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Acetyl carnitine AND propionyl carnitine

Wendy Wambacq, Galena Rybachuk, Isabelle Jeusette, Kristel Rochus, Brigitte Wuyts, Veerle Fievez, Patrick Nguyen, Myriam Hesta
BACKGROUND: Research in cats has shown that increased fermentation-derived propionic acid and its metabolites can be used as alternative substrates for gluconeogenesis, thus sparing amino acids for other purposes. This amino acid sparing effect could be of particular interest in patients with kidney or liver disease, where this could reduce the kidneys'/liver's burden of N-waste removal. Since dogs are known to have a different metabolism than the obligatory carnivorous cat, the main objective of this study was to assess the possibility of altering amino acid metabolism through intestinal fermentation in healthy dogs...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Mona Ascha, Zeneng Wang, Mustafa S Ascha, Raed Dweik, Nizar N Zein, David Grove, J Mark Brown, Stephanie Marshall, Rocio Lopez, Ibrahim A Hanouneh
AIM: To identify plasma analytes using metabolomics that correlate with the diagnosis and severity of liver disease in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: We prospectively recruited patients with cirrhosis from AH (n = 23) and those with cirrhosis with acute decompensation (AD) from etiologies other than alcohol (n = 25). We used mass spectrometry to identify 29 metabolic compounds in plasma samples from fasted subjects. A receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to assess the utility of biomarkers in distinguishing acute AH from alcoholic cirrhosis...
April 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Anna V Mathew, E Mitchell Seymour, Jaeman Byun, Subramaniam Pennathur, Scott L Hummel
BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasingly recognized as a distinct entity with unique pathophysiology. In the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension in Diastolic Heart Failure (DASH-DHF) study, the sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (DASH/SRD) was associated with improved blood pressure and cardiovascular function in 13 hypertensive patients with HFpEF. With the use of targeted metabolomics, we explored metabolite changes and their relationship with energy-dependent measures of cardiac function in DASH-DHF...
December 2015: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Mussie Ghezu Hadera, Tanya McDonald, Olav B Smeland, Tore W Meisingset, Haytham Eloqayli, Saied Jaradat, Karin Borges, Ursula Sonnewald
Epilepsy is a severe neurological disorder characterized by altered electrical activity in the brain. Important pathophysiological mechanisms include disturbed metabolism and homeostasis of major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA. Current drug treatments are largely aimed at decreasing neuronal excitability and thereby preventing the occurrence of seizures. However, many patients are refractory to treatment and side effects are frequent. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults...
February 2016: Neurochemical Research
April D Lake, Petr Novak, Petia Shipkova, Nelly Aranibar, Donald G Robertson, Michael D Reily, Lois D Lehman-McKeeman, Richard R Vaillancourt, Nathan J Cherrington
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a globally widespread disease of increasing clinical significance. The pathological progression of the disease from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been well defined, however, the contribution of altered branched chain amino acid metabolomic profiles to the progression of NAFLD is not known. The three BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine and valine are known to mediate activation of several important hepatic metabolic signaling pathways ranging from insulin signaling to glucose regulation...
March 2015: Amino Acids
Huan-ting Li, Zhen-huan Zhao, Hai-yan Ding, Le-xin Wang, Yu Cao
OBJECTIVE: to investigate the impact of craniotomy on oxidative stress and its effect on levels of plasma L-carnitine (LC). METHODS: plasma levels of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathion peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in 34 patients (26 males and 8 females, mean age 47.7 ± 6.7 years) before and after craniotomy. Plasma levels of LC, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), and propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) were also measured before and after the craniotomy...
November 2014: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Robert Ringseis, Janine Keller, Klaus Eder
PURPOSE: Loss of skeletal muscle mass, also known as muscle wasting or muscle atrophy, is a common symptom of several chronic diseases, such as cancer and infectious diseases. Due to the strong negative impact of muscle loss on patient's prognosis and quality of life, the development of efficacious treatment approaches to combat muscle wasting are of great importance. In order to evaluate the suitability of L-carnitine (LC) as an anti-wasting agent for clinical purposes the present review comprehensively summarizes the results from animal and clinical studies showing the effects of supplementation with LC or LC derivatives (acetyl-LC, propionyl-LC) on critical mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle loss under pathologic conditions, such as increased proteolysis, impaired protein synthesis, myonuclear apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction...
