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Camillia K Lui, William C Kerr, Nina Mulia, Yu Ye
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with lower alcohol consumption, but also with heavier drinking. To explain this contradictory relationship, we examined SES differences in drinking patterns from an age-period-cohort (APC) perspective. METHODS: Data are from seven waves of the U.S. National Alcohol Surveys from 1979 to 2010. As a proxy for SES, educational attainment was used. Past-year alcohol volume was calculated from frequency (never-to-every day) and usual quantity (1-2, 3-4, or 5-6 drinks)...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Nancy A Scott, Taryn Vian, Jeanette L Kaiser, Thandiwe Ngoma, Kaluba Mataka, Elizabeth G Henry, Godfrey Biemba, Mary Nambao, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable...
2018: PloS One
Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh, Azza Abul-Fadl
The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a global program for promoting support and protection for breastfeeding. However, its impact on malnutrition, especially in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) that are facing the turmoil of conflict and emergencies, deserves further investigation. Having said that, this paper aims to discuss the status and challenges to BFHI implementation in the EMR countries. Data on BFHI implementation, breastfeeding practices, and nutritional status were collected from countries through structured questionnaires, personal interviews, and databases...
March 11, 2018: Children
Xiubao Chang, Yuexian Hou
Genome editing is a powerful tool to modify a specific gene and to correct a disease-causing mutation. Recently developed new techniques, such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9), significantly facilitate the progression in this field. However, mutations associated with the double strand DNA breaks (DSBs) introduced by these systems hampered their direct usage in clinic. In order to prevent the mutations caused by DSBs, we have designed a novel mean to induce homology-directed recombination (HDR) without DSBs, i...
2018: International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Stacey L Rowe, Ee Laine Tay, Lucinda J Franklin, Nicola Stephens, Robert S Ware, Marlena C Kaczmarek, Rosemary A Lester, Stephen B Lambert
BACKGROUND: During a pertussis epidemic in 2009, the Department of Health, Victoria, Australia, implemented a cocoon program offering parents of new babies a funded-dose of pertussis-containing vaccine. We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the program in reducing pertussis infection in infants. METHODS: Using a matched case-control design, infants aged <12 months that were notified with pertussis between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2011, and born during the time that the cocoon program was in place, were identified...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
Dipak K Mitra, Luke C Mullany, Meagan Harrison, Ishtiaq Mannan, Rashed Shah, Nazma Begum, Mamun Ibne Moin, Shams El Arifeen, Abdullah H Baqui
BACKGROUND: Infections cause about one fifth of the estimated 2.7 million annual neonatal deaths worldwide. Population-based data on burden and risk factors of neonatal infections are lacking in developing countries, which are required for the appropriate design of effective preventive and therapeutic interventions in resource-poor settings. METHODS: We used data from a community-based cluster-randomized trial conducted to evaluate the impact of two umbilical cord cleansing regimens with chlorhexidine solution on neonatal mortality and morbidity in a rural area of Sylhet District in Bangladesh...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Justine Dol, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Gail Tomblin Murphy, Megan Aston, Douglas McMillan, Brianna Richardson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to evaluate the impact of the Helping Babies Survive program on neonatal outcomes and healthcare provider knowledge and skills. INTRODUCTION: The Helping Babies Survive program consists of three modules: Helping Babies Breathe, Essential Care for Every Baby, and Essential Care for Small Babies. It was developed to reduce preventable newborn deaths through skill-based learning using simulation, learning exercises, and peer-to-peer training of healthcare providers in low-resource areas...
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Nicola Parkin, Susan Furness, Anwar Shah, Bikram Thind, Zoe Marshman, Gillian Glenroy, Fiona Dyer, Philip E Benson
BACKGROUND: The permanent canine tooth in the maxillary (upper) jaw sometimes does not erupt into the mouth correctly. In about 1% to 3% of the population these teeth will be diverted into the roof of the mouth (palatally). It has been suggested that if the primary canine is removed at the right time this palatal eruption might be avoided. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of extracting the primary maxillary canine on the eruption of the palatally ectopic maxillary permanent canine...
March 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Alex McGookin, Christine Furber, Debbie M Smith
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to explore student midwives' awareness, knowledge, and experiences of supporting women with antenatal anxiety (ANA) within clinical practice. BACKGROUND: ANA is associated with negative outcomes for mother and baby. Midwives play a key role in the screening of antenatal mental health and care of women suffering from ANA. METHODS: This study was conducted with student midwives at one UK university in the north-west of England...
September 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Robert D Ashford, Kevin Lynch, Brenda Curtis
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder research and practice have not yet taken advantage of emerging changes in communication patterns. While internet and social media use is widespread in the general population, little is known about how these mediums are used in substance use disorder treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this paper were to provide data on patients' with substance use disorders mobile phone ownership rates, usage patterns on multiple digital platforms (social media, internet, computer, and mobile apps), and their interest in the use of these platforms to monitor personal recovery...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Megan E Denham, Yousef Bushehri, Lisa Lim
OBJECTIVE: This article presents a pilot study that employed a user-centered methodology for evaluating and quantifying neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) designs based on the needs of the primary users. BACKGROUND: The design of NICUs has begun to shift from open-bay to single-family rooms. Both designs present unique advantages and challenges that impact babies, families, and caregivers. METHODS: One NICU design was analyzed using the functional scenario (FS) analysis method...
