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Hiv associated neurocognitive disorder

Yaxia Yuan, Xiaoqin Huang, Jun Zhu, Chang-Guo Zhan
This is a brief review of computational modeling studies on the detailed structures and mechanism of human dopamine transporter (hDAT), as well as its interaction with HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat). Extensive molecular modeling, docking and dynamics simulations have resulted in reasonable structural models of hDAT in three typical conformational states, its dopamine uptake mechanism and its interaction with Tat. The obtained hDAT models in different conformational states and their complexes with dopamine and Tat have provided novel structural and mechanistic insights concerning how hDAT uptakes dopamine and how Tat affects the dopamine uptake by hDAT...
October 14, 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Manmeet K Mamik, Eugene L Asahchop, Wing F Chan, Yu Zhu, William G Branton, Brienne A McKenzie, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
: HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
C S Hakkers, J E Arends, R E Barth, S Du Plessis, A I M Hoepelman, M Vink
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a frequently occurring comorbidity of HIV infection. Evidence suggests this condition starts subclinical before a progression to a symptomatic stage. Blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) fMRI has shown to be a sensitive tool to detect abnormal brain function in an early stage and might therefore be useful to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on brain function. An extensive literature search was performed in June 2015. Eligibility criteria for included studies were as follows: (1) conducting with HIV-positive patients, (2) using BOLD fMRI, and (3) including a HIV-negative control group...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Enrique López, Alexander J Steiner, Kimberly Smith, Nicholas S Thaler, David J Hardy, Andrew J Levine, Hussah T Al-Kharafi, Cristina Yamakawa, Karl Goodkin
Given that neurocognitive impairment is a frequent complication of HIV-1 infection in Spanish-speaking adults, the limited number of studies assessing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in this population raises serious clinical concern. In addition to being appropriately translated, instruments need to be modified, normed, and validated accordingly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the diagnostic utility of the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) and International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) to screen for HAND in Spanish-speaking adults living with HIV infection...
August 15, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Catherine Belin, Olivier Bouchaud
Combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) has turned HIV-infection to a treatable chronic disease during which many patients survive to middle and older age. However, they prematurely develop non-AIDS comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Microcirculatory changes and endothelial dysfunction occur early both in HIV-infected and in aging patients, in whom they usually precede cardiovascular and neurocognitive impairments. Also, mild cognitive involvement has been reported in women during the menopausal transition...
October 5, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Kristen A McLaurin, Landhing M Moran, Hailong Li, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Approximately 50 % of HIV-1 seropositive individuals develop HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which commonly include alterations in executive functions, such as inhibition, set shifting, and complex problem solving. Executive function deficits in HIV-1 are fairly well characterized, however, relatively few studies have explored the elemental dimensions of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1. Deficits in temporal processing, caused by HIV-1, may underlie the symptoms of impairment in higher level cognitive processes...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
J I Yongjia, L U Hongzhou
With extended life of HIV-infected patients due to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the rate of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains high and attracts much attention. The evidence is clear that cytokines are elevated in the blood of patients with HIV infection, which contribute to elevating the permeability of blood-brain barrier. Benefiting from that, cells in the brain are infected with HIV that has accelerated through the blood-brain barrier both as cell-free virus and infected immune cells including monocytes and T cells...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Pejman Rahimian, Johnny J He
BACKGROUND: Synaptodendritic damage is a pathological hallmark of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, and HIV-1 Tat protein is known to cause such injury in the central nervous system. In this study, we aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms of Tat-induced neurite shortening, specifically the roles of miR-132, an important regulator of neurite morphogenesis in this process. METHODS: The relationship between Tat expression and miR-132 expression was first determined using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in Tat-transfected astrocytes and neurons, astrocytes from Tat-transgenic mice, and HIV-infected astrocytes...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Zhiying Liu, Yunjin Zang, Luxin Qiao, Kai Liu, Yabo Ouyang, Yulin Zhang, Dexi Chen
The mechanisms behind HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders are still unclear. Apoptosis-stimulating protein 2 of p53 (ASPP2) is a damage-inducible p53-binding protein that stimulates p53-mediated apoptosis and transactivates proapoptotic and cell cycle regulatory genes. It has been reported that ASPP2 has a specific regulatory function in the death of retinal ganglion cells and the development of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we used p53 and ASPP2 knockout mice and primary cerebrocortical neuron culture to analyze the role of the interaction between ASPP2 with p53 in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120-induced neurotoxicity...
