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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214925/missed-opportunities-in-neonatal-deaths-in-rwanda-applying-the-three-delays-model-in-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-neonatal-death
#1
Efua Wilmot, Marcel Yotebieng, Alison Norris, Fidele Ngabo
Objective Administered in a timely manner, current evidence-based interventions could reduce neonatal deaths from infections, intrapartum injuries and complications due to prematurity. The three delays model (delay in seeking care, in arriving at a health facility, and in receiving adequate care), which has been applied to understanding maternal deaths, may be useful for understanding neonatal deaths. We assess the main causes of neonatal deaths in Rwanda and their associated delays. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we evaluated data from 2012 from 40 facilities in which babies were delivered...
February 18, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196085/what-device-would-be-best-for-early-infant-male-circumcision-in-east-and-southern-africa-provider-experiences-and-opinions-with-three-different-devices-in-kenya
#2
Robert C Bailey, Irene Nyaboke, Fredrick O Otieno
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces risk of HIV acquisition in heterosexual men by approximately 60%. As some countries approach targets for proportions of adolescents and adults circumcised, some are considering early infant male circumcision (EIMC) as a means to achieve sustainability of VMMC for long term reduction of HIV incidence. Evaluations of specialized devices for EIMC are important to provide programs with information required to make informed decisions about how to design safe, effective EIMC programs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194416/reported-male-circumcision-practices-in-a-muslim-majority-setting
#3
Abdul Wahid Anwer, Lubna Samad, Sundus Iftikhar, Naila Baig-Ansari
Introduction. Male circumcision is a recommended practice in Muslim tradition. It is important to ensure that this procedure is performed as safely as possible in these communities. Methods. Five hundred adult men and women with at least one male child less than 18 years were interviewed in Karachi, Pakistan, regarding details of their child's circumcision. The survey focused on actual and perceived delays in circumcision and perceptions about appropriate age and reasons and benefits and complications of the procedure...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191626/intermittent-auscultation-ia-of-fetal-heart-rate-in-labour-for-fetal-well-being
#4
REVIEW
Ruth Martis, Ova Emilia, Detty S Nurdiati, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: The goal of fetal monitoring in labour is the early detection of a hypoxic baby. There are a variety of tools and methods available for intermittent auscultation (IA) of the fetal heart rate (FHR). Low- and middle-income countries usually have only access to a Pinard/Laënnec or the use of a hand-held Doppler device. Currently, there is no robust evidence to guide clinical practice on the most effective IA tool to use, timing intervals and length of listening to the fetal heart for women during established labour...
February 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188927/xanthohumol-isolated-from-humulus-lupulus-prevents-thrombosis-without-increased-bleeding-risk-by-inhibiting-platelet-activation-and-mtdna-release
#5
Guang Xin, Zeliang Wei, Chengjie Ji, Huajie Zheng, Jun Gu, Limei Ma, Wenfang Huang, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Jwu-Lai Yeh, Rui Zhang, Chaoyi Qin, Li Wen, Zhihua Xing, Yu Cao, Qing Xia, Ke Li, Hai Niu, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Wen Huang
AIM: As the global population has reached 7 billion and the baby boom generation reaches old age, thrombosis has become the major contributor to the global disease burden. It has been reported that, in moderate doses, beer may protect against thrombosis. Xanthohumol (XN), an antioxidant, is found at high concentrations in hop cones (Humulus lupulus L.) and is a common ingredient of beer. Here, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of XN on antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities, and study its mechanism...
February 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188612/hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-during-pregnancy-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#6
REVIEW
Ahizechukwu C Eke, George U Eleje, Uzoamaka A Eke, Yun Xia, Jiao Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis is a viral infection of the liver. It is mainly transmitted between people through contact with infected blood, frequently from mother to baby in-utero. Hepatitis B poses significant risk to the fetus and up to 85% of infants infected by their mothers at birth develop chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is a purified solution of human immunoglobulin that could be administered to the mother, newborn, or both. HBIG offers protection against HBV infection when administered to pregnant women who test positive for hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or both...
February 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181988/-prevalence-of-breastfeeding-in-a-galician-health-area-spain
#7
Mª José Rodríguez-Pérez, Elena Álvarez-Vázquez, José Medina-Pomares, Carmen Velicia-Peñas Velicia-Peñas, Ana Cal-Conde, Ana Goicoechea-Castaño, Clara González-Formoso, Ana Clavería
OBJECTIVE: The quantitative evaluation of actions to promote breastfeeding, with standardized material and method, is essential to understand their impact and allow international comparison. The aim was to know the prevalence of breastfeeding in Galician Health Area. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study through interviews, following methodology and questionnaire designed by the Baby-Friendly Initiative. The infant´s mother/caregiver were asked about feeding to calculate the five indicators proposed (exclusive breastfeeding under 15 days, exclusive breastfeeding under six months, continued breastfeeding at one year and two years, introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods)...
