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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618828/pavement-type-and-wear-condition-classification-from-tire-cavity-acoustic-measurements-with-artificial-neural-networks
#1
Johannes Masino, Michael-Jan Foitzik, Michael Frey, Frank Gauterin
Tire road noise is the major contributor to traffic noise, which leads to general annoyance, speech interference, and sleep disturbances. Standardized methods to measure tire road noise are expensive, sophisticated to use, and they cannot be applied comprehensively. This paper presents a method to automatically classify different types of pavement and the wear condition to identify noisy road surfaces. The methods are based on spectra of time series data of the tire cavity sound, acquired under normal vehicle operation...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512003/towards-a-sustainable-biobased-industry-highlighting-the-impact-of-extremophiles
#2
REVIEW
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493914/take-me-where-i-want-to-go-institutional-prestige-advisor-sponsorship-and-academic-career-placement-preferences
#3
Diogo L Pinheiro, Julia Melkers, Sunni Newton
Placement in prestigious research institutions for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) PhD recipients is generally considered to be optimal. Yet some doctoral recipients are not interested in intensive research careers and instead seek alternative careers, outside but also within academe (for example teaching positions in Liberal Arts Schools). Recent attention to non-academic pathways has expanded our understanding of alternative PhD careers. However, career preferences and placements are also nuanced along the academic pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463320/scattering-of-an-electromagnetic-plane-wave-by-a-sphere-embedded-in-a-cylinder
#4
Fabio Mangini, Nicola Tedeschi
In this paper, we face the problem of the scattering of a plane wave by a sphere embedded in an infinitely long circular cylinder. The problems of scattering by both a sphere and a cylinder are canonical problems in optics. However, the scattering problems involving different objects with different geometries have not been solved analytically in the literature: only asymptotic or approximated solutions are available. The problem of scattering by cylinders and spheres concurrently present can be of great importance in several areas, from optical microscopy to biomedical applications, and from metamaterials to civil engineering applications...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457359/transport-of-human-organs-in-italy-location-time-and-performances
#5
L Mantecchini, F Paganelli, D Peritore, S Trapani, V Morabito, A Oliveti, D Stabile, P Fiaschetti, L Rizzato, A Nanni Costa
INTRODUCTION: The outcome of transplantation activities depends on a variety of unpredictable factors. Up-to-date criteria on organ allocation foresee an efficient transport chain along with compliant performance parameters. METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: The Centro Nazionale Trapianti and the Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental, and Materials Engineering of the University of Bologna (respectively, CNT and DICAM) have been updating a national database of organ transplantation activities to investigate performance parameters and the main causes of disruption...
May 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420083/a-theoretical-study-and-numerical-simulation-of-a-quasi-distributed-sensor-based-on-the-low-finesse-fabry-perot-interferometer-frequency-division-multiplexing
#6
José Trinidad Guillen Bonilla, Alex Guillen Bonilla, Verónica M Rodríguez Betancourtt, Héctor Guillen Bonilla, Antonio Casillas Zamora
The application of the sensor optical fibers in the areas of scientific instrumentation and industrial instrumentation is very attractive due to its numerous advantages. In the industry of civil engineering for example, quasi-distributed sensors made with optical fiber are used for reliable strain and temperature measurements. Here, a quasi-distributed sensor in the frequency domain is discussed. The sensor consists of a series of low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometers where each Fabry-Perot interferometer acts as a local sensor...
April 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392120/mechanical-behavior-of-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator-bottom-ash-results-from-triaxial-tests
#7
Ngoc Hung Le, Nor Edine Abriak, Christophe Binetruy, Mahfoud Benzerzour, Sy-Tuan Nguyen
Bottom ash resulting from the incineration of various domestic wastes can be viewed as a typical granular material. It is mainly used in civil engineering as a substitute for traditional natural aggregates. The purpose of this paper is to characterize their mechanical behavior and evaluate their mechanical properties for engineering applications. First, results of triaxial tests confirm that bottom ash behaves like dense sand. Second, the deformation and strength characteristics of bottom ash, such as the secant modulus, Poisson ratio, characteristic angle, dilation angle, effective cohesion and effective friction angle, are determined...
