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Hiv associated neurocognitive disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343080/voices-from-australia-concerns-about-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#1
Denise Cummins, Donna Waters, Christina Aggar, David Crawford, Judith Fethney, Catherine O'Connor
This study aimed to determine whether people living with HIV (PLHIV) are concerned about HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and would find information and resources for HAND beneficial. An online survey focusing on the experience of HAND was distributed via the website of Positive Life New South Wales: a peak peer-support non-government organization in Australia. Of 126 respondents, 94 (74%) had heard of HAND, 52/94 (55%) had experienced concerns and of these, 48/52 (92%) felt anxiety about discussing the subject...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330881/cocaine-and-hiv-1-tat-disrupt-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-astrocytes-implications-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-cocaine-user-patients
#2
Bianca Cotto, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan, Kimberly Ferrero, Leroy Wesley, Matthew Sayre, Dianne Langford
Cholesterol synthesis and clearance by astrocytes are tightly regulated to maintain constant levels within the brain. In this context, liver X receptors (LXRs) are the master regulators of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing levels of cholesterol in astrocytes trigger LXR activation leading to the transcription of target genes involved in cholesterol trafficking and efflux, including apolipoprotein E, cytochrome P450 enzymes, sterol regulatory binding protein, and several ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323711/hiv-1-increases-extracellular-amyloid-beta-levels-through-neprilysin-regulation-in-primary-cultures-of-human-astrocytes
#3
Marta Martínez-Bonet, M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Susana Álvarez
Since the success of combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1-infected individuals are now living much longer. This increased life expectancy is accompanied by a higher prevalence of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders. Rising too is the incidence in these patients of pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease such as increased deposition of amyloid beta protein (Aβ). Although neurons are major sources of Aβ in the brain, astrocytes are the most numerous glial cells, therefore, even a small level of astrocytic Aβ metabolism could make a significant contribution to brain pathology...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323557/neuropsychological-assessment-of-412-hiv-infected-individuals-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#4
Maria Rita Polo Gascón, José Ernesto Vidal, Yolanda Marques Mazzaro, Jerusa Smid, Rosa Maria Nascimento Marcusso, Claudio Garcia Capitão, Elizeu Macedo Coutinho, Glaucia Rosana Guerra Benute, Mara Cristina Souza De Lucia, Augusto César Penalva de Oliveira
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain frequent even among individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). In addition, HAND may adversely affect the quality of life and adherence to cART. There is scarce epidemiological information about HAND in Latin America. This cross-sectional study recruited HIV-infected patients from a tertiary teaching institution in São Paulo, Brazil, between May 2013 and February 2015. The patients were adults with at least 4 years of education and patients with current neurological or psychiatric diseases were excluded...
January 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319809/increased-microglial-csf1r-expression-in-the-siv-macaque-model-of-hiv-cns-disease
#5
Audrey C Knight, Samuel A Brill, Suzanne E Queen, Patrick M Tarwater, Joseph L Mankowski
Chronic microglial activation and associated neuroinflammation are key factors in neurodegenerative diseases including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)-mediated signaling is constitutive in cells of the myeloid lineage, including microglia, promoting cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimers disease, CSF1R is upregulated. Inhibiting CSF1R signaling in animal models of these diseases improved disease outcomes...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317696/unraveling-individual-differences-in-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-therapeutic-efficacy-of-methylphenidate
#6
Kristen A McLaurin, Hailong Li, Rosemarie M Booze, Amanda J Fairchild, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the heterogeneity of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), assignment of categorical diagnoses based on the level of impairment (e.g., Frascati criteria) obfuscates the well-acknowledged variability observed within the population of HIV-1+ individuals. The present study sought to elucidate the natural heterogeneity in adult HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats using three interrelated aims. First, heterogeneity of the HIV-1 transgene was examined using a pretest-posttest design to assess therapeutic efficacy of oral self-administration (OSA) of methylphenidate (MPH; 2...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312999/covertly-active-and-progressing-neurochemical-abnormalities-in-suppressed-hiv-infection
#7
Lucette A Cysique, Lauriane Jugé, Thomas Gates, Michael Tobia, Kirsten Moffat, Bruce J Brew, Caroline Rae
Objective: To assess whether HIV-related brain injury is progressive in persons with suppressed HIV infection. Methods: Seventy-three HIV+ virally suppressed men and 35 HIV- men, screened for psychiatric and alcohol/drug use disorders, underwent neuropsychological evaluation and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at baseline and after and 23 ± 5 months. 1H-MRS included brain regions known to be vulnerable to HIV and aging: frontal white matter (FWM), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and caudate area (CA)...
