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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732022/global-economic-trade-offs-between-wild-nature-and-tropical-agriculture
#1
Luis R Carrasco, Edward L Webb, William S Symes, Lian P Koh, Navjot S Sodhi
Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731892/racial-differences-in-geographic-access-to-medical-care-as-measured-by-patient-report-and-geographic-information-systems
#2
Michelle S Wong, David T Grande, Nandita Mitra, Archana Radhakrishnan, Charles C Branas, Katelyn R Ward, Craig E Pollack
BACKGROUND: Geographic access-the travel burden required to reach medical care-is an important aspect of care. Studies, which typically rely on geographic information system (GIS) calculated travel times, have found some evidence of racial disparities in spatial access to care. However, the validity of these studies depends on the accuracy of travel times by patient race. OBJECTIVES: To determine if there are racial differences when comparing patient-reported and GIS-calculated travel times...
July 20, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728139/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-influence-of-the-neighborhood-environment-on-recreational-walking-within-the-neighborhood-results-from-reside
#3
Hayley Christian, Matthew Knuiman, Mark Divitini, Sarah Foster, Paula Hooper, Bryan Boruff, Fiona Bull, Billie Giles-Corti
BACKGROUND: There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents' walking. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighborhood environment measures and neighborhood recreational walking...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725361/spatial-heterogeneity-distribution-of-soil-total-nitrogen-and-total-phosphorus-in-the-yaoxiang-watershed-in-a-hilly-area-of-northern-china-based-on-geographic-information-system-and-geostatistics
#4
Yu Liu, Peng Gao, Liyong Zhang, Xiang Niu, Bing Wang
Soil total nitrogen (STN) and total phosphorus (STP) are important indicators of soil nutrients and the important indexes of soil fertility and soil quality evaluation. Using geographic information system (GIS) and geostatistics, the spatial heterogeneity distribution of STN and STP in the Yaoxiang watershed in a hilly area of northern China was studied. The results showed that: (1) The STN and STP contents showed a declining trend with the increase in soil depth; the variation coefficients (Cv) of STN and STP in the 0- to 10-cm soil layer (42...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724371/association-between-full-service-and-fast-food-restaurant-density-dietary-intake-and-overweight-obesity-among-adults-in-delhi-india
#5
Opal Patel, Safraj Shahulhameed, Roopa Shivashankar, Mohammad Tayyab, Atiqur Rahman, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Nikhil Tandon, Lindsay M Jaacks
BACKGROUND: The food environment has been implicated as an underlying contributor to the global obesity epidemic. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between the food environment, dietary intake, and overweight/obesity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to assess the association of full service and fast food restaurant density with dietary intake and overweight/obesity in Delhi, India. METHODS: Data are from a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Delhi...
July 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723959/a-novel-surveillance-approach-for-disaster-mental-health
#6
Oliver Gruebner, Sarah R Lowe, Martin Sykora, Ketan Shankardass, S V Subramanian, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. Social media data present an opportunity for mental health surveillance after disasters to help identify areas of mental health needs. We aimed to 1) identify specific basic emotions from Twitter for the greater New York City area during Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall on October 29, 2012, and to 2) detect and map spatial temporal clusters representing excess risk of these emotions. METHODS: We applied an advanced sentiment analysis on 344,957 Twitter tweets in the study area over eleven days, from October 22 to November 1, 2012, to extract basic emotions, a space-time scan statistic (SaTScan) and a geographic information system (QGIS) to detect and map excess risk of these emotions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722639/human-cases-of-tularemia-in-armenia-1996-2012
#7
Syuzanna Melikjanyan, Karo Palayan, Artavazd Vanyan, Lilit Avetisyan, Nune Bakunts, Marine Kotanyan, Marta Guerra
