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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181083/environmental-impact-assessment-in-higher-education-institutions-in-east-africa-the-case-of-rwanda
#1
Telesphore Kabera
Due to the pressure on limited resources produced by a growing population and due to a decade of war, Rwanda is facing a major problem in environmental protection. Because of such problems, it seems only reasonable that environment-related courses should play an important role in the curricula of institutions of higher learning. The main aim of this research is to present a comprehensive picture of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) integration in graduate and undergraduate programs in Rwandese higher education institutions and to make recommendations for its improvement...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160172/arsenic-uptake-accumulation-and-toxicity-in-rice-plants-possible-remedies-for-its-detoxification-a-review
#2
Hafiz Faiq Bakhat, Zahida Zia, Shah Fahad, Sunaina Abbas, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Ahmad Naeem Shahzad, Farhat Abbas, Hesham Alharby, Muhammad Shahid
Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid. Serious concerns have been raised in literature owing to its potential toxicity towards living beings. The metalloid causes various water- and food-borne diseases. Among food crops, rice contains the highest concentrations of As. Consuming As-contaminated rice results in serious health issues. Arsenic concentration in rice is governed by various factors in the rhizosphere such as availability and concentration of various mineral nutrients (iron, phosphate, sulfur and silicon) in soil solution, soil oxidation/reduction status, inter-conversion between organic and inorganic As compounds...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157961/relative-change-measurement-of-physical-quantities-using-dual-wavelength-coherent-otdr
#3
Sascha Liehr, Yonas Seifu Muanenda, Sven Münzenberger, Katerina Krebber
We propose the use of alternating pulse wavelengths in a direct-detection coherent optical time domain reflectometry (C-OTDR) setup not only to measure strain and temperature changes but also to determine the correct algebraic sign of the change. The sign information is essential for the intended use in distributed mode shape analysis of civil engineering structures. Correlating relative backscatter signal shifts in the temporal/signal domain allows for measuring with correct magnitude and sign. This novel approach is simulated, experimentally implemented and demonstrated for temperature change measurement at a spatial resolution of 1 m...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047960/tu-b-206-02-on-the-algorithmic-approach-to-ethical-conduct
#4
G Sherouse
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047387/tu-b-206-00-do-the-right-thing
#5
Jeffrey Limmer
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046722/tu-b-206-01-navigating-the-black-white-and-gray
#6
J Limmer
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999245/tapered-polymer-fiber-sensors-for-reinforced-concrete-beam-vibration-detection
#7
Dong Luo, Zainah Ibrahim, Jianxun Ma, Zubaidah Ismail, David Thomas Iseley
In this study, tapered polymer fiber sensors (TPFSs) have been employed to detect the vibration of a reinforced concrete beam (RC beam). The sensing principle was based on transmission modes theory. The natural frequency of an RC beam was theoretically analyzed. Experiments were carried out with sensors mounted on the surface or embedded in the RC beam. Vibration detection results agreed well with Kistler accelerometers. The experimental results found that both the accelerometer and TPFS detected the natural frequency function of a vibrated RC beam well...
December 16, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996051/engineered-metabarrier-as-shield-from-seismic-surface-waves
#8
Antonio Palermo, Sebastian Krödel, Alessandro Marzani, Chiara Daraio
Resonant metamaterials have been proposed to reflect or redirect elastic waves at different length scales, ranging from thermal vibrations to seismic excitation. However, for seismic excitation, where energy is mostly carried by surface waves, energy reflection and redirection might lead to harming surrounding regions. Here, we propose a seismic metabarrier able to convert seismic Rayleigh waves into shear bulk waves that propagate away from the soil surface. The metabarrier is realized by burying sub-wavelength resonant structures under the soil surface...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983707/low-cost-gnss-receivers-for-local-monitoring-experimental-simulation-and-analysis-of-displacements
#9
Ludovico Biagi, Florin Cătălin Grec, Marco Negretti
The geodetic monitoring of local displacements and deformations is often needed for civil engineering structures and natural phenomena like, for example, landslides. A local permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) network can be installed: receiver positions in the interest area are estimated and monitored with respect to reference stations. Usually, GNSS geodetic receivers are adopted and provide results with accuracies at the millimeter level: however, they are very expensive and the initial cost and the risk of damage and loss can discourage this approach...
December 15, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908010/information-theoretical-noninvasive-damage-detection-in-bridge-structures
#10
Amila Sudu Ambegedara, Jie Sun, Kerop Janoyan, Erik Bollt
Damage detection of mechanical structures such as bridges is an important research problem in civil engineering. Using spatially distributed sensor time series data collected from a recent experiment on a local bridge in Upper State New York, we study noninvasive damage detection using information-theoretical methods. Several findings are in order. First, the time series data, which represent accelerations measured at the sensors, more closely follow Laplace distribution than normal distribution, allowing us to develop parameter estimators for various information-theoretic measures such as entropy and mutual information...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876858/multi-functional-carbon-fibre-composites-using-carbon-nanotubes-as-an-alternative-to-polymer-sizing
#11
T R Pozegic, J V Anguita, I Hamerton, K D G I Jayawardena, J-S Chen, V Stolojan, P Ballocchi, R Walsh, S R P Silva
Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) were introduced to the aerospace, automobile and civil engineering industries for their high strength and low weight. A key feature of CFRP is the polymer sizing - a coating applied to the surface of the carbon fibres to assist handling, improve the interfacial adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix and allow this matrix to wet-out the carbon fibres. In this paper, we introduce an alternative material to the polymer sizing, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fibres, which in addition imparts electrical and thermal functionality...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858175/an-information-based-machine-learning-approach-to-elasticity-imaging
#12
Cameron Hoerig, Jamshid Ghaboussi, Michael F Insana
An information-based technique is described for applications in mechanical property imaging of soft biological media under quasi-static loads. We adapted the Autoprogressive method that was originally developed for civil engineering applications for this purpose. The Autoprogressive method is a computational technique that combines knowledge of object shape and a sparse distribution of force and displacement measurements with finite-element analyses and artificial neural networks to estimate a complete set of stress and strain vectors...