January 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296621/rivastigmine-decreases-brain-damage-in-hiv-patients-with-mild-cognitive-deficits
#8
Gaetano Perrotta, Guillaume Bonnier, Djalel-Eddine Meskaldji, David Romascano, Ruslan Aydarkhanov, Alessandro Daducci, Samanta Simioni, Matthias Cavassini, Melanie Metral, François Lazeyras, Reto Meuli, Gunnar Krueger, Renaud A Du Pasquier, Cristina Granziera
Rivastigmine has been shown to improve cognition in HIV+ patients with minor neurocognitive disorders; however, the mechanisms underlying such beneficial effect are currently unknown. To assess whether rivastigmine therapy is associated with decreased brain inflammation and damage, we performed T1/T2* relaxometry and magnetization transfer imaging in 17 aviremic HIV+ patients with minor neurocognitive disorders enrolled on a crossed over randomized rivastigmine trial. Rivastigmine therapy was associated with changes in MRI metrics indicating a decrease in brain water content (i...
December 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229308/lymphocyte-dominant-encephalitis-and-meningitis-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Lisa M Mangus, Sarah E Beck, Suzanne E Queen, Samuel A Brill, Erin N Shirk, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Dillon C Muth, Robert J Adams, Lucio Gama, Janice E Clements, Joseph L Mankowski
A retrospective neuropathologic review of 30 SIV-infected pigtailed macaques receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was conducted. Seventeen animals with lymphocyte-dominant inflammation in the brain and/or meninges that clearly was morphologically distinct from prototypic SIV encephalitis and human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis were identified. Central nervous system (CNS) infiltrates in cART-treated macaques primarily comprised CD20+ B cells and CD3+ T cells with fewer CD68+ macrophages...
January 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228820/associations-between-depressive-symptomatology-and-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-aids
#10
Sarah Tymchuk, Daniela Gomez, Noshin Koenig, M John Gill, Esther Fujiwara, Christopher Power
OBJECTIVE: Mood disorders and neurocognitive impairments are debilitating conditions among patients with HIV/AIDS. How these comorbidities interact and their relationships to systemic factors remain uncertain. Herein, we investigated factors contributing to depressive symptomatology (DS) in a prospective cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS in active care that included neuropsychological assessment. METHODS: Among patients with HIV/AIDS receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and ongoing clinical assessments including measures of sleep, health-related quality of life (HQoL), neuropsychological testing, and mood evaluation (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9]) were performed...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206302/network-analysis-of-hippocampal-neurons-by-microelectrode-array-in-the-presence-of-hiv-1-tat-and-cocaine
#11
Taha Mohseni Ahooyi, Masoud Shekarabi, Emilie A Decoppet, T Dianne Langford, Kamel Khalili
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders affecting greater than 30% of patients are caused by HIV-1 infection of the CNS, and in part, include neurotoxic effects of the viral transactivator of transcription, Tat protein. In addition to increasing the risk for becoming HIV infected, cocaine abuse enhances the neuropathogenic impacts of HIV-1. To investigate the outcome of Tat and cocaine interference in the hippocampal neuronal network, microelectrode arrays were employed to develop a systematic framework to assess the rank-cross-correlation coefficient in cultured hippocampal neurons...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198283/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-global-perspective
#12
Rowan Saloner, Lucette A Cysique
The present review on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) provides a worldwide overview of studies that have investigated the rate and neuropsychological (NP) profile of HAND research since the inception of the 2007 HAND diagnostic nomenclature. In the first part, the review highlights some of the current controversies around HAND prevalence rates. In the second part, the review critically assesses some solutions to move the field forward. In the third part, we present the cross-sectional NP profile in non-Western HIV+ cohorts and in relation to Western cohorts' findings...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187813/a-mirna-signature-for-cognitive-deficits-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-persons-living-with-hiv-aids
#13
Dorota Wyczechowska, Hui-Yi Lin, Andrea LaPlante, Duane Jeansonne, Adam Lassak, Christopher H Parsons, Patricia E Molina, Francesca Peruzzi
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) affects more than half of persons living with HIV-1/AIDS (PLWHA). Identification of biomarkers representing the cognitive status of PLWHA is a critical step for implementation of successful cognitive, behavioral and pharmacological strategies to prevent onset and progression of HAND. However, the presence of co-morbidity factors in PLWHA, the most common being substance abuse, can prevent the identification of such biomarkers. We have optimized a protocol to profile plasma miRNAs using quantitative RT-qPCR and found a miRNA signature with very good discriminatory ability to distinguish PLWHA with cognitive impairment from those without cognitive impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183843/the-moca-basic-is-not-a-reliable-screening-tool-for-cognitive-decline-in-cart-receiving-hiv-patients-in-rural-south-africa
#14
C S Hakkers, A J M Beunders, M H M Ensing, R E Barth, S Boelema, W L J Devillé, H A Tempelman, R A Coutinho, I M Hoepelman, J E Arends, M J E van Zandvoort
BACKGROUND: HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) is a frequently occurring comorbidity in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients diagnosed by means of a NeuroPsychological Assessment (NPA). Due to the magnitude of the HIV+ population in sub-Saharan Africa, easy-to-use cognitive screening tools are mandatory. METHODS: cross-sectional clinical trial in 44 HIV+ patients (stable cART) and 73 HIV-negative (HIV-) controls completing an NPA, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) and a culturally appropriate cognitive screening tool; the MoCA Basic (MoCa-B)...
