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Civil engineering

Amila Sudu Ambegedara, Jie Sun, Kerop Janoyan, Erik Bollt
Damage detection of mechanical structures such as bridges is an important research problem in civil engineering. Using spatially distributed sensor time series data collected from a recent experiment on a local bridge in Upper State New York, we study noninvasive damage detection using information-theoretical methods. Several findings are in order. First, the time series data, which represent accelerations measured at the sensors, more closely follow Laplace distribution than normal distribution, allowing us to develop parameter estimators for various information-theoretic measures such as entropy and mutual information...
November 2016: Chaos
T R Pozegic, J V Anguita, I Hamerton, K D G I Jayawardena, J-S Chen, V Stolojan, P Ballocchi, R Walsh, S R P Silva
Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) were introduced to the aerospace, automobile and civil engineering industries for their high strength and low weight. A key feature of CFRP is the polymer sizing - a coating applied to the surface of the carbon fibres to assist handling, improve the interfacial adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix and allow this matrix to wet-out the carbon fibres. In this paper, we introduce an alternative material to the polymer sizing, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fibres, which in addition imparts electrical and thermal functionality...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cameron Hoerig, Jamshid Ghaboussi, Michael F Insana
An information-based technique is described for applications in mechanical property imaging of soft biological media under quasi-static loads. We adapted the Autoprogressive method that was originally developed for civil engineering applications for this purpose. The Autoprogressive method is a computational technique that combines knowledge of object shape and a sparse distribution of force and displacement measurements with finite-element analyses and artificial neural networks to estimate a complete set of stress and strain vectors...
November 18, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Richard A Kapur
: Acoustic emission (AE) is the phenomenon of sonic and ultrasonic wave generation by materials as they undergo deformation and fracture processes. AE monitoring is widely used throughout civil and mechanical engineering as a highly sensitive and non-destructive technique for structural health monitoring. Advances in computational power and digital data storage have generated much further interest in the possible applications of AE technology. Of particular interest has been its application within the field of Orthopaedic surgery...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Timothy F Malloy, Virginia M Zaunbrecher, Christina Batteate, Ann Blake, William F Carroll, Charles J Corbett, Steffen Foss Hansen, Robert Lempert, Igor Linkov, Roger McFadden, Kelly D Moran, Elsa Olivetti, Nancy Ostrom, Michelle Romero, Julie Schoenung, Thomas Seager, Peter Sinsheimer, Kristina Thayer
BACKGROUND: Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. OBJECTIVES: Assess whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Ana Mladenovič, Sandra Hamler, Nina Zupančič
The environmental acceptability of geotechnical composites made of treated municipal sewage sludge (SwS) and paper ash (PA) after two different curing periods has been investigated. The mineral composition of such composites, including their content of major oxides, is mainly influenced by the PA. The content of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the initial materials and in the composites varies considerably. In the SwS the Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn contents are above the legally permitted limits. The PTE content of PA are lower, but still somewhat above the permitted values for Ba and Cu...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
M A Cardoso, A Poças, M S Silva, R Ribeiro, M C Almeida, R S Brito, S T Coelho, H Alegre
The requirement to provide urban water services continuously while infrastructures are ageing, imposes the need for increasingly sustainable infrastructure asset management (IAM). To achieve and maintain adequate levels of service, the AWARE-P IAM methodology has been applied in collaborative projects launched by the National Civil Engineering Laboratory, in partnership with IST (Technical University of Lisbon), Addition (software company) and several water utilities. The objective of these projects is to support urban water utilities in the development, implementation and maintenance of IAM plans...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Sumul A Gandhi, Jeremy T Kampp
BACKGROUND: Dermatologic surgery requires precision and accuracy given the delicate nature of procedures performed. The use of the most appropriate instrument for each action helps optimize both functionality and cosmetic outcome. OBJECTIVE: To review the history of surgical instruments used in dermatology, with a focus on mechanism and evolution to the instruments that are used in current practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted via textbook and journal research for historic references while review of current references was conducted online using multiple search engines and PubMed...
October 4, 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Costas A Anagnostopoulos, Minas Tsiatis
The use of additives to improve the quality of cement grouts is crucial for civil engineering, especially in foundation construction. This article presents experimental data concerning the compressive strength, elastic modulus, bleeding and injectability of microfine cement grouts modified with epoxy and acrylic resin emulsions. Strength properties were obtained at different curing ages. For further analysis and detailed discussion of properties of polymer-modified cement grouts, see "Fundamental properties of epoxy resin-modified cement grouts" (C...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Roberto Montanini, Antonino Recupero, Fabrizio De Domenico, Fabrizio Freni
Embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors have been extensively used worldwide for health monitoring of smart structures. In civil engineering, they provide a powerful method for monitoring the performance of composite reinforcements used for concrete structure rehabilitation and retrofitting. This paper discusses the problem of investigating the strain transfer mechanism in composite strengthened concrete beams subjected to three-point bending tests. Fiber Bragg grating sensors were embedded both in the concrete tensioned surface and in the woven fiber reinforcement...
