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Civil engineering

Sha Wang, Feng Jiang, Xu Xu, Yudi Kuang, Kun Fu, Emily Hitz, Liangbing Hu
With their impressive properties such as remarkable unit tensile strength, modulus, and resistance to heat, flame, and chemical agents that normally degrade conventional macrofibers, high-performance macrofibers are now widely used in various fields including aerospace, biomedical, civil engineering, construction, protective apparel, geotextile, and electronic areas. Those macrofibers with a diameter of tens to hundreds of micrometers are typically derived from polymers, gel spun fibers, modified carbon fibers, carbon-nanotube fibers, ceramic fibers, and synthetic vitreous fibers...
July 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
Pyo Yeon Cho, Jung-Min Park, Myeong-Ki Hwang, Seo Hye Park, Yun-Kyu Park, Bo-Young Jeon, Tong-Soo Kim, Hyeong-Woo Lee
During civil engineering construction near Sejong-ro, Jongro-ku, Seoul, cultural sites were found that are thought to have been built in the 15th century. This area was home to many different people as well as the leaders of the Yi dynasty. To gain further insight into the life styles of the inhabitants of the old capital, soil samples were collected from various areas such as toilets, water foundations, and drainage ways. Parasite eggs were examined by microscopy after 5 g soil samples were rehydrated in 0...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Jeffrey D Wolt
Genome editing with engineered nucleases (GEEN) is increasingly used as a tool for gene discovery and trait development in crops through generation of targeted changes in endogenous genes. The development of the CRISPR-Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats with associated Cas9 protein), in particular, has enabled widespread use of genome editing. Research to date has not comprehensively addressed genome-editing specificity and off-target mismatches that may result in unintended changes within plant genomes or the potential for gene drive initiation...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Conrad Dietschweiler, Inge Werner, Michael Burkhardt
Steel components are typically treated with anti-corrosion coatings like epoxy or polyurethane resins to protect the integrity and functioning of steel. Such resins may contain substances, such as bisphenol A (BPA), that have caused concern in a human and environmental toxicological context. We investigated the release of toxicity from four anti-corrosion coatings used in hydraulic and civil engineering. Resins were applied onto glass plates and leachate samples produced by horizontally shaking the plates in water for 7 days...
July 3, 2017: Water Research
Panagiotis G Asteris, Konstantinos G Kolovos
During the last decades eco-friendly, low-cost, sustainable construction materials for utilization in civil engineering projects have attracted much attention. To this end, soilcretes are non-conventional construction materials produced by mixing natural soil such as natural clay or limestone sand with a hydraulic binder and are recently under detailed and in-depth investigation by many researchers. In this paper the results of the physical and mechanical characteristics of a large set of cylindrical specimens under uniaxial compression, are presented...
August 2017: Data in Brief
S Joseph Antony, George Okeke, D Deniz Tokgoz, N Gozde Ozerkan
Fracture toughness measures the resistance of a material to fracture. This fundamental property is used in diverse engineering designs including mechanical, civil, materials, electronics and chemical engineering applications. In spite of the advancements made in the past 40 years, the evaluation of this remains challenging for extremely heterogeneous materials such as composite concretes. By taking advantage of the optical properties of a thin birefringent coating on the surface of opaque, notched composite concrete beams, here we sense the evolution of the maximum shear stress distribution on the beams under loading...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yasine Sakhawoth, Laurent J Michot, Pierre Levitz, Natalie Malikova
Flocculation and its tuning is of utmost importance in the optimization of the several industrial protocols, in areas such as purification of waste-water or civil engineering. We study polyelectrolyte-induced flocculation of clay colloids on a model system, consisting of purified clay colloids of well-defined size fractions and ionene polyelectrolytes presenting regular and tuneable chain charge density. To characterize ionene-induced clay flocculation, we turn to the combination of light absorbance (turbidity) and zeta potential measurements, as well as adsorption isotherms...
June 29, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
A Hinton, M Perea-Ortiz, J Winch, J Briggs, S Freer, D Moustoukas, S Powell-Gill, C Squire, A Lamb, C Rammeloo, B Stray, G Voulazeris, L Zhu, A Kaushik, Y-H Lien, A Niggebaum, A Rodgers, A Stabrawa, D Boddice, S R Plant, G W Tuckwell, K Bongs, N Metje, M Holynski
The high precision and scalable technology offered by atom interferometry has the opportunity to profoundly affect gravity surveys, enabling the detection of features of either smaller size or greater depth. While such systems are already starting to enter into the commercial market, significant reductions are required in order to reach the size, weight and power of conventional devices. In this article, the potential for atom interferometry based gravimetry is assessed, suggesting that the key opportunity resides within the development of gravity gradiometry sensors to enable drastic improvements in measurement time...
