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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048342/optical-sensing-of-weed-infestations-at-harvest
#1
Judit Barroso, John McCallum, Dan Long
Kochia (Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle (Salsolatragus L.), and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest...
October 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047445/transport-and-public-health-in-china-the-road-to-a-healthy-future
#2
REVIEW
Baoguo Jiang, Song Liang, Zhong-Ren Peng, Haozhe Cong, Morgan Levy, Qu Cheng, Tianbing Wang, Justin V Remais
Transportation-related risk factors are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China, where the expansion of road networks and surges in personal vehicle ownership are having profound effects on public health. Road traffic injuries and fatalities have increased alongside increased use of motorised transport in China, and accident injury risk is aggravated by inadequate emergency response systems and trauma care. National air quality standards and emission control technologies are having a positive effect on air quality, but persistent air pollution is increasingly attributable to a growing and outdated vehicle fleet and to famously congested roads...
October 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045410/patterns-and-rates-of-viral-evolution-in-hiv-1-subtype-b-infected-females-and-males
#3
Michael J Dapp, Kord M Kober, Lennie Chen, Dylan H Westfall, Kim Wong, Hong Zhao, Breana M Hall, Wenjie Deng, Thomas Sibley, Suvankar Ghorai, Katie Kim, Natalie Chen, Sarah McHugh, Lily Au, Mardge Cohen, Kathryn Anastos, James I Mullins
Biological sex differences affect the course of HIV infection, with untreated women having lower viral loads compared to their male counterparts but, for a given viral load, women have a higher rate of progression to AIDS. However, the vast majority of data on viral evolution, a process that is clearly impacted by host immunity and could be impacted by sex differences, has been derived from men. We conducted an intensive analysis of HIV-1 gag and env-gp120 evolution taken over the first 6-11 years of infection from 8 Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) participants who had not received combination antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043890/-yeah-i-ve-grown-i-can-t-go-out-anymore-differences-in-perceived-risks-between-girls-and-boys-entering-adolescence
#4
Kristin Mmari, Caroline Moreau, Susannah Emily Gibbs, Sara De Meyer, Kristien Michielsen, Caroline W Kabiru, Bamidele Bello, Adesegun Fatusi, Chaohua Lou, Xiayun Zuo, Chunyan Yu, Ghada S T Al-Attar, Omaima El-Gibaly
This analysis is based on data from the Global Early Adolescent Study, which aims to understand the factors that predispose young people aged 10-14 years to positive or negative health trajectories. Specifically, interview transcripts from 202 adolescents and 191 parents across six diverse urban sites (Baltimore, Ghent, Nairobi, Ile Ife, Assuit and Shanghai) were analysed to compare the perceived risks associated with entering adolescence and how these risks differed by gender. Findings reveal that in all sites except Ghent, both young people and their parents perceived that girls face greater risks related to their sexual and reproductive health, and because of their sexual development, were perceived to require more protection...
October 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037984/effect-of-maf-amplification-on-treatment-outcomes-with-adjuvant-zoledronic-acid-in-early-breast-cancer-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-international-open-label-randomised-controlled-phase-3-azure-big-01-04-trial
#5
Robert Coleman, Andrew Hall, Joan Albanell, Andrew Hanby, Richard Bell, David Cameron, David Dodwell, Helen Marshall, Joël Jean-Mairet, Juan-Carlos Tercero, Federico Rojo, Walter Gregory, Roger R Gomis
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant use of bisphosphonates can reduce the incidence of bone metastases in early breast cancer. Recurrence and survival seem to be improved only in postmenopausal patients, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated whether MAF amplification (a biomarker for bone metastasis) in primary tumours could predict the treatment outcomes of adjuvant zoledronic acid. METHODS: The study population included patients enrolled in the international, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 AZURE trial at eligible UK sites who had stage II or III breast cancer and who gave consent for use of their primary tumour samples...
October 13, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036466/insights-into-epigenome-evolution-from-animal-and-plant-methylomes
#6
Soojin V Yi
Evolutionary studies of DNA methylation begin to provide insights into the underlying forces governing the variation of genomic DNA methylation across different species. Comparisons of gross levels of DNA methylation between distantly related species indicate that the size of the genome and the level of genomic DNA methylation are positively correlated. In plant genomes, this can be reliably explained by the contents of repetitive sequences, while the underlying driver of this correlation is less clear in animal genomes...