November 25, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170578/investigating-changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-from-functional-mri-data-in-patients-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-using-mca-and-machine-learning
#15
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Axel Wismüller
Infection of the brain by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes irreversible damage to the synaptic connections resulting in cognitive impairment. Patients with HIV infection, showing signs of impairment in multiple cognitive domains, as assessed by neuropsychological testing, are said to exhibit symptoms of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). In this study, we use resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data to distinguish between healthy subjects and subjects with symptoms of HAND. To this end, we first establish a measure of interaction between pairs of regional time-series by quantifying their non-linear functional connectivity using Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA)...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167591/identifying-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-using-large-scale-granger-causality-analysis-on-resting-state-functional-mri
#16
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Lutz Leistritz, Axel Wismüller
We investigate the applicability of large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) for extracting a measure of multivariate information flow between pairs of regional brain activities from resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and test the effectiveness of these measures for predicting a disease state. Such pairwise multivariate measures of interaction provide high-dimensional representations of connectivity profiles for each subject and are used in a machine learning task to distinguish between healthy controls and individuals presenting with symptoms of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND)...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164407/neurological-complications-of-hiv-infection
#17
REVIEW
Shelli Farhadian, Payal Patel, Serena Spudich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are common in patients with HIV disease, even during suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This review article addresses the pathogenesis of HAND, focusing on important findings from the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: While HIV-associated dementia is now rare in settings with cART availability, mild forms of HAND are increasing in prevalence. Biomarkers of cellular injury, such as neurofilament light chain and neopterin, can detect early stages of neuroinflammation associated with HIV infection and are increased even in asymptomatic individuals with chronic HIV infection...
November 21, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163084/sex-matters-robust-sex-differences-in-signal-detection-in-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat
#18
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus, Amanda J Fairchild
Sex differences in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) have been repeatedly suggested. Females, who account for 51% of HIV-1 seropositive individuals, are inadequately represented in clinical and preclinical studies, as well as in the description of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Direct comparisons of neurocognitive decline in women and men must be made to address this underrepresentation. The effect of biological sex (i.e., the biological factors, including chromosomes and hormones, determining male or female characteristics; WHO, 2017) on sustained attention, which is commonly impaired in HIV-1 seropositive individuals, was investigated in intact HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) and control animals using a signal detection operant task...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147885/proceedings-of-the-2017-isev-symposium-on-hiv-neurohiv-drug-abuse-evs
#19
Guoku Hu, Sowmya Yelamanchili, Fatah Kashanchi, Norman Haughey, Vincent C Bond, Kenneth W Witwer, Lynn Pulliam, Shilpa Buch
Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there is increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in HIV-1-infected individuals on cART, which poses a major health care challenge. Adding further complexity to this long-term antiretroviral use is the comorbidity with drugs of abuse such as morphine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, which can in turn, exacerbate neurologic and cognitive deficits associated with HAND. Furthermore, HIV proteins, such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope protein (gp120), as well as antiretrovirals themselves can also contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration underlying HAND...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142315/hiv-1-counteracts-an-innate-restriction-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-resulting-in-neurodegeneration
#20
Qingqing Chai, Vladimir Jovasevic, Viacheslav Malikov, Yosef Sabo, Scott Morham, Derek Walsh, Mojgan H Naghavi
While beta-amyloid (Aβ), a classic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, has long been known to be elevated in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected brain, why and how Aβ is produced, along with its contribution to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains ill-defined. Here, we reveal that the membrane-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) is highly expressed in macrophages and microglia, and acts as an innate restriction against HIV-1. APP binds the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, retains it in lipid rafts and blocks HIV-1 virion production and spread...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
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