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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822757/quercetin-exerts-synergetic-anti-cancer-activity-with-10-hydroxy-camptothecin
#1
Qin Tang, Fangling Ji, Jingyun Wang, Lianying Guo, Yachen Li, Yongming Bao
Quercetin (Qu) is known as a dietary antioxidant with numerous bioactivities, but its function in anti-cancer has not been fully investigated. Here, we show that Qu at low doses (≤10μM) significantly enhances the inhibition of 10-hydroxy camptothecin (HCPT) on the proliferation of MCF7, BGC823 and HepG2 cells. A plasmid DNA relaxation assay indicates that the inhibition of HCPT on the catalytic activity of topoisomerase I (Topo I) is increased by Qu at 10μM. Compared to the treatment by Qu or HCPT alone, phosphorylation at Ser(139) of γH2A...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822748/systematical-exploration-of-transcription-factors-in-cardiomyocytes-against-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-by-danhong-injection
#2
Jingjing Zhang, Feifei Guo, Junying Wei, Minghua Xian, Shihuan Tang, Ye Zhao, Mingwei Liu, Lei Song, Ya Geng, Hongjun Yang, Chen Ding, Luqi Huang
Oxidative stress plays a vital role in many pathological processes of the cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear, especially on a transcription factor (TF) level. In this study, a new method, concatenated tandem array of consensus transcription factor response elements (catTFREs), and an Illumina-based RNA-seq technology were integrated and then combined with a network pharmacology strategy to systematically investigate the role of TFs in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes; the damage was then rescued by Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese standardized product approved for cardiovascular diseases treatment...
August 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822335/specificity-protein-1-modulated-superoxide-dismutase-2-enhances-temozolomide-resistance-in-glioblastoma-which-is-independent-of-o-6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase
#3
Kwang-Yu Chang, Tsung-I Hsu, Che-Chia Hsu, Shan-Yin Tsai, Jr-Jiun Liu, Shao-Wen Chou, Ming-Sheng Liu, Jing-Ping Liou, Chiung-Yuan Ko, Kai-Yun Chen, Jan-Jong Hung, Wen-Chang Chang, Cheng-Keng Chuang, Tzu-Jen Kao, Jian-Ying Chuang
Acquisition of temozolomide (TMZ) resistance is a major factor leading to the failure of glioblastoma (GBM) treatment. The exact mechanism by which GBM evades TMZ toxicity is not always related to the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and so remains unclear. In this study, TMZ-resistant variants derived from MGMT-negative GBM clinical samples and cell lines were studied, revealing there to be increased specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression associated with reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation following TMZ treatment...
August 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821714/gadd45a-plays-a-protective-role-against-temozolomide-treatment-in-glioblastoma-cells
#4
Hsiao-Han Wang, Tsuey-Yu Chang, Wei-Chen Lin, Kuo-Chen Wei, Jyh-Wei Shin
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers. Despite recent advances in multimodal therapies, high-grade glioma remains fatal. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used worldwide for the clinical treatment of GBM; however, the innate and acquired resistance of GBM limits its application. Here, we found that TMZ inhibited the proliferation and induced the G2/M arrest of GBM cells. Therefore, we performed microarrays to identify the cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes affected by TMZ...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821586/ku70-senses-htlv-1-dna-and-modulates-htlv-1-replication
#5
Jie Wang, Lixia Kang, Di Song, Lu Liu, Shuai Yang, Lingling Ma, Zhixiang Guo, Huaxia Ding, Hui Wang, Bo Yang
Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) belongs to the deltaretrovirus family and has been linked to multiple diseases. However, the innate host defense against HTLV-1 is unclear. In this study, we report that the expression of Ku70, a known DNA sensor against DNA viruses, could be induced by HTLV-1 infection in HeLa, PMA-differentiated THP1 cells, primary human monocytes, and human monocyte-derived macrophages. In these cells, the overexpression of Ku70 inhibited the HTLV-1 protein expression, whereas the knockdown of Ku70 promoted the HTLV-1 protein expression...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821423/enhanced-post-wash-retention-of-combed-dna-molecules-by-varying-multiple-combing-parameters
#6
Hemendra Yadav
Recent advances in genomics have created a need for efficient techniques for deciphering information hidden in various genomes. Single molecule analysis is one such technique to understand molecular processes at single molecule level. Fiber- FISH performed with the help of DNA combing can help us in understanding genetic rearrangements and changes in genome at single DNA molecule level. For performing Fiber-FISH we need high retention of combed DNA molecules post wash as Fiber-FISH requires profuse washing...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821223/maternal-nutrient-restriction-in-mid-to-late-gestation-influences-fetal-mrna-expression-in-muscle-tissues-in-beef-cattle
#7
Francois Paradis, Katie M Wood, Kendall C Swanson, Stephen P Miller, Brian W McBride, Carolyn Fitzsimmons
BACKGROUND: Manipulating maternal nutrition during specific periods of gestation can result in re-programming of fetal and post-natal development. In this experiment we investigated how a feed restriction of 85% compared with 140% of total metabolizable energy requirements, fed to cows during mid-to-late gestation, influences phenotypic development of fetuses and mRNA expression of growth (Insulin-Like Growth Factor family and Insulin Receptor (INSR)), myogenic (Myogenic Differentiation 1 (MYOD1), Myogenin (MYOG), Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2A (MEF2A), Serum Response Factor (SRF)) and adipogenic (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG)) genes in fetal longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST) muscle...