February 9, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181214/aspirin-single-dose-for-perineal-pain-in-the-early-postpartum-period
#8
REVIEW
Sujana Molakatalla, Emily Shepherd, Rosalie M Grivell
BACKGROUND: Perineal trauma (due to spontaneous tears, surgical incision (episiotomy) or in association with operative vaginal birth) is common after vaginal birth, and is often associated with postpartum perineal pain. Birth over an intact perineum may also lead to perineal pain. There are adverse health consequences associated with perineal pain for the women and their babies in the short- and long-term, and the pain may interfere with newborn care and the establishment of breastfeeding...
February 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179012/the-effect-of-mobile-application-interventions-on-influencing-healthy-maternal-behaviour-and-improving-perinatal-health-outcomes-a-systematic-review-protocol
#9
Lisa M Daly, Dell Horey, Philippa F Middleton, Frances M Boyle, Vicki Flenady
BACKGROUND: Perinatal morbidity and mortality remain significant public health issues globally, with enduring impact on the health and well-being of women and their families. Pregnant women who adopt, practice and maintain healthy behaviours can potentially improve the health of themselves and their babies. Mobile applications are an increasingly popular mode of accessing, storing and sharing health information among pregnant women. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the effects of mobile application interventions during pregnancy on maternal behaviour and associated maternal and infant outcomes...
February 8, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178298/the-impact-of-prenatal-exposure-to-parasitic-infections-and-to-anthelminthic-treatment-on-antibody-responses-to-routine-immunisations-given-in-infancy-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Stephen Nash, Alexander J Mentzer, Swaib A Lule, Dennison Kizito, Gaby Smits, Fiona R M van der Klis, Alison M Elliott
BACKGROUND: Chronic parasitic infections are associated with active immunomodulation which may include by-stander effects on unrelated antigens. It has been suggested that pre-natal exposure to parasitic infections in the mother impacts immunological development in the fetus and hence the offspring's response to vaccines, and that control of parasitic infection among pregnant women will therefore be beneficial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used new data from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy conducted in Uganda, to further investigate this hypothesis...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176445/the-screening-emperor-has-no-clothes-on-primary-prevention-will-always-trump-testing-for-preterm-birth
#11
Khalid Khan, Donald Dudley
When a woman planning a pregnancy seeks advice, say regarding neural tube defects, we do not tell her, "we have a great screening test that we will use to see if your baby has risk of a serious defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord and as soon as we know that the test is positive we will try to do something about it." In fact we say, "her are some vitamin pills called folate that you should start taking right now so that we can reduce the risk of these defects developing in the first place". This is a primary prevention strategy that we know that works well, and we determined this by performing trials of sufficient sample size with the right design to address this question...
February 8, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176333/selective-versus-routine-use-of-episiotomy-for-vaginal-birth
#12
REVIEW
Hong Jiang, Xu Qian, Guillermo Carroli, Paul Garner
BACKGROUND: Some clinicians believe that routine episiotomy, a surgical cut of the vagina and perineum, will prevent serious tears during childbirth. On the other hand, an episiotomy guarantees perineal trauma and sutures. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on mother and baby of a policy of selective episiotomy ('only if needed') compared with a policy of routine episiotomy ('part of routine management') for vaginal births. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (14 September 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies...
February 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157275/continuous-cardiotocography-ctg-as-a-form-of-electronic-fetal-monitoring-efm-for-fetal-assessment-during-labour
#13
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Declan Devane, Gillian Ml Gyte, Anna Cuthbert
BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography (CTG) records changes in the fetal heart rate and their temporal relationship to uterine contractions. The aim is to identify babies who may be short of oxygen (hypoxic) to guide additional assessments of fetal wellbeing, or determine if the baby needs to be delivered by caesarean section or instrumental vaginal birth. This is an update of a review previously published in 2013, 2006 and 2001. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of continuous cardiotocography when used as a method to monitor fetal wellbeing during labour...
February 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130787/insufficient-evidence-for-shaken-baby-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Niels Lynøe, Göran Elinder, Boubou Hallberg, Måns Rosén, Pia Sundgren, Anders Eriksson
: Shaken baby syndrome has typically been associated with findings of subdural haematoma, retinal haemorrhages and encephalopathy, which are referred to as the triad. During the last decade, however, the certainty with which the triad can indicate that an infant has been violently shaken has been increasingly questioned. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the triad in detecting that an infant had been shaken. The literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library up to October 15, 2015...