April 6, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378307/user-preferences-and-water-use-savings-owing-to-washbasin-taps-retrofit-a-case-study-of-the-decivil-building-of-the-university-of-aveiro
#8
Inês Meireles, Vítor Sousa, Kemi Adeyeye, Armando Silva-Afonso
During the last decades, achieving water efficiency in buildings has increasingly become an important challenge in the scope of sustainability. Water consumption is directly related to individual conduct. Despite the various technological improvements in fixtures and appliances, their performance will be influenced by human preferences and behavior. As a result, the potential for effective water consumption saving is influenced by behavior change as well as water-efficient fixtures and appliances. This work evaluates the impact of user preferences and behavior change on the water-efficient performance of tap aerators in a case study building: the Department of Civil Engineering building of the University of Aveiro, Portugal...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362339/distributed-humidity-sensing-in-pmma-optical-fibers-at-500-nm-and-650-nm-wavelengths
#9
Sascha Liehr, Mathias Breithaupt, Katerina Krebber
Distributed measurement of humidity is a sought-after capability for various fields of application, especially in the civil engineering and structural health monitoring sectors. This article presents a method for distributed humidity sensing along polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer optical fibers (POFs) by analyzing wavelength-dependent Rayleigh backscattering and attenuation characteristics at 500 nm and 650 nm wavelengths. Spatially resolved humidity sensing is obtained from backscatter traces of a dual-wavelength optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR)...
March 31, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333431/ultrahigh-self-sensing-performance-of-geopolymer-nanocomposites-via-unique-interface-engineering
#10
Shuguang Bi, Ming Liu, Jingjing Shen, Xiao Matthew Hu, Liying Zhang
Monitoring and assessment of the health of a civil structural material are the critical requirements to ensure its safety and durability. In this work, a coating strategy on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was employed for the dispersion of CNTs in geopolymer matrix. The geopolymer nanocomposites prepared exhibited ultrahigh self-sensing performance based on the unique behaviors of SiO2 coating on CNTs in the geopolymer matrix. The SiO2 layer on CNTs was partially or fully removed during the fabrication process to restore the conductive nature of CNTs, facilitating the dispersion of CNTs and forming well-connected 3D electrical conductive networks...
March 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325702/construction-of-an-interim-storage-field-using-recovered-municipal-solid-waste-incineration-bottom-ash-field-performance-study
#11
Laura Annika Sormunen, Pauli Kolisoja
The leaching of hazardous substances from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) has been studied in many different scales for several years. Less attention has been given to the mechanical performance of MSWI BA in actual civil engineering structures. The durability of structures built with this waste derived material can have major influence on the functional properties of such structures and also the potential leaching of hazardous substances in the long term. Hence, it is necessary to properly evaluate in which type of structures MSWI BA can be safely used in a similar way as natural and crushed rock aggregates...
March 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301973/beneficial-reuse-of-brest-harbor-france-dredged-sediment-as-alternative-material-in-road-building-laboratory-investigations
#12
Walid Maherzi, Mahfoud Benzerzour, Yannick Mamindy-Pajany, Eleanor van Veen, Mohamed Boutouil, Nor Edine Abriak
The scarcity of natural aggregates promotes waste reuse as secondary raw material in the field of civil engineering. This article focuses on the beneficial reuse of marine-dredged sediments in road building. Thus, mixtures of raw sediments and dredged sand collected from Brest Harbur (Bretagne, France) were treated with road hydraulic binders. Formulation were prepared and characterized as recommended by the French Technical Guidelines for soil treatment with lime and/or hydraulic binders. Mechanical resistance results are quite similar for both the hydraulic binders, suggesting a similar reactivity with the studied sediment sample...
