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Lauren M K Mason, Alex Wagemakers, Cornelis van 't Veer, Anneke Oei, Wouter J van der Pot, Kalam Ahmed, Tom van der Poll, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Joppe W R Hovius
Borrelia burgdorferi is transmitted into the skin of the host where it encounters and interacts with two dendritic cell (DC) subsets; Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal DCs (DDCs). These cells recognize pathogens via pattern recognition receptors, mature and migrate out of the skin into draining lymph nodes, where they orchestrate adaptive immune responses. In order to investigate the response of skin DCs during the early immunopathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis, we injected B. burgdorferi intradermally into full-thickness human skin and studied the migration of DCs out of the skin, the activation profile and phenotype of migrated cells...
2016: PloS One
Birgitte Stiksrud, Kristina Berg Lorvik, Dag Kvale, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Per Magne Ueland, Marius Trøseid, Kjetil Taskén, Anne M Dyrhol-Riise
OBJECTIVE: To explore immune mechanisms and identify biomarkers associated with an inadequate immune recovery in patients with HIV with efficient antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 67 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy for ≥24 months with HIV RNA ≤20 copies per milliliter; 41 were defined as immunological nonresponders (INR) (CD4 < 400 cells per microliter) and 26 as immunological responders (CD4 > 600 cells per microliter)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Lae U Kim, Maria R D'Orsogna, Tom Chou
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a neuroendocrine system that regulates numerous physiological processes. Disruptions in the activity of the HPA axis are correlated with stress-related diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder. In this paper, we characterize "normal" and "diseased" states of the HPA axis as basins of attraction of a dynamical system describing the inhibition of peptide hormones such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by circulating glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT)...
2016: Biology Direct
Pontiano Kaleebu, Wilford Kirungi, Christine Watera, Juliet Asio, Fred Lyagoba, Tom Lutalo, Anne A Kapaata, Faith Nanyonga, Chris M Parry, Brian Magambo, Jamirah Nazziwa, Maria Nannyonjo, Peter Hughes, Wolfgang Hladik, Anthony Ruberantwari, Norah Namuwenge, Joshua Musinguzi, Robert Downing, Edward Katongole-Mbidde
BACKGROUND: With the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), monitoring programme performance is needed to maximize ART efficacy and limit HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). METHODS: We implemented a WHO HIVDR prospective survey protocol at three treatment centers between 2012 and 2013. Data were abstracted from patient records at ART start (T1) and after 12 months (T2). Genotyping was performed in the HIV pol region at the two time points. RESULTS: Of the 425 patients enrolled, at T2, 20 (4...
2015: PloS One
Mark A McCormick, Joe R Delaney, Mitsuhiro Tsuchiya, Scott Tsuchiyama, Anna Shemorry, Sylvia Sim, Annie Chia-Zong Chou, Umema Ahmed, Daniel Carr, Christopher J Murakami, Jennifer Schleit, George L Sutphin, Brian M Wasko, Christopher F Bennett, Adrienne M Wang, Brady Olsen, Richard P Beyer, Theodor K Bammler, Donna Prunkard, Simon C Johnson, Juniper K Pennypacker, Elroy An, Arieanna Anies, Anthony S Castanza, Eunice Choi, Nick Dang, Shiena Enerio, Marissa Fletcher, Lindsay Fox, Sarani Goswami, Sean A Higgins, Molly A Holmberg, Di Hu, Jessica Hui, Monika Jelic, Ki-Soo Jeong, Elijah Johnston, Emily O Kerr, Jin Kim, Diana Kim, Katie Kirkland, Shannon Klum, Soumya Kotireddy, Eric Liao, Michael Lim, Michael S Lin, Winston C Lo, Dan Lockshon, Hillary A Miller, Richard M Moller, Brian Muller, Jonathan Oakes, Diana N Pak, Zhao Jun Peng, Kim M Pham, Tom G Pollard, Prarthana Pradeep, Dillon Pruett, Dilreet Rai, Brett Robison, Ariana A Rodriguez, Bopharoth Ros, Michael Sage, Manpreet K Singh, Erica D Smith, Katie Snead, Amrita Solanky, Benjamin L Spector, Kristan K Steffen, Bie Nga Tchao, Marc K Ting, Helen Vander Wende, Dennis Wang, K Linnea Welton, Eric A Westman, Rachel B Brem, Xin-Guang Liu, Yousin Suh, Zhongjun Zhou, Matt Kaeberlein, Brian K Kennedy
Many genes that affect replicative lifespan (RLS) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae also affect aging in other organisms such as C. elegans and M. musculus. We performed a systematic analysis of yeast RLS in a set of 4,698 viable single-gene deletion strains. Multiple functional gene clusters were identified, and full genome-to-genome comparison demonstrated a significant conservation in longevity pathways between yeast and C. elegans. Among the mechanisms of aging identified, deletion of tRNA exporter LOS1 robustly extended lifespan...