A retrospective analysis was conducted of human cases and outbreaks of tularemia in the Republic of Armenia from 1996 to 2012 utilizing Geographic Information System software. A total of 266 human cases of tularemia were recorded in Armenia from 1996 to 2012, with yearly incidence ranging from 0 to 5.5 cases per 100,000 people. Cases predominantly affected the male population (62.8%), 11-20 year age group (37.2%), agricultural workers (49.6%), and persons residing in rural areas (93.6%). In 2003, a waterborne outbreak involving 158 cases occurred in Kotayk Marz, and in 2007, a foodborne outbreak with 17 cases occurred in Gegharkunik Marz, attributed to exposure of food products to contaminated hay...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722556/spanning-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-mnch-and-health-systems-research-boundaries-conducive-and-limiting-health-systems-factors-to-improving-mnch-outcomes-in-west-africa
#8
Irene Akua Agyepong, Aku Kwamie, Edith Frimpong, Selina Defor, Abdallah Ibrahim, Genevieve C Aryeetey, Virgil Lokossou, Issiaka Sombie
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements over time, West Africa lags behind global as well as sub-Saharan averages in its maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. This is despite the availability of an increasing body of knowledge on interventions that improve such outcomes. Beyond our knowledge of what interventions work, insights are needed on others factors that facilitate or inhibit MNCH outcome improvement. This study aimed to explore health system factors conducive or limiting to MNCH policy and programme implementation and outcomes in West Africa, and how and why they work in context...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720446/acceptability-of-multipurpose-human-papillomavirus-vaccines-among-providers-and-mothers-of-adolescent-girls-a-mixed-methods-study-in-five-countries
#9
Nadja A Vielot, Shoshana K Goldberg, Gregory Zimet, Sara B Smith, Mary Anne McDonald, Silvina Ramos, Karen Morgan, Chan Joo Kim, Karin L Richter, Merce Peris, Kevin J Whaley, Jennifer S Smith
INTRODUCTION: Multipurpose vaccines (MPVs) could be formulated to prevent multiple sexually transmitted infections simultaneously. Little is known about acceptability of MPVs among vaccine health care providers (HCPs) or mothers of adolescent girls. METHODS: 151 adolescent vaccine providers and 118 mothers of adolescent girls aged 9-14 were recruited from five geographically-diverse countries: Argentina, Malaysia, South Africa, South Korea, and Spain. We assessed providers' preferences for single-purpose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine versus MPVs (including HPV+herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2, HPV+HIV, or HPV+HSV-2+HIV) via quantitative surveys...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719334/precisely-tracking-childhood-death
#10
Tamer H Farag, Jeffrey P Koplan, Robert F Breiman, Shabir A Madhi, Penny M Heaton, Trevor Mundel, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat, Clara Menendez, Scott F Dowell
Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717515/changing-needs-for-information-and-support-in-an-online-system-for-parents-of-children-with-kidney-disease
#11
Maury Pinsk, David Nicholas
BACKGROUND: Pediatric chronic kidney disease is psychologically, financially, and physically demanding on parents providing care. Parents often feel isolated because of the rarity of the condition, and geographic isolation often compounds this perception in Canada. Many parents seek assistance online for both information and social support. OBJECTIVE: This study examines an online portal, titled "Ability Online," which was designed to provide support and information to a diverse group of parents using chat facilities, bulletin boards, and e-mail...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716770/data-preparation-for-west-nile-virus-agent-based-modelling-protocol-for-processing-bird-population-estimates-and-incorporating-arcmap-in-anylogic
#12
Hamid Reza Nasrinpour, Alexander A Reimer, Marcia R Friesen, Robert D McLeod
BACKGROUND: West Nile Virus (WNV) was first isolated in 1937. Since the 1950s, many outbreaks have occurred in various countries. The first appearance of infected birds in Manitoba, Canada was in 2002. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the data preparation phase of setting up a geographic information system (GIS) simulation environment for WNV Agent-Based Modelling in Manitoba. METHODS: The main technology used in this protocol is based on AnyLogic and ArcGIS software...