2016: Scientific Reports
Venkata Subba Rao Atluri, Rahul Dev Jayant, Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Gabriella Garcia, Thangavel Samikkannu, Adriana Yndart, Ajeet Kaushik, Madhavan Nair
Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy has reduced the prevalence of severe forms of neurocognitive disorders, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-associated neurocognitive disorders were observed in 50% of HIV-infected patients globally. The blood-brain barrier is known to be impermeable to most of antiretroviral drugs. Successful delivery of antiretroviral drugs into the brain may induce an inflammatory response, which may further induce neurotoxicity. Therefore, alternate options to antiretroviral drugs for decreasing the HIV infection and neurotoxicity may help in reducing neurocognitive impairments observed in HIV-infected patients...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Katia Falasca, Marcella Reale, Claudio Ucciferri, Marta Di Nicola, Giuseppe Di Martino, Chiara D'Angelo, Simona Coladonato, Jacopo Vecchiet
The HIV may trigger a process of neuronal loss and axonal degeneration throughout the brain, which is carried on by the immune system releasing of proinflammatory cytokines, so that chronic inflammation associated with dysregulated innate immune response, glial cell dysfunction, and adverse antiretroviral therapy (ART) effect play an important role causing milder HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. All patients have been tested for neurocognitive functioning through a comprehensive, five-domain neuropsychological battery performed in the study...
October 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Bruce J Brew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2016: AIDS
Shameka L Cody, Pariya L Fazeli, Linda D Moneyham, David E Vance
Although many can appreciate the life-sustaining benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy, some adults with HIV continue to have difficulty managing physical, neurocognitive, and everyday stressors. Fortunately, some adults with HIV are able to use accumulated resources (e.g., social networks) to help them engage in proactive coping behaviors such as planning and problem solving. Others, however, manage their stressors by engaging in avoidant coping, isolating themselves, or ruminating about the negative aspects of their situation...
October 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Matteo Vassallo, Anne De Monte, Jacques Durant, Brigitte Dunais, Jacqueline Cottalorda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2016: AIDS
Yanlan Chen, Wen Huang, Wenlin Jiang, Xianghong Wu, Biao Ye, Xiaoting Zhou
HIV-1 transactivator protein (Tat) has been shown to play an important role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between occludin and amyloid-beta (Aβ) transfer receptors in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) in the context of HIV-1-related pathology. The protein expressions of occludin, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in hCMEC/D3 cells were examined using western blotting and immunofluorescent staining...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Lisa C Obermeit, Jessica Beltran, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Donald R Franklin, Scott Letendre, Ronald Ellis, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Florin Vaida, Ann C Collier, Christina M Marra, David Clifford, Benjamin Gelman, Ned Sacktor, Susan Morgello, David Simpson, J Allen McCutchan, Igor Grant, Robert K Heaton
The criteria for differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder require evaluation of (1) cognitive impairment, (2) daily functioning declines, and (3) whether the functional declines are attributable to cognitive versus physical problems. Many providers rely only on self-report to evaluate these latter criteria. However, the accuracy of patient-provided information may be limited. This study evaluated the validity of self-assessment for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) diagnoses by comparing objective findings with self-report of criteria 2 and 3 above...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
HariOm Singh, Shruti D Marathe, Vijay Nema, Manisha V Ghate, Raman R Gangakhedkar
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Neurocognitive dysfunction has also been associated with the toxicity of certain antiretroviral drugs. HIV-1 induced neurological toxicity has been associated with deficiency of matrix metalloproteinases. Therefore, we evaluated the association of MMP-2(-735C > T) and MMP-9(-1562C > T) polymorphisms with respect to the susceptibility of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and its severity. METHODS: We enrolled 50 HIV-infected individuals with HAND, 130 without HAND and 150 unrelated healthy controls...
September 2016: Journal of Gene Medicine
Roman Shrestha, Damian Weikum, Michael Copenhaver, Frederick L Altice
Prior research has widely recognized neurocognitive impairment (NCI), depression, and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as important negative predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLWH). No studies to date, however, have explored how these neuropsychological factors operate together and affect HRQoL. Incarcerated male PLWH (N = 301) meeting criteria for opioid dependence were recruited from Malaysia's largest prison. Standardized scales for NCI, depression, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and HRQoL were used to conduct a moderated mediation model to explore the extent to which depression mediated the relationship between NCI, HRQoL, and AUDs using an ordinary least squares regression-based path analytic framework...
August 20, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
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