November 3, 2015: Cell Metabolism
Dawn Armstrong, Soundouss Raissouni, Julie Price Hiller, Jamison Mercer, Erin Powell, Anthony MacLean, Maria Jiang, Corinne Doll, Rachel Goodwin, Eugene Batuyong, Kevin Zhou, Jose G Monzon, Patricia A Tang, Daniel Y Heng, Winson Y Cheung, Michael M Vickers
BACKGROUND: Pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for rectal cancer is associated with better long-term outcomes, and is used as an early indicator of response to novel agents. To assess the rate and predictors of pCR, we performed a retrospective multicenter study involving 5 Canadian cancer centers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cancer registries identified consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma from the Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, and the Dr H...
December 2015: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Tom Gillis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Indian Journal of Leprosy
Matthias André Verstraete, Catherine Van Der Straeten, Bram De Lepeleere, Gert-Jan Opsomer, Tom Van Hoof, Jan Victor
Biomechanical research and orthopedic training is regularly carried out on human cadavers. Given the post-mortem decay, these cadavers were usually frozen or embalmed. The embalming method according to Dr. Thiel was often praised for the preservation of natural texture. The main aim of this article was to quantitatively analyze the impact of this embalming technique on the biomechanical properties. To that extent, Achilles tendons (calcaneal tendons) of seven cadavers have been tested. For each cadaver, a first tendon was tested following a fresh-frozen conservation, the other following the Thiel embalming process...
November 2015: Clinical Anatomy
Ryan J Farr, Andrzej S Januszewski, Mugdha V Joglekar, Helena Liang, Annie K McAulley, Alex W Hewitt, Helen E Thomas, Tom Loudovaris, Thomas W H Kay, Alicia Jenkins, Anandwardhan A Hardikar
MicroRNAs are now increasingly recognized as biomarkers of disease progression. Several quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) platforms have been developed to determine the relative levels of microRNAs in biological fluids. We systematically compared the detection of cellular and circulating microRNA using a standard 96-well platform, a high-content microfluidics platform and two ultra-high content platforms. We used extensive analytical tools to compute inter- and intra-run variability and concordance measured using fidelity scoring, coefficient of variation and cluster analysis...
2015: Scientific Reports
Jurgen van Heemst, Tom J W Huizinga, Diane van der Woude, René E M Toes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on and the context of the recent findings obtained with novel statistical methods on the association of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus with rheumatic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel single nucleotide polymorphism fine-mapping data obtained for the HLA locus have indicated the strongest association with amino acid positions 11 and 13 of HLA-DRB1 molecule for several rheumatic diseases. On the basis of these data, a dominant role for position 11/13 in driving the association with these diseases is proposed and the identification of causal variants in the HLA region in relation to disease susceptibility implicated...
May 2015: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Sigrid Næss, Benedicte A Lie, Espen Melum, Marita Olsson, Johannes R Hov, Peter J P Croucher, Jochen Hampe, Erik Thorsby, Annika Bergquist, James A Traherne, Erik Schrumpf, Kirsten Muri Boberg, Stefan Schreiber, Andre Franke, Tom H Karlsen
BACKGROUND: Genetic variants within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represent the strongest genetic susceptibility factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Identifying the causal variants within this genetic complex represents a major challenge due to strong linkage disequilibrium and an overall high physical density of candidate variants. We aimed to refine the MHC association in a geographically restricted PSC patient panel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 365 PSC cases and 368 healthy controls of Scandinavian ancestry were included in the study...