September 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035595/the-influence-of-physical-qualities-on-activity-profiles-of-female-australian-football-match-play
#7
Georgia M Black, Tim J Gabbett, Rich D Johnston, Michael H Cole, Geraldine Naughton, Brian Dawson
PURPOSE: The rapid transition of female Australian football players from amateur to semi-elite competitions has the potential for athletes to be underprepared for match-play. To gain an understanding the match demands of female football, the aims of this study were three-fold: (1) to highlight the physical qualities that discriminate selected and non-selected female Australian Football players, (2) to investigate activity profiles of female Australian Football players, and (3) to gain an understanding of the influence of physical qualities on running performance in female Australian Football match-play...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035588/external-match-loads-of-footballers-with-cerebral-palsy-a-comparison-among-sport-classes
#8
Javier Yanci, Daniel Castillo, Aitor Iturricastillo, Tomás Urbán, Raúl Reina
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine and to compare the external match load (ML), according to sport class (FT) of footballers with cerebral palsy (CP) during the International Federation of CP Football (IFCPF) World Championships Qualification Tournament. METHODS: Forty-two international male footballers with CP participated in the data collection. The footballers with CP were classified according to their FT in three groups (i.e. FT5/6, FT7, and FT8)...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033850/designing-dietary-recommendations-using-system-level-interactomics-analysis-and-network-based-inference
#9
Tingting Zheng, Yueqiong Ni, Jun Li, Billy K C Chow, Gianni Panagiotou
Background: A range of computational methods that rely on the analysis of genome-wide expression datasets have been developed and successfully used for drug repositioning. The success of these methods is based on the hypothesis that introducing a factor (in this case, a drug molecule) that could reverse the disease gene expression signature will lead to a therapeutic effect. However, it has also been shown that globally reversing the disease expression signature is not a prerequisite for drug activity. On the other hand, the basic idea of significant anti-correlation in expression profiles could have great value for establishing diet-disease associations and could provide new insights into the role of dietary interventions in disease...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033531/primal-dual-interior-point-qp-free-algorithm-for-nonlinear-constrained-optimization
#10
Jinbao Jian, Hanjun Zeng, Guodong Ma, Zhibin Zhu
In this paper, a class of nonlinear constrained optimization problems with both inequality and equality constraints is discussed. Based on a simple and effective penalty parameter and the idea of primal-dual interior point methods, a QP-free algorithm for solving the discussed problems is presented. At each iteration, the algorithm needs to solve two or three reduced systems of linear equations with a common coefficient matrix, where a slightly new working set technique for judging the active set is used to construct the coefficient matrix, and the positive definiteness restriction on the Lagrangian Hessian estimate is relaxed...
2017: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032049/a-periodic-two-patch-sis-model-with-time-delay-and-transport-related-infection
#11
Junli Liu, Zhenguo Bai, Tailei Zhang
In this paper, we propose a periodic SIS epidemic model with time delay and transport-related infection in a patchy environment. The basic reproduction number R0 is derived which determines the global dynamics of the model system: if R0 < 1, the disease-free periodic state is globally attractive while there exists at least one positive periodic state and the disease persists if R0 > 1. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the analytical results and to explore the dependence of R0 on the transport-related infection parameters and the amplitude of fluctuations...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#12
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031311/nurses-perceptions-of-providing-psychosexual-care-for-women-experiencing-gynaecological-cancer
#13
Natalie F Williams, Yvonne L Hauck, Anna M Bosco
PURPOSE: To gain insight into how Western Australian nurses conceptualise the provision of psychosexual care for women undergoing gynaecological cancer treatment and how this aligns with nurses globally. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design was chosen to facilitate insight into nurses' perspectives of their reality. Seventeen nurses working at a tertiary women's hospital in Western Australia participated in one-on-one interviews and were asked to describe their perceptions and identify factors that facilitate or challenge psychosexual care provision...
October 2017: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030307/egfr-targeted-multifunctional-polymersomal-doxorubicin-induces-selective-and-potent-suppression-of-orthotopic-human-liver-cancer-in-vivo
#14
Yuan Fang, Weijing Yang, Liang Cheng, Fenghua Meng, Jian Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhong
Liver cancer is a globally leading malignancy that has a poor five-year survival rate of less than 20%. The systemic chemotherapeutics are generally ineffective for liver cancers partly due to fast clearance and low tumor uptake. Here, we report that GE11 peptide functionalized polymersomal doxorubicin (GE11-PS-DOX) effectively targets and inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive SMMC7721 orthotopic human liver tumor xenografts in mice. GE11-PS-DOX with a GE11 surface density of 10% displayed a high drug loading of 15...
