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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194829/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament-graft
#1
Pieter Van Dyck, Martijn Froeling, Eline De Smet, Pim Pullens, Michaël Torfs, Peter Verdonk, Jan Sijbers, Paul M Parizel, Ben Jeurissen
PURPOSE: A great need exists for objective biomarkers to assess graft healing following ACL reconstruction to guide the time of return to sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to delineate the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft and to investigate its diffusion properties using a clinical 3T scanner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI of the knee (b = 0, 400, and 800 s/mm(2) , 10 diffusion directions, repeated 16 times for a total of 336 diffusion-weighted volumes) was performed at 3T in 17 patients between 3 and 7 months (mean, 4 months) following ACL reconstruction...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177718/the-physiological-response-to-cold-water-immersion-following-a-mixed-martial-arts-training-session
#2
Angus Lindsay, Sam Carr, Sean Cross, Carl Petersen, John G Lewis, Steven P Gieseg
Combative sport is one of the most physically intense forms of exercise, yet the effect of recovery interventions has been largely unexplored. We investigated the effect of cold water immersion on structural, inflammatory and physiological stress biomarkers following a mixed martial arts contest preparation training session in comparison to passive recovery. Semi-professional MMA competitors (n=15) were randomly assigned to a cold water immersion (15 min at 10°C) or passive recovery protocol (ambient air) completed immediately following a contest preparation training session...
January 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176368/pharmacological-inhibition-of-myostatin-protects-against-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-and-weakness-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-tear
#3
Caroline N W Wurtzel, Jonathan P Gumucio, Jeremy A Grekin, Roger K Khouri, Carol S Davis, Alan J Russell, Asheesh Bedi, Christopher L Mendias
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are among the most frequent knee injuries in sports medicine, with tear rates in the US up to 250,000 per year. Many patients who suffer from ACL tears have persistent atrophy and weakness even after considerable rehabilitation. Myostatin is a cytokine that directly induces muscle atrophy, and previous studies rodent models and patients have demonstrated an upregulation of myostatin after ACL tear. Using a preclinical rat model, our objective was to determine if the use of a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin could prevent muscle atrophy and weakness after ACL tear...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119871/why-is-digit-ratio-correlated-to-sports-performance
#4
REVIEW
Tae Beom Kim, Khae Hawn Kim
Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear...
December 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119134/erythropoietin-as-a-performance-enhancing-drug-its-mechanistic-basis-detection-and-potential-adverse-effects
#5
Olivier Salamin, Tiia Kuuranne, Martial Saugy, Nicolas Leuenberger
Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main hormone regulating red blood cell (RBC) production. The large-scale production of a recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) by biotechnological methods has made possible its widespread therapeutic use as well as its misuse in sports. Since the marketing of the first epoetin in 1989, the development has progressed to the third-generation analogs. However, the production of rHuEPO is costly, and the frequent administration of an injectable formula is not optimal for compliance of therapeutic patients...
January 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079758/concussion-in-ice-hockey-current-gaps-and-future-directions-in-an-objective-diagnosis
#6
Aynsley M Smith, Michael J Stuart, William O Roberts, David W Dodick, Jonathan T Finnoff, Janelle K Jorgensen, David A Krause
OBJECTIVE: This review provides an update on sport-related concussion (SRC) in ice hockey and makes a case for changes in clinical concussion evaluation. Standard practice should require that concussions be objectively diagnosed and provide quantitative measures of the concussion injury that will serve as a platform for future evidence-based treatment. METHODS: The literature was surveyed to address several concussion-related topics: research in ice hockey-related head trauma, current subjective diagnosis, promising components of an objective diagnosis, and current and potential treatments...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062723/blood-based-biomarkers-for-evaluating-sport-related-concussion-back-in-the-game
#7
Barbara B Bendlin, Michael Makdissi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951720/-involvement-of-piwi-interacting-rnas-in-cancerogenesis-via-the-regulation-of-gene-expression
#8
S Rybecká, K Štítkovcová, P Vychytilová-Faltejsková, O Slabý
BACKGROUND: In the past few years, a number of studies have suggested that small non-coding RNAs could be promising diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in oncology. Recently, small RNAs interacting with PIWI proteins (piRNAs) have been described. These small RNAs regulate gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels; however, they appear to be specifically involved in silencing the transposable elements LINE and SINE and are thus considered to contribute to genomic stability...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889010/neuropsychiatric-aspects-of-concussion
#9
REVIEW
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Amir Garakani, Lawrence S Gross, Marcia K Goin, Janet Pine, Andrew E Slaby, Calvin R Sumner, David A Baron
Over the past decade, concussion has become the most widely discussed injury in contact sports. However, concussions also occur in several other settings, such as non-contact sports, elderly individuals, young children, military personnel, and victims of domestic violence. Concussion is frequently undiagnosed as a cause of psychiatric morbidity, especially when the patient has no history of loss of consciousness or direct head trauma. Almost all of the extant literature focuses on traumatic brain injury and assumes that concussion is merely a mild form of traumatic brain injury, which has resulted in a lack of understanding about what concussion is, and how to diagnose, monitor, and treat its varied neuropsychiatric symptoms...