2014: PloS One
Gustavo Saposnik, Marc Fisher, Tom A Schweizer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
William Novick, Tom R Karl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Cardiology in the Young
Brian R Theodore, Tom G Mayer, Robert J Gatchel
PURPOSE: Despite extensive evidence for the treatment effectiveness of interdisciplinary functional restoration (FR) for chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMD), there is little documentation on the cost-effectiveness of early rehabilitation using FR. METHODS: A total of 1,119 CDOMD patients were classified according to duration of disability on FR entry, corresponding to early rehabilitation (ER: 4-8 months of disability, N = 373), intermediate duration (ID: 9-18 months, N = 373), and delayed rehabilitation (DR: >18 months, N = 373)...
June 2015: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Tom Erkers, Helen Kaipe, Silvia Nava, Pia Molldén, Britt Gustafsson, Rimma Axelsson, Olle Ringdén
Decidual stromal cells (DSCs) isolated from fetal membranes of term placentas are easily expanded and are highly immunosuppressive in vitro. These cells express high levels of integrins that are of importance in homing to inflamed tissues. In this study, we investigated DSCs as a cellular therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD), a severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Subsequent to transplantation, three patients developed severe extensive cGvHD and were treated with DSCs (1-2...
January 15, 2015: Stem Cells and Development
T R Klei, S R Chirgwin, G Solano-Aguilar, T Shea-Donohue, K Madden, H Dawson, T Ledbetter, J Urban, L C Gasbarre, T Sonstegard, C P Van Tassell, R Araujo
The following three papers are a very small window onto the types of research being pursued by members of the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists. They are related by the fact that newer areas in the biology of parasites and their hosts are discussed. The first paper by Dr. Tom Klei, gives a brief view of the interactions between host and parasite of the fascinating organism Wolbachia, a parasite of parasites. The second paper by Dr. Gloria Solano-Aguilar addresses the use of probiotics to alter the host–parasite interface and influence host resistance...
October 28, 2004: Veterinary Parasitology
Tom Makin, Ken Tench
Dr. Tom Makin, a highly experienced microbiologist and former Directorate manager at the Department of Medical Microbiology at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital, and Ken Tench, compliance manager, Estates and Facilities Directorate, at Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, who has worked in operational estate functions since 1984, examine the widespread use of thermostatic mixing valves, or TMVs, in healthcare premises. They argue that such devices have, in recent years especially, been overspecified, particularly given the potential for increased contamination of the outlets, and the resulting heightened risk of spread of potentially life-threatening nosocomial waterborne diseases...
May 2014: Health Estate
Susanna Commandeur, Mariateresa Coppola, Karin Dijkman, Annemieke H Friggen, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Susan J F van den Eeden, Louis Wilson, Jolien J van der Ploeg-van Schip, Kees L M C Franken, Annemieke Geluk, Tom H M Ottenhoff
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of death worldwide. A better understanding of the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which are both important to TB protection, is essential to unravel the mechanisms of protection and to identify the key antigens seen by these T cells. We have recently identified a set of in vivo expressed Mtb genes (IVE-TB) which is expressed during in vivo pulmonary infection in mice, and shown that their encoded antigens are potently recognized by polyclonal T cells from tuberculin skin test-positive, in vitro ESAT-6/CFP10-responsive individuals...
2014: PloS One
Ivan M Gutierrez, Jeremy G Fisher, Offir Ben-Ishay, Brian A Jones, Kuang Horng Kang, Melissa A Hull, Nick Shillingford, David Zurakowski, Biren P Modi, Tom Jaksic
PURPOSE: Citrulline, a nonprotein amino acid synthesized by enterocytes, is a biomarker of bowel length and the capacity to wean from parenteral nutrition. However, the potentially variant effect of jejunal versus ileal excision on plasma citrulline concentration [CIT] has not been studied. This investigation compared serial serum [CIT] and mucosal adaptive potential after proximal versus distal small bowel resection. METHODS: Enterally fed Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham operation or 50% small bowel resection, either proximal (PR) or distal (DR)...
May 2014: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Susanna Commandeur, Susan J F van den Eeden, Karin Dijkman, Simon O Clark, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Louis Wilson, Kees L M C Franken, Ann Williams, Dennis Christensen, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Annemieke Geluk
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a life-threatening infectious disease of global proportions with serious negative health and economic consequences. The lack of sufficient protection induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the current vaccine for TB, as well as the impact of HIV co-infection and the emergence of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains all urge for improved vaccines against TB. A minimal requirement for Mtb vaccine antigens is their in vivo expression during Mtb infection and ability to trigger significant immune responses...
June 17, 2014: Vaccine
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