April 9, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275277/attitudes-of-students-of-differenet-schools-of-university-of-zagreb-on-tooth-bleaching
#13
Dinka Diklić, Eva Klarić Sever, Nada Galić, Jelena Spajić, Katica Prskalo
OBJECTIVE: To compare the awareness that students from four different faculties within the University of Zagreb have of oral health and tooth bleaching procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 158 subjects (both male and female) - 38 students from the School of Dental Medicine and 40 students from each of the following faculties: the School of Medicine, the Faculty of Economics and the Faculty of Civil Engineering. The respondents were asked to fill out the survey with multiple choices by marking the answers they considered correct...
December 2016: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241503/measurement-of-the-length-of-installed-rock-bolt-based-on-stress-wave-reflection-by-using-a-giant-magnetostrictive-gms-actuator-and-a-pzt-sensor
#14
Mingzhang Luo, Weijie Li, Bo Wang, Qingqing Fu, Gangbing Song
Rock bolts, as a type of reinforcing element, are widely adopted in underground excavations and civil engineering structures. Given the importance of rock bolts, the research outlined in this paper attempts to develop a portable non-destructive evaluation method for assessing the length of installed rock bolts for inspection purposes. Traditionally, piezoelectric elements or hammer impacts were used to perform non-destructive evaluation of rock bolts. However, such methods suffered from many major issues, such as the weak energy generated and the requirement for permanent installation for piezoelectric elements, and the inconsistency of wave generation for hammer impact...
February 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181083/environmental-impact-assessment-in-higher-education-institutions-in-east-africa-the-case-of-rwanda
#15
Telesphore Kabera
Due to the pressure on limited resources produced by a growing population and due to a decade of war, Rwanda is facing a major problem in environmental protection. Because of such problems, it seems only reasonable that environment-related courses should play an important role in the curricula of institutions of higher learning. The main aim of this research is to present a comprehensive picture of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) integration in graduate and undergraduate programs in Rwandese higher education institutions and to make recommendations for its improvement...
March 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160172/arsenic-uptake-accumulation-and-toxicity-in-rice-plants-possible-remedies-for-its-detoxification-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Hafiz Faiq Bakhat, Zahida Zia, Shah Fahad, Sunaina Abbas, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Ahmad Naeem Shahzad, Farhat Abbas, Hesham Alharby, Muhammad Shahid
Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid. Serious concerns have been raised in literature owing to its potential toxicity towards living beings. The metalloid causes various water- and food-borne diseases. Among food crops, rice contains the highest concentrations of As. Consuming As-contaminated rice results in serious health issues. Arsenic concentration in rice is governed by various factors in the rhizosphere such as availability and concentration of various mineral nutrients (iron, phosphate, sulfur and silicon) in soil solution, soil oxidation/reduction status, inter-conversion between organic and inorganic As compounds...
April 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157961/relative-change-measurement-of-physical-quantities-using-dual-wavelength-coherent-otdr
#17
Sascha Liehr, Yonas Seifu Muanenda, Sven Münzenberger, Katerina Krebber
We propose the use of alternating pulse wavelengths in a direct-detection coherent optical time domain reflectometry (C-OTDR) setup not only to measure strain and temperature changes but also to determine the correct algebraic sign of the change. The sign information is essential for the intended use in distributed mode shape analysis of civil engineering structures. Correlating relative backscatter signal shifts in the temporal/signal domain allows for measuring with correct magnitude and sign. This novel approach is simulated, experimentally implemented and demonstrated for temperature change measurement at a spatial resolution of 1 m...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047960/tu-b-206-02-on-the-algorithmic-approach-to-ethical-conduct
#18
G Sherouse
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047387/tu-b-206-00-do-the-right-thing
#19
Jeffrey Limmer
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046722/tu-b-206-01-navigating-the-black-white-and-gray
#20
J Limmer
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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