2016: Sensors
Marko Kolšek, Zalika Klemenc Ketiš
BACKGROUND: Hazardous and harmful alcohol drinking is an important health, social and economic issue in Slovenia amongst all age groups. While drinking in Slovenia has been well researched amongst elementary and high school students, there is a lack of research on drinking amongst university students. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among first- and fourth-year students of the University of Maribor, Slovenia, attending the mandatory preventive health check between October 2009 and May 2010...
December 2015: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Joseph M Jez, Soon Goo Lee, Ashley M Sherp
From domestication and breeding to the genetic engineering of crops, plants provide food, fuel, fibers, and feedstocks for our civilization. New research and discoveries aim to reduce the inputs needed to grow crops and to develop plants for environmental and sustainability applications. Faced with population growth and changing climate, the next wave of innovation in plant biology integrates technologies and approaches that span from molecular to ecosystem scales. Recent efforts to engineer plants for better nitrogen and phosphorus use, enhanced carbon fixation, and environmental remediation and to understand plant-microbiome interactions showcase exciting future directions for translational plant biology...
September 16, 2016: Science
M Arabani, M Pirouz
Currently, advanced methods have been developed to select an appropriate site for an engineering project. The ability to make a good decision in site selection can help the engineers to reduce the expensive costs, which are very important in large construction projects. In this paper, a new approach for site selection is presented. This method is based on rough set theory which is a mathematical theory presented by professor Pawlak. In this study, the results of the rough set decision-making are compared with the results of the regression method in a practical case study for the site location of a water treatment plant in Ardabil Province in the northwest of Iran, to demonstrate that the rough set theory provides a useful method for site selection...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Faranak Alembizar, Ayda Hosseinkhani, Alireza Salehi
BACKGROUND: Since diseases and surgeries could be very painful, the annihilation of pain has been the most important goal of physicians. The history of Iranian-Islamic medicine includes distinguished physicians that attempted to find different methods of anesthesia. This research aims at reviewing approaches for anesthesia throughout the history of the Iranian-Islamic medicine, in order to identify a variety of drugs used during that period. METHODS: In this research, the information was mainly collected from medical history, traditional literature and various search engines (e...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Kenichi Soga, Jennifer Schooling
Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns...
August 6, 2016: Interface Focus
Antonia Fumarola, Valter Prpic, Deanna Fornasier, Flavio Sartoretto, Tiziano Agostini, Carlo Umiltà
We investigated whether angle magnitude, similarly to numerical quantities (i.e., the spatial-numerical association of response codes effect), is associated to the side of response execution. In addition, we investigated whether this association has the properties of a spatially oriented mental line, since angles are taught in a right-to-left progression. We tested two groups of participants: civil engineering students (high familiarity with angles) and psychology students (low familiarity with angles). In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge the continuity of the angles' arms (continuous vs...
August 5, 2016: Perception
Philippe Guéguen, Paul Johnson, Philippe Roux
In this study, it is shown that under very weak dynamic and quasi-static deformation that is orders of magnitude below the yield deformation of the equivalent stress-strain curve (around 10(-3)), the elastic parameters of a civil engineering structure (resonance frequency and damping) exhibit nonlinear softening and recovery. These observations bridge the gap between laboratory and seismic scales where elastic nonlinear behavior has been previously observed. Under weak seismic or atmospheric loading, modal frequencies are modified by around 1% and damping by more than 100% for strain levels between 10(-7) and 10(-4)...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Shuyan Tang, Wang Xi, Zhangyu Cheng, Lei Yin, Ruihao Li, Guozhao Wu, Wangjie Liu, Junjie Xu, Shuaiying Xiang, Yanxiao Zheng, Qian Ge, Kang Ning, Yunjun Yan, Yi Zhan
With the development of civil engineering, the demand for suitable cementation materials is increasing rapidly. However, traditional cementation methods are not eco-friendly enough and more sustainable approach such as bio-based cementation is required. To meet such demand, Euk.cement, a living eukaryotic cell based biological auto-cementation kit, was created in this work. Through the surface display of different silica binding peptides on the fungus Yarrowia lipolytica, Euk.cement cells can immobilize onto any particles with a silica containing surface with variable binding intensity...
July 26, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Hani Mowafi, Mahmoud Hariri, Houssam Alnahhas, Elizabeth Ludwig, Tammam Allodami, Bahaa Mahameed, Jamal Kaby Koly, Ahmed Aldbis, Maher Saqqur, Baobao Zhang, Anas Al-Kassem
IMPORTANCE: The Syrian civil war has resulted in large-scale devastation of Syria's health infrastructure along with widespread injuries and death from trauma. The capacity of Syrian trauma hospitals is not well characterized. Data are needed to allocate resources for trauma care to the population remaining in Syria. OBJECTIVE: To identify the number of trauma hospitals operating in Syria and to delineate their capacities. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: From February 1 to March 31, 2015, a nationwide survey of 94 trauma hospitals was conducted inside Syria, representing a coverage rate of 69% to 93% of reported hospitals in nongovernment controlled areas...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Surgery
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