August 6, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Stephen P Luby
Throughout human history, pathogens transmitted through feces from person to person have caused substantial mortality. Over a century ago civil engineers in high income countries developed approaches to collect and remove feces from the environment that in communities with high incomes and strong governments markedly reduced the burden of enteric disease. These approaches, however, have not been successfully extended to impoverished communities in low income countries. Water/sanitation/hygiene professionals have attempted, with only limited success, to reduce fecal exposure and human disease in the absence of definitive civil engineering approaches...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
Johannes Masino, Michael-Jan Foitzik, Michael Frey, Frank Gauterin
Tire road noise is the major contributor to traffic noise, which leads to general annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbances. Standardized methods to measure tire road noise are expensive, sophisticated to use, and they cannot be applied comprehensively. This paper presents a method to automatically classify different types of pavement and the wear condition to identify noisy road surfaces. The methods are based on spectra of time series data of the tire cavity sound, acquired under normal vehicle operation...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
Diogo L Pinheiro, Julia Melkers, Sunni Newton
Placement in prestigious research institutions for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) PhD recipients is generally considered to be optimal. Yet some doctoral recipients are not interested in intensive research careers and instead seek alternative careers, outside but also within academe (for example teaching positions in Liberal Arts Schools). Recent attention to non-academic pathways has expanded our understanding of alternative PhD careers. However, career preferences and placements are also nuanced along the academic pathway...
2017: PloS One
Fabio Mangini, Nicola Tedeschi
In this paper, we face the problem of the scattering of a plane wave by a sphere embedded in an infinitely long circular cylinder. The problems of scattering by both a sphere and a cylinder are canonical problems in optics. However, the scattering problems involving different objects with different geometries have not been solved analytically in the literature: only asymptotic or approximated solutions are available. The problem of scattering by cylinders and spheres concurrently present can be of great importance in several areas, from optical microscopy to biomedical applications, and from metamaterials to civil engineering applications...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
L Mantecchini, F Paganelli, D Peritore, S Trapani, V Morabito, A Oliveti, D Stabile, P Fiaschetti, L Rizzato, A Nanni Costa
INTRODUCTION: The outcome of transplantation activities depends on a variety of unpredictable factors. Up-to-date criteria on organ allocation foresee an efficient transport chain along with compliant performance parameters. METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: The Centro Nazionale Trapianti and the Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental, and Materials Engineering of the University of Bologna (respectively, CNT and DICAM) have been updating a national database of organ transplantation activities to investigate performance parameters and the main causes of disruption...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
José Trinidad Guillen Bonilla, Alex Guillen Bonilla, Verónica M Rodríguez Betancourtt, Héctor Guillen Bonilla, Antonio Casillas Zamora
The application of the sensor optical fibers in the areas of scientific instrumentation and industrial instrumentation is very attractive due to its numerous advantages. In the industry of civil engineering for example, quasi-distributed sensors made with optical fiber are used for reliable strain and temperature measurements. Here, a quasi-distributed sensor in the frequency domain is discussed. The sensor consists of a series of low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometers where each Fabry-Perot interferometer acts as a local sensor...
April 14, 2017: Sensors
Ngoc Hung Le, Nor Edine Abriak, Christophe Binetruy, Mahfoud Benzerzour, Sy-Tuan Nguyen
Bottom ash resulting from the incineration of various domestic wastes can be viewed as a typical granular material. It is mainly used in civil engineering as a substitute for traditional natural aggregates. The purpose of this paper is to characterize their mechanical behavior and evaluate their mechanical properties for engineering applications. First, results of triaxial tests confirm that bottom ash behaves like dense sand. Second, the deformation and strength characteristics of bottom ash, such as the secant modulus, Poisson ratio, characteristic angle, dilation angle, effective cohesion and effective friction angle, are determined...
April 6, 2017: Waste Management
Inês Meireles, Vítor Sousa, Kemi Adeyeye, Armando Silva-Afonso
During the last decades, achieving water efficiency in buildings has increasingly become an important challenge in the scope of sustainability. Water consumption is directly related to individual conduct. Despite the various technological improvements in fixtures and appliances, their performance will be influenced by human preferences and behavior. As a result, the potential for effective water consumption saving is influenced by behavior change as well as water-efficient fixtures and appliances. This work evaluates the impact of user preferences and behavior change on the water-efficient performance of tap aerators in a case study building: the Department of Civil Engineering building of the University of Aveiro, Portugal...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sascha Liehr, Mathias Breithaupt, Katerina Krebber
Distributed measurement of humidity is a sought-after capability for various fields of application, especially in the civil engineering and structural health monitoring sectors. This article presents a method for distributed humidity sensing along polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer optical fibers (POFs) by analyzing wavelength-dependent Rayleigh backscattering and attenuation characteristics at 500 nm and 650 nm wavelengths. Spatially resolved humidity sensing is obtained from backscatter traces of a dual-wavelength optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR)...
March 31, 2017: Sensors
Shuguang Bi, Ming Liu, Jingjing Shen, Xiao Matthew Hu, Liying Zhang
Monitoring and assessment of the health of a civil structural material are the critical requirements to ensure its safety and durability. In this work, a coating strategy on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was employed for the dispersion of CNTs in geopolymer matrix. The geopolymer nanocomposites prepared exhibited ultrahigh self-sensing performance based on the unique behaviors of SiO2 coating on CNTs in the geopolymer matrix. The SiO2 layer on CNTs was partially or fully removed during the fabrication process to restore the conductive nature of CNTs, facilitating the dispersion of CNTs and forming well-connected 3D electrical conductive networks...
March 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Laura Annika Sormunen, Pauli Kolisoja
The leaching of hazardous substances from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) has been studied in many different scales for several years. Less attention has been given to the mechanical performance of MSWI BA in actual civil engineering structures. The durability of structures built with this waste derived material can have major influence on the functional properties of such structures and also the potential leaching of hazardous substances in the long term. Hence, it is necessary to properly evaluate in which type of structures MSWI BA can be safely used in a similar way as natural and crushed rock aggregates...
March 18, 2017: Waste Management
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