November 18, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816181/acoustic-emission-in-orthopaedics-a-state-of-the-art-review
#13
Richard A Kapur
: Acoustic emission (AE) is the phenomenon of sonic and ultrasonic wave generation by materials as they undergo deformation and fracture processes. AE monitoring is widely used throughout civil and mechanical engineering as a highly sensitive and non-destructive technique for structural health monitoring. Advances in computational power and digital data storage have generated much further interest in the possible applications of AE technology. Of particular interest has been its application within the field of Orthopaedic surgery...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791981/advancing-alternative-analysis-integration-of-decision-science
#14
REVIEW
Timothy F Malloy, Virginia M Zaunbrecher, Christina Batteate, Ann Blake, William F Carroll, Charles J Corbett, Steffen Foss Hansen, Robert Lempert, Igor Linkov, Roger McFadden, Kelly D Moran, Elsa Olivetti, Nancy Ostrom, Michelle Romero, Julie Schoenung, Thomas Seager, Peter Sinsheimer, Kristina Thayer
BACKGROUND: Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. OBJECTIVES: Assess whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770323/environmental-characterisation-of-sewage-sludge-paper-ash-based-composites-in-relation-to-their-possible-use-in-civil-engineering
#15
Ana Mladenovič, Sandra Hamler, Nina Zupančič
The environmental acceptability of geotechnical composites made of treated municipal sewage sludge (SwS) and paper ash (PA) after two different curing periods has been investigated. The mineral composition of such composites, including their content of major oxides, is mainly influenced by the PA. The content of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the initial materials and in the composites varies considerably. In the SwS the Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn contents are above the legally permitted limits. The PTE content of PA are lower, but still somewhat above the permitted values for Ba and Cu...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766667/captagon-use-and-trade-in-the-middle-east
#16
Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763332/innovation-results-of-iam-planning-in-urban-water-services
#17
M A Cardoso, A Poças, M S Silva, R Ribeiro, M C Almeida, R S Brito, S T Coelho, H Alegre
The requirement to provide urban water services continuously while infrastructures are ageing, imposes the need for increasingly sustainable infrastructure asset management (IAM). To achieve and maintain adequate levels of service, the AWARE-P IAM methodology has been applied in collaborative projects launched by the National Civil Engineering Laboratory, in partnership with IST (Technical University of Lisbon), Addition (software company) and several water utilities. The objective of these projects is to support urban water utilities in the development, implementation and maintenance of IAM plans...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749442/dermatologic-surgical-instruments-a-history-and-review
#18
Sumul A Gandhi, Jeremy T Kampp
BACKGROUND: Dermatologic surgery requires precision and accuracy given the delicate nature of procedures performed. The use of the most appropriate instrument for each action helps optimize both functionality and cosmetic outcome. OBJECTIVE: To review the history of surgical instruments used in dermatology, with a focus on mechanism and evolution to the instruments that are used in current practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted via textbook and journal research for historic references while review of current references was conducted online using multiple search engines and PubMed...
January 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713919/experimental-data-on-the-properties-of-polymer-modified-cement-grouts-using-epoxy-and-acrylic-resin-emulsions
#19
Costas A Anagnostopoulos, Minas Tsiatis
The use of additives to improve the quality of cement grouts is crucial for civil engineering, especially in foundation construction. This article presents experimental data concerning the compressive strength, elastic modulus, bleeding and injectability of microfine cement grouts modified with epoxy and acrylic resin emulsions. Strength properties were obtained at different curing ages. For further analysis and detailed discussion of properties of polymer-modified cement grouts, see "Fundamental properties of epoxy resin-modified cement grouts" (C...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669251/strain-sharing-assessment-in-woven-fiber-reinforced-concrete-beams-using-fiber-bragg-grating-sensors
#20
Roberto Montanini, Antonino Recupero, Fabrizio De Domenico, Fabrizio Freni
Embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors have been extensively used worldwide for health monitoring of smart structures. In civil engineering, they provide a powerful method for monitoring the performance of composite reinforcements used for concrete structure rehabilitation and retrofitting. This paper discusses the problem of investigating the strain transfer mechanism in composite strengthened concrete beams subjected to three-point bending tests. Fiber Bragg grating sensors were embedded both in the concrete tensioned surface and in the woven fiber reinforcement...
2016: Sensors
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