August 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821159/inhibition-of-dna-pk-enhances-chemosensitivity-of-b-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells-to-doxorubicin
#8
Fatemeh Alikarami, Majid Safa, Mohammad Faranoush, Parisa Hayat, Ahmad Kazemi
DNA damage repair pathways greatly affect the response to genotoxic drugs in cancer cells, so inhibition of such pathways could be a potentially useful strategy to enhance chemosensitivity. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays a crucial role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are probably one of the most detrimental types of DNA damage. It has been shown that DNA-PK is highly expressed in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cells. Less well appreciated was the effect of DNA-PK inhibition on sensitivity of BCP-ALL cells to DNA-damaging agents...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820464/enhanced-susceptibility-of-ogg1-mutant-mice-to-multiorgan-carcinogenesis
#9
Anna Kakehashi, Naomi Ishii, Takahiro Okuno, Masaki Fujioka, Min Gi, Hideki Wanibuchi
The role of deficiency of oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) Mmh homolog, a repair enzyme of the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) residue in DNA, was investigated using the multiorgan carcinogenesis bioassay in mice. A total of 80 male and female six-week-old mice of C57BL/6J background carrying a mutant Mmh allele of the Mmh/Ogg1 gene (Ogg1(-)(/)(-)) and wild type (Ogg1(+/+)) mice were administered N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN), N-bis (2-hydroxypropyl) nitrosamine (DHPN) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) (DMBDD) to induce carcinogenesis in multiple organs, and observed up to 34 weeks...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820388/blockade-of-the-lrp16-pkr-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-axis-sensitizes-colorectal-carcinoma-cells-to-dna-damaging-cytotoxic-therapy
#10
Xiaolei Li, Zhiqiang Wu, Xiaojing An, Qian Mei, Miaomiao Bai, Leena Hanski, Xiang Li, Tero Ahola, Weidong Han
Acquired therapeutic resistance by tumors is a substantial impediment to reducing the morbidity and mortality that are attributable to human malignancies. The mechanisms responsible for the dramatic shift between chemosensitivity and chemoresistance in colorectal carcinoma have not been defined. Here, we report that LRP16 selectively interacts and activates double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase (PKR), and also acts as scaffolds to assist the formation of a ternary complex of PKR and IKKβ, prolonging the polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR)-dependent nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transactivation caused by DNA-damaging agents and confers acquired chemoresistance...
August 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819703/novel-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-with-a-dna-encoded-anti-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-monoclonal-antibody
#11
Kar Muthumani, Liron Marnin, Sagar B Kudchodkar, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Hyeree Choi, Sangya Agarwal, Veronica L Scott, Emma L Reuschel, Faraz I Zaidi, Elizabeth K Duperret, Megan C Wise, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Kenneth E Ugen, Niranjan Y Sardesai, J Joseph Kim, David B Weiner
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed at high levels on malignant prostate cells and is likely an important therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate carcinoma. Current immunotherapy approaches to target PSMA include peptide, cell, vector or DNA-based vaccines as well as passive administration of PSMA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Conventional mAb immunotherapy has numerous logistical and practical limitations, including high production costs and a requirement for frequent dosing due to short mAb serum half-life...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819257/cytolytic-dna-vaccine-encoding-lytic-perforin-augments-the-maturation-of-and-antigen-presentation-by-dendritic-cells-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#12
Danushka K Wijesundara, Wenbo Yu, Ben J C Quah, Preethi Eldi, John D Hayball, Kerrilyn R Diener, Ilia Voskoboinik, Eric J Gowans, Branka Grubor-Bauk
The use of cost-effective vaccines capable of inducing robust CD8(+) T cell immunity will contribute significantly towards the elimination of persistent viral infections and cancers worldwide. We have previously reported that a cytolytic DNA vaccine encoding an immunogen and a truncated mouse perforin (PRF) protein significantly augments anti-viral T cell (including CD8(+) T cell) immunity. Thus, the current study investigated whether this vaccine enhances activation of dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in greater priming of CD8(+) T cell immunity...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819025/mre11-promotes-tumorigenesis-by-facilitating-resistance-to-oncogene-induced-replication-stress
#13
Elizabeth Spehalski, Kayla M Capper, Cheryl J Smith, Mary J Morgan, Maria Dinkelmann, Jeffrey Buis, JoAnn M Sekiguchi, David O Ferguson
Hypomorphic mutations in the genes encoding the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) DNA repair complex lead to cancer-prone syndromes. MRN binds DNA double strand breaks where it functions in repair and triggers cell cycle checkpoints via activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. To gain understanding of MRN in cancer, we engineered mice with B lymphocytes lacking MRN, or harboring MRN in which MRE11 lacks nuclease activities. Both forms of MRN deficiency led to hallmarks of cancer, including oncogenic translocations involving c-Myc and the immunoglobulin locus...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818779/in-vitro-culture-responses-callus-growth-and-organogenetic-potential-of-brinjal-solanum-melongena-l-to-he-ne-laser-irradiation
#14
Puthanvila Surendrababu Swathy, Gogia Rupal, Vijendra Prabhu, Krishna Kishore Mahato, Annamalai Muthusamy