January 1, 2018: HERD
Sarmila Mazumder, Ravi Prakash Upadhyay, Zelee Hill, Sunita Taneja, Brinda Dube, Jasmine Kaur, Medha Shekhar, Runa Ghosh, Shruti Bisht, Jose Carlos Martines, Rajiv Bahl, Halvor Sommerfelt, Nita Bhandari
BACKGROUND: Low and middle income countries (LMICs), including India, contribute to a major proportion of low birth weight (LBW) infants globally. These infants require special care. Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in hospitals is a cost effective and efficacious intervention. In institutional deliveries, the duration of facility stay is often short. In LMICs, a substantial proportion of deliveries still occur at home and access to health care services is limited. In these circumstances, a pragmatic choice may be to initiate KMC at home for LBW babies...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Maria N Plana, Javier Zamora, Gautham Suresh, Luis Fernandez-Pineda, Shakila Thangaratinam, Andrew K Ewer
BACKGROUND: Health outcomes are improved when newborn babies with critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) are detected before acute cardiovascular collapse. The main screening tests used to identify these babies include prenatal ultrasonography and postnatal clinical examination; however, even though both of these methods are available, a significant proportion of babies are still missed. Routine pulse oximetry has been reported as an additional screening test that can potentially improve detection of CCHD...
March 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marlene W Borschel, Geraldine E Baggs, Jeffery S Oliver
The aim of this narrative review was to assess published growth data for healthy, term, infants consuming extensively hydrolyzed protein-based (EHF), or amino acid-based formulas (AAF). These data may be of use to clinicians managing infants with medical conditions consuming these products. A search was conducted using key terms: amino acid-based, hydrolysate, hydrolyzed, hydrolysed, infant formula, infant formulae or formulas, baby formula, or formulae or formulas, infant, infants, infantile, and growth. Seven controlled, randomized, prospective growth trials of healthy term infants fed EHFs or AAFs at similar time points during the first four months of age met these and other criteria, including that the trial was published in a peer-reviewed journal, subjects were enrolled by ≤14 days of age and were exclusively formula-fed at entry and throughout the duration of the trial, and infants were assessed at regular intervals with weight measures available ideally at 14 days, one, two, three, and four months of age...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Diane Procaccini, Ann L Cupp Curley, Martha Goldman
INTRODUCTION: It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations...
February 28, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in heel prick samples collected from newborns from 24 h to 7 d of age. METHODS: Five regional laboratories were designated as the testing laboratories. Dried blood spots (DBS) from babies (> or = 34 wk of gestation) were collected by heel prick at least after 24 h and within seven days after birth. TSH estimation was done using time resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Values above 20mIU/L were labelled as presumptive positive...
February 26, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Hidechika Akashi, Miwa Ishioka, Akiko Hagiwara, Rumiko Akashi, Yasuyo Osanai
Providing a continuum of care (CoC) is important strategy for improving maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH). Japan's current very low maternal and infant mortality rates suggest that its CoC for MNCH is good. In this paper, we attempt to clarify how CoC and low mortality rates are being maintained in Japan, by examining the entire MNCH service provision system. First, we examine two important tools for integrated service provision, the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Handbook and registration of pregnant women with local governments, both introduced in 1942...
February 26, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Claire Philippat, Jacqueline Barkoski, Daniel J Tancredi, Bill Elms, Dana Boyd Barr, Sally Ozonoff, Deborah H Bennett, Irva Hertz-Picciotto
INTRODUCTION: Organophosphates are widely used pesticides that have been shown to affect child neurodevelopment. Previous studies that explored their potential effects on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relied either on proxies of external exposure or on questionnaires completed by the parents to identify autism-like behaviors but did not provide a clinical diagnosis of ASD. AIMS: We studied the associations between prenatal biologic markers for exposure to organophosphate pesticides and the risk of having a child with ASD or other developmental concerns (ODC)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Laurene Aydon, Margo Zimmer, Mary Sharp
AIM: The aim of this study was to highlight the incidence of unplanned extubation (UE) and identify associated factors in our neonatal population. METHODS: This study was a prospective audit. RESULTS: A specifically designed audit tool was used to capture UE events; 182 neonates required mechanical ventilation for 863 days. There were 41 episodes of UE. The UE rate was 4.75 per 100 days of ventilation. At the time of UE, median gestational age of patients was 27...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Alisa Kachikis, Linda O Eckert, Janet Englund
Maternal immunization for prevention of morbidity and mortality of pregnant women and their neonates due to infectious diseases is ongoing worldwide. The complexity of vaccine research and development in this population is challenging. Not only do vaccines for pregnant women require evidence of immunogenicity, potency, stability, and limited reactogenicity, they must also provide efficacy in decreasing morbidity for the pregnant woman, her fetus, and the neonate, demonstrate safety or lack of evidence of harm, and offer benefit or potential benefit of vaccination during pregnancy...
February 23, 2018: Viral Immunology
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