December 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#10
REVIEW
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747781/association-between-lipid-biomarkers-physical-activity-and-socioeconomic-status-in-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study-in-the-uk
#11
Heather Brown, Frauke Becker, Kofi Antwi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global death. Physical activity can help individuals reduce their CVD risk. However, the biological mechanisms explaining the link between physical activity and CVD risk and how they may be mediated by socioeconomic status are not well understood. METHODS: We use cross-sectional data from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey, UK, to investigate the association between two biomarkers for CVD risk: cholesterol ratio and triglyceride levels and four different measures of physical activity: moderate, mild, self-reported activity rating, and walking 30 min or more a week using multivariate logistic regression...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743863/a-wearable-multisensing-patch-for-continuous-sweat-monitoring
#12
Salzitsa Anastasova, Blair Crewther, Pawel Bembnowicz, Vincenzo Curto, Henry Md Ip, Bruno Rosa, Guang-Zhong Yang
In sport, exercise and healthcare settings, there is a need for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers to assess human performance, health and wellbeing. Here we report the development of a flexible microfluidic platform with fully integrated sensing for on-body testing of human sweat. The system can simultaneously and selectively measure metabolite (e.g. lactate) and electrolytes (e.g. pH, sodium) together with temperature sensing for internal calibration. The construction of the platform is designed such that continuous flow of sweat can pass through an array of flexible microneedle type of sensors (50µm diameter) incorporated in a microfluidic channel...
September 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741219/statements-of-agreement-from-the-targeted-evaluation-and-active-management-team-approaches-to-treating-concussion-meeting-held-in-pittsburgh-october-15-16-2015
#13
Michael W Collins, Anthony P Kontos, David O Okonkwo, Jon Almquist, Julian Bailes, Mark Barisa, Jeffrey Bazarian, O Josh Bloom, David L Brody, Robert Cantu, Javier Cardenas, Jay Clugston, Randall Cohen, Ruben Echemendia, R J Elbin, Richard Ellenbogen, Janna Fonseca, Gerard Gioia, Kevin Guskiewicz, Robert Heyer, Gillian Hotz, Grant L Iverson, Barry Jordan, Geoffrey Manley, Joseph Maroon, Thomas McAllister, Michael McCrea, Anne Mucha, Elizabeth Pieroth, Kenneth Podell, Matthew Pombo, Teena Shetty, Allen Sills, Gary Solomon, Danny G Thomas, Tamara C Valovich McLeod, Tony Yates, Ross Zafonte
BACKGROUND: Conventional management for concussion involves prescribed rest and progressive return to activity. Recent evidence challenges this notion and suggests that active approaches may be effective for some patients. Previous concussion consensus statements provide limited guidance regarding active treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the current landscape of treatment for concussion and to provide summary agreements related to treatment to assist clinicians in the treatment of concussion...
December 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717280/evaluation-of-fibronectin-1-in-one-dried-blood-spot-and-in-urine-after-rhgh-treatment
#14
P Ferro, R Ventura, C Pérez-Mañá, M Farré, J Segura
Since the appearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in the 1980s, its expansion and acquisition through the black market has increased, so the detection of its abuse continues to be a challenge. New biomarkers that are more reliable and sensitive, allowing a larger detection window, are still needed. In this line, Fibronectin 1 (FN1) has been proposed as a potential genetic and protein biomarker of rhGH abuse in peripheral blood lymphocytes, serum, and plasma. However, logistic problems associated with current blood collection in sports drug testing point towards potential new alternative matrices that could be good candidates to be evaluated...