The present investigation was designed to analyze the influence of Helium-Neon (He-Ne 632.8nm) laser irradiation on defense enzymes, proline content and in vitro responses of callus induction, shoot initiation and on plantlet regeneration potential of brinjal. The seeds of Mattu Gulla (Solanum melongena L.) were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30J/cm(2) of He-Ne laser followed by surface sterilization and sprouted on Murashige and Skoog medium without plant growth regulators. The activity of defense enzymes, proline content and the organogenetic potential of hypocotyl, leaf and shoot tip explants were determined from thirty day old seedlings...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818449/rational-design-synthesis-and-preliminary-antitumor-activity-evaluation-of-a-chlorambucil-derivative-with-potent-dna-hdac-dual-targeting-inhibitory-activity
#15
Rui Xie, Yan Li, Pingwah Tang, Qipeng Yuan
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a pivotal role not only in gene expression but also in DNA repair. Herein, we report the successful design, synthesis and evaluation of a chlorambucil derivative named vorambucil with a hydroxamic acid tail as a DNA/HDAC dual-targeting inhibitor. Vorambucil obtained both potent DNA and HDACs inhibitory activities. Molecular docking results supported the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and rationalized the potent inhibitory activity of vorambucil against HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC6...
August 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817611/the-directed-migration-of-gonadal-distal-tip-cells-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-requires-ngat-1-a-%C3%A3-1-4-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-enzyme
#16
Joseph Veyhl, Robert J Dunn, Wendy L Johnston, Alexa Bennett, Lijia W Zhang, James W Dennis, Harry Schachter, Joseph G Culotti
Glycoproteins such as growth factor receptors and extracellular matrix have well-known functions in development and cancer progression, however, the glycans at sites of modification are often heterogeneous molecular populations which makes their functional characterization challenging. Here we provide evidence for a specific, discrete, well-defined glycan modification and regulation of a stage-specific cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a chain-terminating, putative null mutation in the gene encoding a predicted β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, named ngat-1, causes a maternally rescued temperature sensitive (ts) defect in the second phase of the three phase migration pattern of the posterior, but not the anterior, hermaphrodite Distal Tip Cell (DTC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816920/similar-metabolic-innate-immunity-and-adipokine-profiles-in-adult-and-pediatric-sepsis-versus-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#17
Theonymfi Tavladaki, Anna Maria Spanaki, Helen Dimitriou, Efmorfia Kondili, Christianna Choulaki, Dimitris Georgopoulos, George Briassoulis
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the septic profiles of heat shock protein 72, heat shock protein 90α, resistin, adiponectin, oxygen consumption, CO2 production, energy expenditure, and metabolic pattern, along with illness severity, nutritional, and inflammatory indices, differ between adult and pediatric patients compared with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and healthy controls. To evaluate whether these biomolecules may discriminate sepsis from systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adult and pediatric patients...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815851/basics-of-genome-editing-technology-and-its-application-in-livestock-species
#18
REVIEW
Bjoern Petersen
In the last decade, the research community has witnessed a blooming of targeted genome editing tools and applications. Novel programmable DNA nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 system (CRISPR/Cas9) possess long recognition sites and are capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These DNA nucleases mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing the DNA mutation rate via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815618/effect-on-gene-expression-of-three-allelic-variants-in-gata-motifs-of-abo-rhd-and-rhce-regulatory-elements
#19
Katie Fennell, Roser Hoffman, Ken Yoshida, Sadahiko Iwamoto, Lavendri Govender, Kuben Vather, Ashika Sookraj, Ute Jentsch, Chantale Pambrun, Catherine McAuley, Margaret A Keller, Gorka Ochoa-Garay
BACKGROUND: Only a few genetic variants have been reported in regulatory elements of blood group genes. Most of them affect GATA motifs, binding sites for the GATA-1 transcription factor. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from two patients and one donor with unusual or discrepant serology for ABO, RhD, and RhCE antigens were analyzed by DNA sequencing. Analyzed regions included the coding sequence and portions of regulatory elements. The effect of some variants on gene expression was evaluated in reporter gene assays...
August 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815391/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-type-1-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Samuel T Jerram, Mary N Dang, R David Leslie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetics is defined as mitotically heritable changes in gene expression that do not directly alter the DNA sequence. By implication, such epigenetic changes are non-genetically determined, although they can be affected by inherited genetic variation. Extensive evidence indicates that autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes are determined by the interaction of genetic and non-genetic factors. Much is known of the genetic causes of these diseases, but the non-genetic effects are less clear-cut...
August 16, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
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