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geographic information system

Marco Helbich, Derek de Beurs, Mei-Po Kwan, Rory C O'Connor, Peter P Groenewegen
Background: Natural outdoor environments, such as green spaces (ie, grass, forests, or parks), blue spaces (ie, visible bodies of fresh or salt water), and coastal proximity, have been increasingly shown to promote mental health. However, little is known about how and the extent to which these natural environments are associated with suicide mortality. Our aim was to investigate whether the availability of green space and blue space within people's living environments and living next to the coast are protective against suicide mortality...
March 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Anna Timperio, David Crawford, Rebecca M Leech, Karen E Lamb, Kylie Ball
This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between typologies of neighbourhood food environment and dietary patterns among 10-12 year-old children. Baseline data were collected in 2002/3 and follow-up data in 2006 from children in Melbourne or Geelong. Parents completed a food frequency questionnaire at both time points. 'Healthful' and 'energy-dense' dietary pattern scores were computed. A Geographic Information System was used to determine the presence or absence of food outlets (cafés/restaurant; fast food; supermarkets/grocery stores; convenience store; greengrocer; and butcher, seafood or poultry retailer) within an 800 m road network buffer of home...
March 12, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti, Célia Pereira Caldas, Kenio Costa de Lima
OBJECTIVES: To identify the diseases that lead older persons to hospitalizations in the public health system in the state of Rio de Janeiro and, through a study of spatial distribution among hospitalization rates of the municipal districts, discuss the social contexts involved in the hospitalization of the elderly. METHODS: An ecological cross-sectional study using secondary data from the Brazilian hospital information system from the period 2009 to 2015 was performed...
March 12, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Katharina Heider, Juan Miguel Rodriguez Lopez, Jürgen Scheffran
Due to the availability of Web 2.0 technologies, volunteered geographic information (VGI) is on the rise. This new type of data is available on many topics and on different scales. Thus, it has become interesting for research. This article deals with the collective potential of VGI and remote sensing to detect peri-urbanization in the conservation zone of Mexico City. On the one hand, remote sensing identifies horizontal urban expansion, and on the other hand, VGI of ecological complaints provides data about informal settlements...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
J Smith Torres-Roman, Diego Urrunaga-Pastor, Jose L Avilez, Luis M Helguero-Santin, German Malaga
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem worldwide. To date, most studies of obesity and overweight in Peru are focused on adults, with few of them involving children, a population at a critical stage of development. The trend in overweight and obesity prevalence in Peruvian children under the age of five has not yet been determined. Thus, the objective of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity between 2010 and 2015 in children under the age of five, stratified by geographical areas in Peru...
March 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Anders Anell, Margareta Dackehag, Jens Dietrichson
BACKGROUND: Providing equal access to health care is an important objective in most health care systems. It is especially pertinent in systems like the Swedish primary care market, where private providers are free to establish themselves in any part of the country. To improve equity in access to care, 15 out 21 county councils in Sweden have implemented risk-adjusted capitation based on the Care Need Index, which increases capitation to primary care centers with a large share of patients with unfavorable socioeconomic and demographic characteristics...
March 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Guo Xiu-Xia, Cheng Peng, Liu Li-Juan, Zhang Chong-Xing, Wang Hai-Fang, Wang Huai-Wei, Gong Mao-Qing, Ma Jun
OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of gene sequence of mtDNA-COⅠ of Culex pipiens pallens from different geographical regions in Shandong Province and different resistant strains from the lab and five common mosquito species, and analyze the genetic diversity of these mosquitoes. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected from Jinan, Jining, Qingdao cities and other places in Shandong Province. The sensitive, dichlorvos-resistant, pyrethroid-resistant and propoxur-resistant strains were reared in the lab...
September 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Imam M Xierali
BACKGROUND: Physician multisite practicing may affect access to care. However, study measuring the degree of multisite practicing is generally lacking. This study aimed to describe physician multisite practicing patterns in Georgia and to assess its impact on access to care. METHODS: Using data from the Georgia Medicaid Management Information System, the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile, and the US Census, mean number of practice sites per physician was calculated...
March 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Mohd Firdaus Mohd Radi, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Mohd Hasni Jaafar, Rozita Hod, Norfazilah Ahmad, Azmawati Binti Mohammed Nawi, Gul Muhammad Baloch, Rohaida Ismail, Nur Izzah Farakhin Ayub
Severe floods increase the risk of leptospirosis outbreaks in endemic areas. This study determines the spatial-temporal distribution of leptospirosis in relation to environmental factors after a major flooding event in Kelantan, Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving incident leptospirosis cases, from the 3 months before, during, and three months after flood, in reference to the severe 2014 Kelantan flooding event. Geographical information system was used to determine the spatial distribution while climatic factors that influenced the cases were also analyzed...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Abderrezak Kamel Toubal, Mohammed Achite, Sylvain Ouillon, Abdelatif Dehni
Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Katherine J Harmon, Marilyn Goss Haskell, Courtney H Mann, Anna E Waller
INTRODUCTION: North Carolina (NC) is home to more than 30 species of indigenous venomous and nonvenomous snakes. Snakebites can cause debilitating and potentially fatal injuries. However, there is a lack of current information available describing the incidence of snakebites in NC. Therefore, we performed this study of snakebites treated in NC emergency departments (EDs) using the statewide syndromic surveillance system, the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT)...