October 7, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706926/discordant-genotyping-results-using-dna-isolated-from-anti-doping-control-urine-samples
#15
Eva Choong, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Anders Rane, Lena Ekström
The UGT2B17 gene deletion polymorphism is known to correlate to urinary concentration of testosterone-glucuronide and hence this genotype exerts a large impact on the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, a biomarker for testosterone doping. The objective of this study was to assess if DNA isolated from athletes' urine samples (n = 713) obtained in routine doping controls could be targeted for genotyping analysis for future integration in the athlete's passport. A control population (n = 21) including both urine and blood DNA was used for genotyping concordance test...
October 5, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693050/circulating-mirna-as-fine-regulators-of-the-physiological-responses-to-physical-activity-pre-analytical-warnings-for-a-novel-class-of-biomarkers
#16
REVIEW
Giovanni Lombardi, Silvia Perego, Veronica Sansoni, Giuseppe Banfi
MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by specifically binding the target mRNA and by consequently inducing its degradation. miRNAs can be released into the circulation where they remain stable and they can be measured. Their changes reflect individual biologic adaptation to exposures to specific environmental conditions. As such, measurement of circulating microRNAs represents an opportunity to evaluate biologic changes associated with interventions such as exercise and diet...
December 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671123/concussion-and-its-neurobehavioural-sequelae
#17
Silvana Riggio, Andy Jagoda
A concussion results from a force to the brain that results in a transient loss of connectivity within the brain. Sport psychiatrists are increasingly called to be part of the concussion team and need to be prepared to manage issues related to concussion and its behavioural sequelae. Objectively, the best evidence available suggests that deficits in attention and/or in balance are the most reliable objective findings that a concussion has occurred. Prognosis after a concussion is generally very good, although a sub-set of patients that are yet well defined seem pre-disposed to delayed recovery...
September 27, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649524/genotype-dependent-metabolism-of-exogenous-testosterone-new-biomarkers-result-in-prolonged-detectability
#18
Thomas Piper, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
Testosterone (T) misuse still represents a major problem in sports drug testing. Many strategies have been developed and applied to routine doping controls in recent years to enable both to identify suspicious samples in initial testing procedures and to confirm the exogenous origin of urinary T by means of carbon isotope ratio (CIR) determinations. Depending on the tested individual's genotype of UGT2B17, significantly different amounts of T are glucuronidated and excreted, which results in unaffected T/epitestosterone ratios after T misuse in those subjects with the deletion/deletion polymorphism (del/del)...
November 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634166/motor-trajectories-from-birth-to-5-years-of-children-born-at-less-than-30-weeks-gestation-early-predictors-and-functional-implications-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Alicia J Spittle, Jennifer L McGinley, Deanne Thompson, Ross Clark, Tara L FitzGerald, Benjamin F Mentiplay, Katherine J Lee, Joy E Olsen, Alice Burnett, Karli Treyvaud, Elisha Josev, Bonnie Alexander, Claire E Kelly, Lex W Doyle, Peter J Anderson, Jeanie Ly Cheong
INTRODUCTION: Motor impairments are one of the most frequently reported adverse neurodevelopmental consequences in children born < 30 weeks' gestation. Up to 15% of children born at < 30 weeks have cerebral palsy and an additional 50% have mild to severe motor impairment at school age. The first 5 years of life are critical for the development of fundamental motor skills. These skills form the basis for more complex skills that are required to competently and confidently participate in schooling, sporting and recreational activities...
October 2016: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605972/effects-of-acute-exercise-on-salivary-free-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-interleukin-10-in-sportsmen
#20
Taye J Lasisi, Ade F Adeniyi
BACKGROUND: Saliva analysis is rapidly developing as a tool for the assessment of biomarkers of sports training. It remains poorly understood whether a short bout of sport training can alter some salivary immune biomarkers. AIM: To investigate the effect of acute exercise using football training session on salivary flow rate, salivary free Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10). METHODS: Saliva samples were collected before and immediately after a football session...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
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