October 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029691/geo-spatial-reporting-for-monitoring-of-household-immunization-coverage-through-mobile-phones-findings-from-a-feasibility-study
#15
A M Kazi, M Ali, Ayub K, H Kalimuddin, K Zubair, A N Kazi, Artani A, S A Ali
BACKGROUND: The addition of Global Positioning System (GPS) to a mobile phone makes it a very powerful tool for surveillance and monitoring coverage of health programs. This technology enables transfer of data directly into computer applications and cross-references to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) maps, which enhances assessment of coverage and trends. OBJECTIVE: Utilization of these systems in low and middle income countries is currently limited, particularly for immunization coverage assessments and polio vaccination campaigns...
November 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029602/erp-arrangement-a-strategy-for-assembled-genomic-contig-rearrangement-based-on-replication-profiling-in-bacteria
#16
Nobuaki Kono, Masaru Tomita, Kazuharu Arakawa
BACKGROUND: The reduced cost of sequencing has made de novo sequencing and the assembly of draft microbial genomes feasible in any ordinary biology lab. However, the process of finishing and completing the genome remains labor-intensive and computationally challenging in some cases, such as in the study of complete genome sequences, genomic rearrangements, long-range syntenic relationships, and structural variations. METHODS: Here, we show a contig reordering strategy based on experimental replication profiling (eRP) to recapitulate the bacterial genome structure within draft genomes...
October 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020062/seasonal-and-circadian-biases-in-bird-tracking-with-solar-gps-tags
#17
Rafa Silva, Isabel Afán, Juan A Gil, Javier Bustamante
Global Positioning System (GPS) tags are nowadays widely used in wildlife tracking. This geolocation technique can suffer from fix loss biases due to poor satellite GPS geometry, that result in tracking data gaps leading to wrong research conclusions. In addition, new solar-powered GPS tags deployed on birds can suffer from a new "battery drain bias" currently ignored in movement ecology analyses. We use a GPS tracking dataset of bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus), tracked for several years with solar GPS tags, to evaluate the causes and triggers of fix and data retrieval loss biases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018457/pre-infestation-of-tomato-plants-by-aphids-modulates-transmission-acquisition-relationship-among-whiteflies-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-tylcv-and-plants
#18
Xiao L Tan, Ju L Chen, Giovanni Benelli, Nicolas Desneux, Xue Q Yang, Tong X Liu, Feng Ge
Herbivory defense systems in plants are largely regulated by jasmonate-(JA) and salicylate-(SA) signaling pathways. Such defense mechanisms may impact insect feeding dynamic, may also affect the transmission-acquisition relationship among virus, plants and vectoring insects. In the context of the tomato - whitefly - Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) biological model, we tested the impact of pre-infesting plants with a non-vector insect (aphid Myzus persicae) on feeding dynamics of a vector insect (whitefly Bemisia tabaci) as well as virus transmission-acquisition...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017071/nmr-studies-of-ligand-binding
#19
REVIEW
Christoph Nitsche, Gottfried Otting
NMR spectroscopy is an established tool in drug discovery, but its strength is commonly regarded to be largely confined to the early stages of hit discovery and fragment based drug design, where NMR offers unique capabilities of characterizing the binding modes of ligand molecules that bind sufficiently weakly to be in rapid exchange between bound and free state. Here we, first, provide a meta-review of recent reviews on NMR studies of ligand binding and, second, review recent progress towards NMR characterization of the ligand binding mode in stable protein-ligand complexes, with particular emphasis on the global positioning system (GPS) approach enabled by paramagnetic lanthanide tags...
October 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994227/disentangling-the-mechanisms-behind-winter-snow-impact-on-vegetation-activity-in-northern-ecosystems
#20
Xiaoyi Wang, Tao Wang, Hui Guo, Dan Liu, Yutong Zhao, Taotao Zhang, Qiang Liu, Shilong Piao
While seasonal snow is recognized as an important component in the global climate system, the ability of snow to affect plant production remains an important unknown for assessing climate-change impacts on vegetation dynamics at high-latitude ecosystems. Here we compile data on satellite observation of vegetation greenness and spring onset date, satellite-based soil moisture, passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) and climate data to show that winter SWE can significantly influence vegetation greenness during the early growing season (the period between spring onset date and peak photosynthesis timing) over nearly one-fifth of the land surface in the region north of 30 degrees, but the magnitude and sign of correlation exhibits large spatial heterogeneity...
October 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
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