January 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129810/diagnosis-of-cystic-fibrosis-in-screened-populations
#15
Philip M Farrell, Terry B White, Michelle S Howenstine, Anne Munck, Richard B Parad, Margaret Rosenfeld, Olaf Sommerburg, Frank J Accurso, Jane C Davies, Michael J Rock, Don B Sanders, Michael Wilschanski, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Hannah Blau, Silvia Gartner, Susanna A McColley
OBJECTIVE: Cystic fibrosis (CF) can be difficult to diagnose, even when newborn screening (NBS) tests yield positive results. This challenge is exacerbated by the multitude of NBS protocols, misunderstandings about screening vs diagnostic tests, and the lack of guidelines for presumptive diagnoses. There is also confusion regarding the designation of age at diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: To improve diagnosis and achieve standardization in definitions worldwide, the CF Foundation convened a committee of 32 experts with a mission to develop clear and actionable consensus guidelines on diagnosis of CF with an emphasis on screened populations, especially the newborn population...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122585/unplanned-pregnancy-and-subsequent-psychological-distress-in-partnered-women-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-role-of-relationship-quality-and-wider-social-support
#16
Katherine Barton, Maggie Redshaw, Maria A Quigley, Claire Carson
BACKGROUND: Research into the impact of unintended pregnancy on the wellbeing of women tends to focus on pregnancies ending in either termination or lone motherhood. Unintended pregnancy is common in partnered women, but little is known about the association between unintended pregnancy and postpartum affective disorders, such as depression and anxiety in this group. Poor relationship quality and lack of social support are considered risk factors for psychological distress (PD). We examined the association between unplanned motherhood and subsequent PD in partnered women, for whom evidence is sparse, accounting for the role of relationship quality and social support...
January 26, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110517/cultural-safety-and-belonging-for-refugee-background-women-attending-group-pregnancy-care-an-australian-qualitative-study
#17
Elisha Riggs, Sumaiya Muyeen, Stephanie Brown, Wendy Dawson, Pauline Petschel, Waan Tardiff, Fiona Norman, Dannielle Vanpraag, Jo Szwarc, Jane Yelland
BACKGROUND: Refugee women experience higher incidence of childbirth complications and poor pregnancy outcomes. Resettled refugee women often face multiple barriers accessing pregnancy care and navigating health systems in high income countries. METHODS: A community-based model of group pregnancy care for Karen women from Burma was co-designed by health services in consultation with Karen families in Melbourne, Australia. Focus groups were conducted with women who had participated to explore their experiences of using the program, and whether it had helped them feel prepared for childbirth and going home with a new baby...
January 22, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106904/planned-early-delivery-versus-expectant-management-for-hypertensive-disorders-from-34-weeks-gestation-to-term
#18
REVIEW
Catherine Cluver, Natalia Novikova, Corine M Koopmans, Helen M West
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are significant contributors to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These disorders include well-controlled chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension (pregnancy-induced hypertension) and mild pre-eclampsia. The definitive treatment for these disorders is planned early delivery and the alternative is to manage the pregnancy expectantly if severe uncontrolled hypertension is not present, with close maternal and fetal monitoring...
January 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104500/photographic-assessment-of-retinal-hemorrhages-in-infant-head-injury-the-childhood-hemorrhagic-retinopathy-study
#19
Gaurav Bhardwaj, Mark B Jacobs, Frank J Martin, Kieran T Moran, Kristina Prelog, Craig Donaldson, Ute Vollmer-Conna, Minas T Coroneo
BACKGROUND: Retinal hemorrhages (RH) in babies in the absence of severe trauma or a medical cause have been strongly associated with abusive head trauma (AHT). We examined the pattern of RH in accidental head injury and AHT objectively using widefield retinal imaging. METHODS: A total of 118 infants and children 1-36 months of age admitted with head injuries at two centers were included in this prospective, consecutive, comparative cohort study. Dilated fundus examination was performed with indirect ophthalmoscopy and widefield imaging...
January 16, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094441/sex-drugs-and-rock-and-roll-tales-from-preterm-fetal-life
#20
Laura Bennet
Premature fetuses and babies are at greater risk of mortality and morbidity than their term counterparts. The underlying causes are multifactorial, but include exposure to hypoxia. Immaturity of organs and their functional control may impair the physiological defence responses to hypoxia and the preterm fetal responses, or lack thereof, to moderate hypoxia appear to support this concept. However, as this review demonstrates, despite immaturity, the preterm fetus responds to asphyxia in a qualitatively similar manner to that seen at term...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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