the impact of HAND on medication adherence. Our study hypothesis was that patients with HAND had a lower medication adherence than patients who did not have HAND...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580181/intercellular-adhesion-molecular-5-as-marker-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#20
Lin Yuan, Feili Wei, Xin Zhang, Xianghua Guo, Xiaofan Lu, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Dexi Chen
Despite the use of antiretroviral drugs HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are still common in HIV-seropositive patients. Identification of HIV patients with cognitive impairment in early-stage might benefit a great deal from disease progression monitoring and treatment adjustment. Intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM5), characteristically expressed on neuron, may suppress immune functions by inhibition of T cell activation in central nervous system. Previous studies have shown that ICAM5 could be detected in patients with brain injury...
May 2017: Aging and Disease
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