August 2013: European Journal of Nutrition
Santica M Marcovina, Cesare Sirtori, Andrea Peracino, Mihai Gheorghiade, Peggy Borum, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Hossein Ardehali
Mitochondria play important roles in human physiological processes, and therefore, their dysfunction can lead to a constellation of metabolic and nonmetabolic abnormalities such as a defect in mitochondrial gene expression, imbalance in fuel and energy homeostasis, impairment in oxidative phosphorylation, enhancement of insulin resistance, and abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, vascular disease, and chronic heart failure...
February 2013: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Anna Bogusiewicz, Thomas D Horvath, Shawna L Stratton, Donald M Mock, Gunnar Boysen
This work describes a novel liquid chromatography tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of ratios of acylcarnitines arising from acyl-CoA substrates and products that reflect metabolic disturbances caused by marginal biotin deficiency. The urinary ratios reflecting reduced activities of biotin-dependent enzymes include the following: 1) the ratio of 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine : 3-methylglutarylcarnitine (3HIAc : MGc) for methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase; 2) the ratio of propionylcarnitine:methylmalonylcarnitine (Pc : MMc) for propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC); and 3) the ratio of acetylcarnitine : malonylcarnitine (Ac : Mc) for acetyl-CoA carboxylase...
September 2012: Journal of Nutrition
Mariano Malaguarnera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Carnitine and its derivatives are natural substances involved in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. This review summarizes the recent progress in the field in relation to the molecular mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: The pool of different carnitine derivatives is formed by acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), and isovaleryl-carnitine. ALC may have a preferential effect on the brain tissue. ALC represents a compound of great interest for its wide clinical application in various neurological disorders: it may be of benefit in treating Alzheimer's dementia, depression in the elderly, HIV infection, chronic fatigue syndrome, peripheral neuropathies, ischemia and reperfusion of the brain, and cognitive impairment associated with various conditions...
March 2012: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Carmen Mingorance, Rosalía Rodríguez-Rodríguez, María Luisa Justo, María Alvarez de Sotomayor, María Dolores Herrera
Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) are two naturally occurring carnitine derivates formed by carnitine acetyltransferase. The beneficial cardiovascular effects of ALC and PLC have been extensively evaluated in animals and humans during the last 20 years. For instance, many clinical trials have suggested ALC and PLC as potential strategies in the management of peripheral arterial disease, heart and cerebral ischemia, and congestive heart failure. As a result, several experts have already aimed to revise the clinical evidence supporting the therapeutic use of ALC and PLC...
2011: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Lena Burri, Bodil Bjørndal, Hege Wergedahl, Kjetil Berge, Pavol Bohov, Asbjørn Svardal, Rolf K Berge
The administration of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA), a hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory modified bioactive fatty acid, has in several experiments based on high fat diets been shown to improve lipid transport and utilization. It was suggested that increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in the liver of Wistar rats results in reduced plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels. Here we assessed the potential of TTA to prevent tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α-induced lipid modifications in human TNFα (hTNFα) transgenic mice...
August 2011: Lipids
Zhen-hua Gong, Guo-li Tian, Yan-min Wang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of blood spot carnitine and acylcarnitine in children aged 0-15 years by tandem mass spectrometry, offer basic data for evaluating carnitine nutritional status and diagnosing metabolic diseases of organic acid and fatty acid. METHODS: The concentration of carnitine and acylcarnitines were measured in blood spot by tandem mass spectrometry using underivatized samples. The samples included those from 1376 perinatal neonates, 49 neonates above 1 week of life, 64 children aged up to 1 year and 401 children aged 1 year to 15 years...