July 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715678/effects-of-the-distribution-density-of-a-biomass-combined-heat-and-power-plant-network-on-heat-utilisation-efficiency-in-village-town-systems
#13
Yifei Zhang, Jian Kang
The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711005/pesticide-occurrence-in-the-waters-of-j%C3%A3%C2%BAcar-river-spain-from-different-farming-landscapes
#14
Juan Antonio Pascual Aguilar, Vicente Andreu, Julián Campo, Yolanda Picó, Ana Masiá
A combined methodology to identify and quantify farming chemicals in the entire Júcar River basin has been developed. The procedure consisted of the application of environmental forensic criteria associating laboratory analytical samples, cartographic analysis using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and synthetic statistical analysis. Sampling involved the collection of 15 samples in surface waters distributed alongside the Júcar River and its two main tributaries (Cabriel and Magro Rivers). The analytical procedure involves generic sample extraction and selective determination of up to 50 target pesticides by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
July 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710410/combining-molecular-typing-and-spatial-pattern-analysis-to-identify-areas-of-high-tuberculosis-transmission-in-a-moderate-incidence-county-in-taiwan
#15
Yih-Yuan Chen, Jia-Ru Chang, Chih-Da Wu, Yen-Po Yeh, Shiu-Ju Yang, Chih-Hao Hsu, Ming-Ching Lin, Ching-Fang Tsai, Ming-Shian Lin, Ih-Jen Su, Horng-Yunn Dou
In total, 303 randomly selected clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from 303 patients (collected January to December 2012) in central Taiwan were examined. The major lineages found were Beijing (N = 114, 37.62%), Haarlem (N = 76, 25.08%) and East African-Indian (EAI) (N = 42, 13.86%). Notably, younger persons (≤30 years old) were 6.58 times more likely to be infected with a Beijing genotype compared to older persons (>70 years) (p < 0.05). Combining molecular typing methods and geographical information system (GIS) analysis, we uncovered a twofold higher incidence of Beijing strains in a hotspot area (33%) compared to non-hotspot areas (17%)...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701226/the-application-of-geographic-information-systems-gis-in-identifying-the-priority-areas-for-maternal-care-and-services
#16
Fatemeh Salehi, Leila Ahmadian
BACKGROUND: Improving maternal health is globally introduced as an important health priority. The purpose of this study is to identify the high priority areas which require more maternal health services in Kerman, Iran. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, performed in 2015. The literatures were first explored in order to extract geographic indicators and sub indicators relevant to the maternal health. Data were collected by the use of a questionnaire designed on the basis of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method...
July 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699000/nature-diversity-and-well-being-in-old-age
#17
Merja Rantakokko, Kirsi E Keskinen, Katja Kokko, Erja Portegijs
BACKGROUND: The research aim was to study the associations of nature diversity with quality of life (QoL) and depressive symptoms among older people, and whether physical activity explains the associations. METHODS: Community-dwelling people aged 75-90 years (n = 848) living in Central Finland were interviewed in their homes. QoL was assessed with a short version of the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Assessment (range 0-130, higher score indicates better QoL) and depressive symptoms with the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (range 0-30, higher scores indicate more depressive symptoms)...
July 11, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698759/effect-of-free-maternal-health-care-program-on-health-seeking-behaviour-of-women-during-pregnancy-intra-partum-and-postpartum-periods-in-cross-river-state-of-nigeria-a-mixed-method-study
#18
Betta Chimaobim Edu, Thomas U Agan, Emmanuel Monjok, Krystyna Makowiecka
BACKGROUND: Increasing the percentage of maternal health service utilization in health facilities, through cost-removal policy is important in reducing maternal deaths. The Cross River State Government of Nigeria introduced a cost-removal policy in 2009, under the umbrella of "PROJECT HOPE" where free maternal health services are provided. Since its inception, there has been no formal evaluation of its effectiveness. AIM: This study aims to evaluate the effect of the free maternal health care program on the health care-seeking behaviours of pregnant women in Cross River State, Nigeria...
June 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693547/longitudinal-associations-between-built-environment-characteristics-and-changes-in-active-commuting
#19
Lin Yang, Simon Griffin, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick Wareham, Jenna Panter
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the predictors of changes in commuting. This study investigated the associations between physical environmental characteristics and changes in active commuting. METHODS: Adults from the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort self-reported commuting patterns in 2000 and 2007. Active commuters were defined as those who reported 'always' or 'usually' walking or cycling to work. Environmental attributes around the home and route were assessed using Geographical Information Systems...
May 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693453/an-account-of-the-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-nigeria-implications-and-lessons-learnt
#20
Akaninyene Otu, Soter Ameh, Egbe Osifo-Dawodu, Enoma Alade, Susan Ekuri, Jide Idris
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak remains unprecedented both in the number of cases, deaths and geographic scope. The first case of EVD was confirmed in Lagos Nigeria on 23 July 2014 and spread to involve 19 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases. The EVD cases were not limited to Lagos State as Rivers State recorded 2 confirmed cases of EVD with 1 out of the 2 dying. Swift implementation of public health measures were sufficient to forestall a country -wide spread of this dreaded disease...
July 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
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