March 9, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Jinbo Chen, Uwe Scholz, Ruonan Zhou, Matthias Lange
In order to access and filter content of life-science databases, full text search is a widely applied query interface. But its high flexibility and intuitiveness is paid for with potentially imprecise and incomplete query results. To reduce this drawback, query assistance systems suggest those combinations of keywords with the highest potential to match most of the relevant data records. Widespread approaches are syntactic query corrections that avoid misspelling and support expansion of words by suffixes and prefixes...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Jenna Dran
In 2015, Zika virus rapidly emerged as a concern for obstetric patients and health care providers as the disease spread geographically and it was discovered that Zika virus infection had the potential to cause devastating birth defects. Essentially overnight, obstetric care providers were faced with an influx of rapidly evolving information and an increased workload. New systems, workflows, and personnel were needed to effectively address the new patient care needs fueled by the burgeoning Zika virus epidemic...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sze Lin Yoong, Emily Stockings, Li Kheng Chai, Flora Tzelepis, John Wiggers, Christopher Oldmeadow, Christine Paul, Armando Peruga, Melanie Kingsland, John Attia, Luke Wolfenden
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and change in prevalence of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use in youth by country and combustible smoking status. METHODS: Databases and the grey literature were systematically searched to December 2015. Studies describing the prevalence of ENDS use in the general population aged ≤20 years in a defined geographical region were included. Where multiple estimates were available within countries, prevalence estimates of ENDS use were pooled for each country separately...
March 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Takemi Sugiyama, Tomoya Hanibuchi, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Yung Liao, Koichiro Oka
Objective measures of environmental attributes have been used to understand how neighborhood environments relate to physical activity. However, this method relies on detailed spatial data, which are often not easily available. Walk Score® is a free, publicly available web-based tool that shows how walkable a given location is based on objectively-derived proximity to several types of local destinations and street connectivity. To date, several studies have tested the concurrent validity of Walk Score as a measure of neighborhood walkability in the USA and Canada...
March 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Fereshte Ashtari, Nafiseh Esmaeil, Marjan Mansourian, Parinaz Poursafa, Omid Mirmosayyeb, Mahdi Barzegar, Hajar Pourgheisari
The evidence for an impact of ambient air pollution on the incidence and severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still limited. In the present study, we assessed the association between daily air pollution levels and MS prevalence and severity in Isfahan city, Iran. Data related to MS patients has been collected from 2008 to 2016 in a referral university clinic. The air quality index (AQI) data, were collected from 6 monitoring stations of Isfahan department of environment. The distribution map presenting the sites of air pollution monitoring stations as well as the residential address of MS patients was plotted on geographical information system (GIS)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Anna Middleton
Genomic data offers a goldmine of information for understanding the contribution genetic variation makes to health and disease. The potential of genomic medicine, to predict, diagnose, manage and treat genetic disease, is underpinned by accurate variant interpretation. This in itself hinges on the ability to access large and varied genomic databases. There is now recognition that international collaboration between research and healthcare systems are paramount to delivering the scale of genomic data required...
March 7, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ruxana T Sadikot
Recurrent tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a significant problem and is an important indicator of the effectiveness of TB control. Recurrence can occur by relapse or exogenous reinfection. Recurrence of TB is still a major problem in high-burden countries, where there is lack of resources and no special attention is being given to this issue. The rate of recurrence is highly variable and has been estimated to range from 4.9% to 47%. This variability is related to differences in regional epidemiology of recurrence and differences in the definitions used by the TB control programs...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Julie Brown, Jane Elkington, Alexandra Hall, Lisa Keay, Judith L Charlton, Kate Hunter, Sjaan Koppel, Andrew Hayen, Lynne E Bilston
BACKGROUND: With long-standing and widespread high rates of errors in child restraint use, there is a need to identify effective methods to address this problem. Information supplied with products at the point of sale may be a potentially efficient delivery point for such a countermeasure. The aim of this study is to establish whether product materials developed using a consumer-driven approach reduce errors in restraint use among purchasers of new child restraint systems. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) will be conducted...
March 7, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Anne Meyer, Hannah R Holt, Farikou Oumarou, Kalinga Chilongo, William Gilbert, Albane Fauron, Chisoni Mumba, Javier Guitian
BACKGROUND: Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) and its tsetse vector are responsible for annual losses estimated in billions of US dollars ($). Recent years have seen the implementation of a series of multinational interventions. However, actors of AAT control face complex resource allocation decisions due to the geographical range of AAT, diversity of ecological and livestock systems, and range of control methods available. METHODS: The study presented here integrates an existing tsetse abundance model with a bio-economic herd model that captures local production characteristics as well as heterogeneities in AAT incidence and breed...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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