December 2010: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Mohamed M Sayed-Ahmed, Amal Q Darweesh, Amal J Fatani
In addition to hemorrhagic cystitis, Fanconi Syndrome is a serious clinical side effect during ifosfamide (IFO) therapy. Fanconi syndrome is a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule which is characterized by excessive urinary excretion of glucose, phosphate, bicarbonate, amino acids and other solutes excreted by this segment of the nephron including L-carnitine. Carnitine is essential cofactor for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the myocardium. IFO therapy is associated with increased urinary carnitine excretion with subsequent secondary deficiency of the molecule...
July 2010: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Mohamed M Sayed-Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Little information is available regarding the mechanism of cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced renal damage. Therefore, this study examined whether carnitine deficiency constitutes a risk factor in and should be viewed as a mechanism during development of CP-induced nephrotoxicity and explored whether carnitine supplementation, using propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), could offer protection against this toxicity. METHODS: Experimental rats were assigned to one of six groups; the first three groups were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline, PLC (250 mg/kg/day) or D-carnitine (250 mg/kg/day) + Mildronate (200 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 10 successive days...
October 2010: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Amal G Fatani, Amal Q Darweesh, Lubna Rizwan, Abdulaziz M Aleisa, Othman A Al-Shabanah, Mohamed M Sayed-Ahmed
BACKGROUND: This study examined, for the first time, the involvement of carnitine deficiency in cardiotoxicity, particularly cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced cardiomyopathy, as well as effects of carnitine supplementation with propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) on cardiotoxicity. METHODS: An animal model of carnitine deficiency was developed in rats treated with D-carnitine (DC)-mildronate (MD). Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to one of six treatment groups: the first three groups were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline, PLC (250 mg/kg/day), and DC (250 mg/kg/day) combined with MD (200 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 10 successive days...
2010: Chemotherapy
Yu Cao, Yun-xiao Wang, Cheng-juan Liu, Le-xin Wang, Zhi-wu Han, Chun-bo Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of L-carnitine (LC) and its analogues, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) in healthy volunteers after single L-carnitine administration. METHODS: Liquid L-carnitine (2.0 g) was administered orally as a single dose in 12 healthy subjects. Plasma and urine concentrations of L-carnitine, ALC and PLC were detected by HPLC. RESULTS: The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC 0-infinity) of L-carnitine was 84...
2009: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
Paul E Minkler, Maria S K Stoll, Stephen T Ingalls, Shuming Yang, Janos Kerner, Charles L Hoppel
BACKGROUND: Analysis of carnitine and acylcarnitines by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has limitations. First, preparation of butyl esters partially hydrolyzes acylcarnitines. Second, isobaric nonacylcarnitine compounds yield false-positive results in acylcarnitine tests. Third, acylcarnitine constitutional isomers cannot be distinguished. METHODS: Carnitine and acylcarnitines were isolated by ion-exchange solid-phase extraction, derivatized with pentafluorophenacyl trifluoromethanesulfonate, separated by HPLC, and detected with an ion trap mass spectrometer...
September 2008: Clinical Chemistry
I M Garrelds, G R Elliott, W M Pruimboom, F J Zijlstra, I L Bonta
THE acyl carrier coenzyme A (CoA) is involved in fatty acid metabolism. The carnitine/CoA ratio is of particular importance in regulating the transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for oxidation. Also CoA has a role in the formation and breakdown of products from both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of the precursor arachidonic acid. In the present study the effect of 4 days feeding of 300 mg/kg/day of L-carnitine, acetyl Lcarnitine and propionyl L-carnitine on the basal and calcium ionophore (A23187) stimulated release of arachidonic acid metabolites from rat carrageenin elicited peritoneal cells was investigated...
1993: Mediators of Inflammation
M A K Westin, M C Hunt, S E H Alexson
Peroxisomes metabolize a variety of lipids, acting as a chain-shortening system that produces acyl-CoAs of varying chain lengths, including acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA. It is, however, still largely unknown how beta-oxidation products exit peroxisomes and where they are further metabolized. Peroxisomes contain carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT) and carnitine octanoyltransferase (CROT) that produce carnitine esters for transport out of peroxisomes, together with recently characterized acyl-CoA thioesterases (ACOTs) that produce free fatty acids...
March 2008: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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